Robert Clarkson Tredgold

  (Redirected from Margaret Tredgold)

Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold, KCMG (2 June 1899 – 8 April 1977), was a Rhodesian barrister, judge and politician.

Early lifeEdit

He was born in Bulawayo to Clarkson Henry Tredgold, the Attorney-General of Southern Rhodesia,[1] and Emily Ruth (née Moffat), and was the grandson of the missionary John Moffat.[2] He attended first Prince Edward School and then Rondebosch Boys' School in Cape Town, South Africa.[3] He was a Rhodes Scholar and read law at Hertford College.[3]

In 1923 he was called to the bar at Inner Temple and then returned to Rhodesia to practice law.[4]

Political careerEdit

In the 1934 general election, Tredgold was elected to the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly seat of Insiza for the United Rhodesia Party of Godfrey Huggins. He rose quickly, becoming Minister of Justice and Defence in 1936, Minister of Justice, Defence and Air (1940–1943), Minister of Mines and Public Works (1938), and Minister of Native Affairs (1942–1943).

Later life and careerEdit

Tredgold resigned his offices and Legislative Assembly seat in 1943, to take up an appointment as a Judge of the High Court of Southern Rhodesia. In 1950, on the retirement of Chief Justice Sir Robert Hudson, he was appointed to succeed him as chief justice of the court.[4] Serving until 1955, in this capacity he served as acting Governor of Southern Rhodesia from 21 November 1953 to 26 November 1954. In 1953, the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, awarded Tredgold the honorary degree of a Doctor of Laws (Hon LLD).[4]

Tredgold was appointed the first Chief Justice of the Federal Supreme Court of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1955. In this capacity he served as acting Governor of Southern Rhodesia from 21 November 1953 to 26 November 1954, and as acting Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 24 January 1957 to February 1957. In November 1960 he resigned in protest from his Central African Federation position, criticising the actions authorised by Sir Edgar Whitehead to suppress black nationalist opposition to the Federation in Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia, through the introduction of the Law and Order (Maintenance) Bill.[5] Tredgold noted that the bill "outrages almost every basic human right and is, in addition, an unwarranted invasion by the executive of the sphere of the courts. These are the custodians of individual rights and are my special responsibility."[4]

Sir Robert Tredgold was named a Privy Counsellor in 1957. He retired to Marandellas with his second wife, Lady Margaret Tredgold. He published the book The Rhodesia That Was My Life in 1968.

FamilyEdit

A widower in 1974, Tredgold married his second wife, Mrs. Margaret Helen Phear (née Baines; 1910-2012), a widow and mother of three children, originally from Aliwal North, South Africa. Together the couple researched the folklore of Rhodesia (formerly Southern Rhodesia) and published children's books based on them. They also researched edible plants, culminating in Food Plants of Zimbabwe, which she completed after his death and published in 1986.[6]

A devout Roman Catholic, Lady Margaret died in 2012 at age 102 in England, where she had relocated in 2004 due to the Mugabe government's policies. She was predeceased by one son, and survived by a second son and her daughter, with whom she lived in England.[6][7]

HonoursEdit

Robert Clarkson Tredgold was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1943 New Year Honours.[8] He was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 1951 New Year Honours.[9] He was appointed a KCMG in 1955.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Clarkson Henry Tredgold (1865–1938) became Public Prosecutor in 1898, in 1900 Solicitor General, and in 1903 Attorney General in Southern Rhodesia, before serving as a Judge of the High Court from 1919–1925.
  2. ^ Berens, Denis (1988). A Concise Encyclopedia of Zimbabwe. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press. ISBN 0869224417.
  3. ^ a b Tredgold, Robert (1968). The Rhodesia that was my life. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  4. ^ a b c d "Resignation of the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold, Chief Justice of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland". South African Law Journal. 78: 13. 1961.
  5. ^ Brendon, Piers. The Decline and Fall of the British Empire (1781-1997). Vintage Books (Random House). p. 588. ISBN 978-0-307-38841-4.
  6. ^ a b Lee, Clive (2 December 2012). "Lady Margaret Tredgold obituary". Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  7. ^ Genealogy site info for Margaret Helen Baines
  8. ^ "No. 35841". The London Gazette. 29 December 1942. p. 5.
  9. ^ "No. 39104". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1950. p. 2.
Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly
Preceded by Member of Parliament for Insiza
1934 – 1943
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded byas Minister of Justice and Defence Minister of Justice
1936 – 1940
Succeeded by
Himself
as Minister of Justice, Defence and Air
Minister of Defence
1936 – 1940
Preceded by
Himself
as Minister of Justice
and Minister of Defence
Minister of Justice, Defence and Air
1940
Succeeded by
Himself
as Minister of Justice and Defence
Succeeded byas Minister of Air
Preceded by
Himself
as Minister of Justice, Defence and Air
Minister of Justice and Defence
1940 – 1943
Succeeded byas Minister of Justice
Succeeded byas Minister of Defence
Preceded by Minister of Mines and Public Works
1938
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Native Affairs
1942 – 1943
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by
Vernon Lewis (acting)
Chief Justice of Southern Rhodesia
1950 – 1955
Succeeded by
New title Chief Justice of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
1955 – 1960
Succeeded by
Government offices
Preceded by Governor of Southern Rhodesia
Acting

1953 – 1954
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
Acting

1957
Succeeded by