Madame Max Adolphe
Madame Max Adolphe (also known as Max Rosalie Auguste and Rosalie Bosquet), born in September 1925, was the right hand woman of former Haitian president François Duvalier, who used the nickname "Papa Doc".
Madame Max Adolphe
|Disappeared||February, 1986 (aged 60)|
|Status||Missing for 33 years, 11 months and 17 days|
Adolphe, then known as Rosalie Bosquet, came to the attention of Duvalier during an attempt on his life. While she was a low ranking officer in the Tonton Macoute, her courage impressed the President so much that he promoted her to the position of warden at Fort Dimanche. At the prison, Adolphe continued her strong support of the government and was known for her violent interrogations of political prisoners. She was not viewed as a political threat to the President because of her sex.
Daily killings, torture, and beatings were typical at the prison during her tenure. She developed a "gruesome reputation for herself as she designed inventive sexual tortures" in Fort Dimanche. She was later promoted to the Supreme Head of the Fillettes Laleau, the female branch of the Tonton Macoutes. She also collected a monthly rent check from U.S. Special Forces for the use of her compound. She was reported to have supervised the torture of children and elderly, and to have kept video tapes of the horrors. She liked to arm herself with an Uzi machine-gun.
When Papa Doc died in 1971, and his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier succeeded him, he had Adolphe removed from her post as head of Fort Dimanche. By May 1972 she had been appointed mayor of Port-au-Prince, which brought her attention to the city's sewage disposal. Prior to the end of the Duvalier dynasty in 1986, when the Duvaliers fled the capital, she said "[i]t seems Jean-Claude is leaving the country soon. All militia members will be in danger. Much blood will be shed." Vengeful Haitians killed scores, if not hundreds of former militiamen who used to report to Madame Max. On February 10, 1986 a soldier guarding her vacant house from looters reported that she was being held prisoner in an army barracks next to the national palace. By February 1986 she left the country, but her current whereabouts are unknown. Her daughter, Magalie Adolphe Racine, lives in Haiti and serves as Minister of Youth and Sport.
- miningawareness (2013-08-17). "Report by the Special Inquest Commission on the Troubling Death of Judge Jean Serge Joseph, Part II, The Facts". Mining Awareness +. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
- Brooke, James (1986-02-07). "Baby Doc follows Papa and Unleashes the Hated Tontons". The Age. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
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- Chardy, Alfonso (13 February 1986). "Duvalier left 'Madame Max' to wrath of native Haitians". Lakeland Ledger. Lakeland, Florida. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. Retrieved 29 October 2015 – via Google News.
- Coughlin, Dan (1999). "Haitian Lament: Killing Me Softly". The Nation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015.
Madame Max Adolphe, for instance, the sadistic head of the Tonton Macoutes under 'Papa Doc' Duvalier, collected a monthly rent check from US Special Forces for the use of her compound. As one young militant put it, 'The pot of rice gets cooked in the name of the children, but it's the adults who eat.'
- Chardy, Alfonso (1994-09-18). "Island in the Grip of voodoo and Violence". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
- "'You Cannot Kill the Truth': The Case against Jean-Claude Duvalier" (PDF). London: Amnesty International. 2011. p. 31. OCLC 776890444. AMR 36/007/2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2015.
Max Rosalie Auguste, also known as 'Max Adolphe', for example, commander of the [Tonton Macoutes] militia and Fort Dimanche prison under François Duvalier, was removed from her roles at the end of 1971. However, by May 1972 she had been appointed mayor of Port-au-Prince.
- "Dynastic republicanism in Haiti". The Political Quarterly. Wiley. 44 (1): 83. 1973. doi:10.1111/j.1467-923X.1973.tb02078.x. ISSN 0032-3179.
Peasants stoned the house of Zacharie Delva, and Eloise Maître has returned to his bakery in the Grande Rue, while the formidable Madame Max Adolphe (at one time commandant of Fort Dimanche, where most important political prisoners were incarcerated or eliminated) has transferred her matronly attentions, as Mayor of [Port-au-Prince], to the problems of urban sewage disposal.
- Chardy, Alfonso (1986-02-12). "Where has Haiti's Chief 'Bogeyman' Gone?". The Anniston Star. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
- Press, Associated (1986-02-11). "Haiti Leader Vows to Share Wealth". Associated Press.
- "Two Former Duvalier Aides Arrested In Haiti". Philadelphia Inquirer. Inquirer Wire Services. 27 February 1986. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015.
And Madame Max also has left the country, Aubelin Jolicoeur, director of tourism, said yesterday.
- Lemoine, Patrick (2011) [1st pub. 1996 as Fort-Dimanche, Fort-la-Mort]. Fort-Dimanche, Dungeon of Death. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4269-6624-8. LCCN 2011906135. OCLC 45461011.
- Abbott, Elizabeth (2011) [1st pub. 1988]. Haiti: A Shattered Nation. Rev. and updated from Haiti: The Duvaliers and Their Legacy (1988). New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-59020-989-9. LCCN 2013496344. OCLC 859201061. OL 25772018M.
- Reding, Andrew (2004). "Democracy and Human Rights in Haiti" (PDF). World Policy Institute. World Policy Reports. New York: New School University. pp. 16–17. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 September 2015.