Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry
|Margaret of Valois|
|Duchess of Berry|
Duchess consort of Savoy
|Tenure||1550–1574 (Duchess of Berry)|
1559–1574 (Duchess of Savoy)
|Born||5 June 1523|
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
|Died||15 September 1574(aged 51)|
|Spouse||Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy|
|Issue||Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy|
|Father||Francis I of France|
|Mother||Claude, Duchess of Brittany|
Margaret was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 5 June 1523 the youngest daughter and child of King Francis I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany. Margaret was very close to her paternal aunt, Marguerite de Navarre, who took care of her and her sister Madeleine during her childhood, and her sister-in-law Catherine de' Medici.
Near the end of 1538, her father and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, agreed that Margaret should marry Charles' son, the future Philip II of Spain. However, the agreement between Francis and Charles was short-lived and the marriage never took place.
Shortly before her 36th birthday, a marriage was finally arranged for her by her brother King Henry II of France and her former suitor Philip II as part of the terms stipulated in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis which was signed by the ambassadors representing the two monarchs on 3 April 1559. The husband selected for her was Philip's ally, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont. At the time, Margaret was described as having been a "spinster lady of excellent breeding and lively intellect".
The wedding took place in tragic circumstances. On 30 June just three days after her marriage contract had been signed, King Henry was gravely injured during a tournament celebrating the wedding of his eldest daughter Elisabeth to the recently widowed King Philip. A lance wielded by his opponent the Count of Montgomery accidentally struck his helmet at a point beneath the visor and shattered. The wooden splinters deeply penetrated his right eye and entered his brain. Close to death, but still conscious, the king ordered that his sister's marriage should take place immediately, for fear that the Duke of Savoy might profit from his death and renege on the alliance.
The ceremony did not take place in Notre Dame Cathedral as had been planned. Instead it was a solemn, subdued event conducted at midnight on 9 July in Saint Paul's, a small church not far from the Tournelles Palace where Margaret's dying brother was ensconced. Among the few guests was the French queen consort Catherine de' Medici who sat by herself, weeping. King Henry died the following day.
Margaret and her husband had only one surviving child: Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy who was born in January 1562, when Margaret was 38 years of age. He later married Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, the daughter of King Philip by his marriage to Margaret's niece, Elisabeth of Valois.
|Ancestors of Margaret of France|
- Marshall, Rosalind K. (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034-1714. Tuckwell Press. p. 10o.
- Seong-Hak Kim, Michel de L'Hôpital: The Vision of a Reformist Chancellor During the French Religious Wars, (Truman State University Press, 1997), 26.
- Strage, Mark (1976). Women of Power: The Life and Times of Catherine de' Medici. New York and London: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich. pp.95-96
- Strage, p.98
- Knecht, R.J. (1984). Francis I. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2.
- Anselme de Sainte-Marie, Père (1726). Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France [Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of France] (in French). 1 (3rd ed.). Paris: La compagnie des libraires. pp. 134–136.
- Adams, Tracy (2010). The Life and Afterlife of Isabeau of Bavaria. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 255.
- Gicquel, Yvonig (1986). Alain IX de Rohan, 1382-1462: un grand seigneur de l'âge d'or de la Bretagne (in French). Éditions Jean Picollec. p. 480. ISBN 9782864770718. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 231.
- Wilson, Katharina M. (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Taylor & Francis. p. 258. ISBN 9780824085476. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Robin, Diana Maury; Larsen, Anne R.; Levin, Carole (2007). Encyclopedia of Women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-1851097722.
- Palluel-Guillard, André. "La Maison de Savoie" (in French). Conseil Savoie Mont Blanc. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Leguai, André (2005). "Agnès de Bourgogne, duchesse de Bourbon (1405?-1476)". Les ducs de Bourbon, le Bourbonnais et le royaume de France à la fin du Moyen Age [The dukes of Bourbon, the Bourbonnais and the kingdom of France at the end of the Middle Ages] (in French). Yzeure: Société bourbonnaise des études locales. pp. 145–160.
- Anselme 1726, p. 207
- Desbois, François Alexandre Aubert de la Chenaye (1773). Dictionnaire de la noblesse (in French). 6 (2nd ed.). p. 452. Retrieved 28 June 2018.