Abū al-Thanā’ Shihāb ad-Dīn Sayyid Maḥmūd ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Ḥusaynī al-Ālūsī al-Baghdādī (Arabic: أبو الثناء شهاب الدين سيد محمود بن عبد الله بن محمود الحسيني الآلوسي البغدادي‎; 10 December 1802 – 29 July 1854 CE) was an Iraqi Islamic scholar best known for writing Ruh al-Ma`ani, an exegesis (tafsir) of the Qur'an.[5]

Abū al-Thanā’ Shihāb ad-Dīn Maḥmūd al-Ḥusaynī al-Ālūsī
أبو الثناء شهاب الدين محمودالحسيني الآلوسي
Titleal-Ālūsī Al-Kabīr (The Grand Ālūsī)
Personal
Born10 December 1802 CE / 1217 AH
Died29 July 1854 CE / 1270 AH
Resting placeSheikh Marouf cemetery in Baghdad
ReligionIslam
DenominationSunni Islam
JurisprudenceHanafi[1]/(Shafi'iinfluenced)[1]
CreedAthari[2]
Notable work(s)Ruh al-Ma`ani
TariqaNaqshbandiyya
OccupationIslamic scholar, Mufti, religious teacher
Muslim leader
Influenced

Biography edit

He was born in Baghdad on the day of Jumu`ah, 14 Sha`ban 1217 AH (Friday, 10 December 1802).[6][7]

He was a prominent Baghdad scholar in the Ottoman Empire. Because some of his teachings resembled that of the Salafis and ibn Taimiyya, he was accused of supporting Wahhabism.[8] This led to his dismissal in 1847. He sent his tafsir to the authorities in Istanbul as proof for his loyalty to established Islamic tradition and the Ottoman Empire.[9] ʿĀrif Hikmet Bey was impressed by al-Alusis' deep knowledge advised him to consult Reşid Mehmed Pasha for his concern. Reşid Mehmed Pasha eventually assigned him as a member of the Madrasa Marjania and the position of a mufti.

He died on 5 Dhul-Q'dah, 1270 AH (29 July 1854)[6]

Works edit

An exhaustive list of all his works far to long and thus difficult to compile. Indexes in the British Library and the below are a few examples:

  • Rūḥ al-ma‘ānī fī tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-‘aẓīm wa-al-sab‘ al-mathānī (روح المعاني في تفسير القرآن العظيم والسبع المثاني)
  • Nashwat al-shamūl fī al-safar ilā Islāmbūl (نشوة الشمول في السفر إلى إسلامبول)
  • Nashwat al-mudām fī al-‘awd ilá Madīnat al-Salām (نشوة المدام في العود إلي مدينة السلام)
  • al-Ajwibah al-‘Irāqīyah ‘alá al-as’ilah al-Lāhūrīyah (الأجوبة العراقية على الأسئلة اللاهورية)
  • al-Ajwibah al-‘Irāqīyah ‘an al-as’ilah al-Īrānīyah (الأجوبة العراقية عن الأسئلة الإيرانية)
  • Ghra'b al-'Ightirab (غرائب الإغتراب)
  • Daqaiq al-Tafsir (دقائق التفسير)
  • Sharh Sullam al-Mantiq (شرح سلم المنطق)
  • al-Tiraz al-Mudh-hab Fi Sharh Qasydat al-Baz al-Ash-hab (الطراز المذهب في شرح قصيدة الباز الأشهب)
  • al-Maqamat al-Alousiya (المقامات الآلوسية)

Legacy edit

Mahmud al-Alusi had five sons who were also scholars: Sayyid Abdullah Bahauddin al-Alusi, Sayyid Sa'ad Abdulbaqi al-Alusi, Nu'man al-Alusi, Sayyid Mohammad Hamid al-Afandi and Sayyid Ahmed Shakir al-Afandi.[10] His tafsir was published for the first time in 1883.[11] Through his son Sayyid Abdullah Bahauddin al-Alusi, Mahmud had a grandson, Mahmud Shukri al-Alusi, who was a leading scholar of Baghdad and a religious reformist.[12]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Al-Alousi, Mahmoud Shukri (2016). "Allama Alusi" [Allama Alusi] (in Arabic). Baghdad. Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  2. ^ "الإمام الآلوسي وكتابه \ روح المعاني في تفسير القرآن العظيم والسبع المثاني\". 2019-05-21. Archived from the original on 2019-05-21. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  3. ^ "'Wahhabi' Influences, Salafi Responses: Shaikh Mahmud Shukri and The Iraqi Salafi Movement, 1745–1930". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 2024-03-21.
  4. ^ "سلسلة رموز الإصلاح 16– علامة العراق أبو المعالي محمود شكري الألوسي (1273/ 1342هـ - 1856/ 1924م)". www.alrased.net. Retrieved 2024-03-21.
  5. ^ "الإمام الآلوسي وكتابه \ روح المعاني في تفسير القرآن العظيم والسبع المثاني\". 2019-05-21. Archived from the original on 2019-05-21. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  6. ^ a b Al-Alousi, Mahmoud Shukri (1930). Al-Jubouri, Abdullah (ed.). المسك الأذفر [Almisk Aldhfar] (in Arabic). Baghdad: Arab Encyclopaedia House. pp. 171–200.
  7. ^ al-Musawi, Muhsin J.; Khaldi, Boutheina (2010). الوافي في تراث العرب الثقافي : الأندلس والمشرق العربي منذ سقوط الخلافة العباسية / al-Wāfī fī turāth al-ʻArab al-thaqāfī : al-Andalus wa-al-mashriq al-ʻArabī mundhu suqūṭ al-khilāfah al-ʻAbbāsīyah [The Exhaustive in the Cultural Heritage of the Arabs : Andalusia and the Arab East since the fall of the Abbasid caliphate] (in Arabic) (1st ed.). Beirut: al-Markaz al-Thaqāfī al-ʻArabī.
  8. ^ GÖKKIR, Bilal, and Necmettin GÖKKIR. "Sufi or Salafi? Alusi’s Struggle For His Reputation Against Ottoman Bureaucracy With His Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani."
  9. ^ GÖKKIR, Bilal, and Necmettin GÖKKIR. "Sufi or Salafi? Alusi’s Struggle For His Reputation Against Ottoman Bureaucracy With His Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani."
  10. ^ Al-Alousi, Mahmoud Shukri (1930). Al-Jubouri, Abdullah (ed.). المسك الأذفر [Almisk al-Adhfar] (in Arabic). Baghdad: Arab Encyclopaedia House. pp. 171–200.
  11. ^ GÖKKIR, Bilal, and Necmettin GÖKKIR. "Sufi or Salafi? Alusi’s Struggle For His Reputation Against Ottoman Bureaucracy With His Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani."
  12. ^ "سلسلة رموز الإصلاح 16– علامة العراق أبو المعالي محمود شكري الألوسي (1273/ 1342هـ - 1856/ 1924م)". www.alrased.net. Retrieved 2024-03-28.