Manukau (New Zealand electorate)
Manukau is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south Auckland Region. It existed from 1881 to 1978, with a break from 1938 to 1954. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament. Two by-elections were held in the electorate.
The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–1876 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, including Manukau, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries.
The First Labour Government was defeated in the 1949 election and the incoming National Government changed the Electoral Act, with the electoral quota once again based on total population as opposed to qualified electors, and the tolerance was increased to 7.5% of the electoral quota. There was no adjustments in the number of electorates between the South and North Islands, but the law changes resulted in boundary adjustments to almost every electorate through the 1952 electoral redistribution; only five electorates were unaltered. Five electorates were reconstituted (including Manukau) and one was newly created, and a corresponding six electorates were abolished; all of these in the North Island. These changes took effect with the 1954 election.
Matthew Kirkbride was elected to the Manukau electorate in the 1902 general election, and held the electorate until he died in 1906. His death caused the 6 December 1906 Manukau by-election, which was won by Frederic Lang.
Bill Jordan was first elected in the 1922 general election and was confirmed in the next four elections. When the Labour Party won the 1935 general election and formed the First Labour Government of New Zealand, Jordan expected a cabinet position. Instead, he was appointed to the post of New Zealand High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, which had until that point been traditionally a retirement post for former cabinet ministers. His resignation from Parliament caused the 30 September 1936 Manukau by-election, which was won by Arthur Osborne.
Members of ParliamentEdit
|Social Credit||Robert McKee||760||4.83|
|Socialist Unity||Alan Marston||18||0.11|
|Liberal||Ron Te Rite Pahi||10||0.06|
|National||R O Price||4,986||36.42|
|Social Credit||Frederick Coles Jordan||774||5.65||+0.24|
|New Democratic||C E Inglis||100||0.73|
|National||Ronald Alfred Walden||7,529||44.30|
|Social Credit||Frederick Coles Jordan||921||5.41||-4.16|
|Independent Labour||Barry Moss||140||0.82|
|National||Max Louis Peers||6,068||36.12|
|Social Credit||Frederick Coles Jordan||1,609||9.57||+5.55|
|Independent||Simon Michael Mill||207||1.23|
|National||Henry Christopher Pryor||7,009||44.90|
|Social Credit||Frederick Coles Jordan||629||4.02|
|Social Credit||Thomas Higham||778||3.89||-1.35|
|Social Credit||Thomas Higham||820||5.24|
|Social Credit||Douglas Lance Henderson||1,057||6.68|
|Reform||Herbert Jenner Wily||2,943||22.11|
|Ind. Progressive||William Adnams||301||3.19|
|Liberal||Charles E. Major||1,173||15.14|
|Liberal||Sir Maurice O'Rorke||1,967||50.28|
|Independent||John Edward Taylor||936||23.93|
|Liberal||Sir Maurice O'Rorke||706||47.16|
- McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 99f.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 95–100.
- McRobie 1989, p. 99.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 160.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 119.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
- Templeton, Malcolm. "Jordan, William Joseph - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Norton 1988, pp. 269.
- "Final Figures". Auckland Star. LXVII (237). 6 October 1936. p. 9. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- The General Election, 1935. National Library. 1936. pp. 1–35. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Election Results". Auckland Star. LXII (290). 8 December 1931. p. 3. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 3. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Skinner, W. A. G. (1929). The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. p. 3. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Electoral". Auckland Star. LIX (256). 29 October 1928. p. 5. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 2. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. 1923. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
- Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- "Manukau by-election". Wairarapa Daily Times. LVI (8626). 7 December 1906. p. 5. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 1. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Electoral District of Manukau". Observer. XVIII (1094). 16 December 1899. p. 19. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)