Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals

The Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals, written by Benedetto Croce in response to the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals by Giovanni Gentile, sanctioned the irreconcilable split between the philosopher and the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini, to which he had previously given a vote of confidence on 31 October 1922.[1] The idea of an anti-Fascist manifesto came to Giovanni Amendola, who wrote to Croce, a proclaimed anti-Fascist, for his opinions on 20 April 1925:

Manifesto of Anti-Fascist Intellectuals published on 1 May 1925 in Il Popolo

Dear Croce, have you read the Fascist manifesto to foreign intellectuals? ... today, I have met several people who feel that, following the publication of the Fascists' document, we have the right to speak and the duty to respond. What is your opinion? Would you be willing to sign such a document, or even write it yourself?

Croce replied a day later, saying that he would be more than willing to, but that the document ought to be short, "so as not to alienate the common folk."

The manifesto was published by the liberal newspaper Il Mondo and by the Catholic newspaper Il Popolo[2] on 1 May 1925, which was Workers' Day, symbolically responding to the publication of the Fascist manifesto on the Natale di Roma, the founding of Rome (celebrated on 21 April). The Fascist press claimed that the Crocian manifesto was "more authoritarian" than its Fascist counterpart.[3]

Il Mondo published three lists of prominent signatories of the manifesto, first on 1 May and then longer lists on 10 May and 22 May. Among the supporters were:

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Notes edit

  1. ^ Noether, Emiliana P. (1971). "Italian Intellectuals under Fascism". The Journal of Modern History. 43 (4): 630–648. doi:10.1086/240685. ISSN 0022-2801. JSTOR 1881234. S2CID 144377549.
  2. ^ Bruscino, Felicia (2017-11-25). "Il Popolo del 1925 col manifesto antifascista: ritrovata l'unica copia". Ultima Voce (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  3. ^ Brown, W. Edward; Papa, Emilio R. (1959). "Storia di due manifesti. Il fascismo e la cultura italiana". Books Abroad. 33 (4): 458. doi:10.2307/40096911. ISSN 0006-7431. JSTOR 40096911.

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