Open main menu

The M3 Lee, officially Medium Tank, M3, was an American medium tank used during World War II. In Britain, the tank was called by two names based on the turret configuration and crew size. Tanks employing US pattern turrets were called the "Lee", named after Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Variants using British pattern turrets were known as "Grant", named after Union general Ulysses S. Grant.

Medium Tank, M3
AlfredPalmerM3tank1942b crop2.jpg
Medium Tank, M3, Fort Knox, June 1942
TypeMedium tank
Place of originUnited States
Service history
WarsWorld War II
Production history
ProducedAugust 1941 – December 1942
No. built6,258
Variantsnumerous, see text
Specifications
Weight30 short tons (27 t)
Length18 ft 6 in (5.64 m)
Width8 ft 11 in (2.72 m)
Height10 ft 3 in (3.12 m) – Lee
Crew7 (Lee) or 6 (Grant)

Armor
  • 51 mm (hull front, turret front, sides, and rear)
  • 38 mm (hull sides and rear)[1]
Main
armament
Secondary
armament
EngineWright (Continental) R975 EC2
400 hp (300 kW)/340 hp (250 kW)
TransmissionMack Synchromesh, 5 speeds forward, 1 reverse
Suspensionvertical volute spring
Ground clearance18 in (0.46 m)
Fuel capacity662 liters (175 US gallons)
Operational
range
193 km (119 mi)
Speed
  • 26 mph (42 km/h) (road)
  • 16 mph (26 km/h) (off-road)
Steering
system
Controlled differential

Design commenced in July 1940, and the first M3s were operational in late 1941.[2] The U.S. Army needed a medium tank armed with a 75mm gun and, coupled with the United Kingdom's immediate demand for 3,650 medium tanks,[3] the Lee began production by late 1940. The design was a compromise meant to produce a tank as soon as possible. The M3 had considerable firepower and good armor, but had serious drawbacks in its general design and shape, including a high silhouette, an archaic sponson mounting of the main gun preventing the tank from taking a hull-down position, riveted construction, and poor off-road performance.

Its overall performance was not satisfactory and the tank was withdrawn from combat in most theaters as soon as the M4 Sherman tank became available in larger numbers. In spite of this, it was considered by Hans von Luck (an Oberst (Colonel) in the Wehrmacht Heer and the author of Panzer Commander) to be superior to the best German tank at the time of its introduction, the Panzer IV (at least until the F1 variant).[4]

Despite being replaced elsewhere, the British continued to use M3s in combat against the Japanese in southeast Asia until 1945.[5] Nearly a thousand M3s were supplied to the Soviet military under Lend-Lease between 1941–1943.

The M3 Lee was also the medium tank counter part of the light tank M3 Stuart.

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

In 1939, the U.S. Army possessed approximately 400 tanks, mostly M2 Light Tanks, with 18 of the to-be-discontinued M2 Medium Tanks as the only ones considered "modern".[6] The U.S. funded tank development poorly during the interwar years, and had little experience in design as well as poor doctrine to guide design efforts.

 
M3 Lee being manufactured.

The M2 Medium Tank was typical of armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) many nations produced in 1939. When the U.S. entered the war, the M2 design was already obsolete with a 37 mm gun, an impractical number of secondary machine guns, a very high silhouette, and 32 mm frontal armor. The Panzer III and Panzer IV's success in the French campaign led the U.S. Army to immediately order a new medium tank armed with a 75 mm gun in a turret as a response. This would be the M4 Sherman. Until the Sherman reached production, an interim design with a 75 mm gun was urgently needed.

The M3 was the solution. The design was unusual because the main weapon – a larger caliber, medium-velocity 75 mm gun – was in an offset sponson mounted in the hull with limited traverse. The sponson mount was necessary because, at the time, American tank plants did not have the design experience necessary to make a gun turret capable of holding a 75 mm weapon. A small turret with a lighter, high-velocity 37 mm gun sat on top of the tall hull. A small cupola on top of the turret held a machine gun. The use of two main guns was seen on the French Char B1 and the Mark I version of the British Churchill tank. In each case, two weapons were mounted to give the tanks adequate capability in firing both anti-personnel high explosive and canister ammunition and armor-piercing ammunition for anti-tank combat. The M3 differed slightly from this pattern, having a main gun that could fire an armor-piercing projectile at a velocity high enough for effectively piercing armor, as well as deliver a high-explosive shell that was large enough to be effective. Using a hull mounted gun, the M3 design could be produced faster than a tank featuring a turreted gun. It was understood that the M3 design was flawed, but Britain[7] urgently needed tanks. A drawback of the sponson mount was that the M3 could not take a hull-down position and use its 75 mm gun at the same time. The M3 was tall and roomy: the power transmission ran through the crew compartment under the turret basket to the gearbox driving the front sprockets. Steering was by differential braking, with a turning circle of 37 ft (11 m). The vertical volute-sprung suspension (VVSS) units possessed a return roller mounted directly atop the main housing of each of the six suspension units (three per side), designed as self-contained and readily replaced modular units bolted to the hull sides. The turret was power-traversed by an electro-hydraulic system in the form of an electric motor providing the pressure for the hydraulic motor. This fully rotated the turret in 15 seconds. Control was from a spade grip on the gun. The same motor provided pressure for the gun stabilizing system.

 
Front view of an M3.

The 75 mm gun was operated by a gunner and a loader; sighting the gun used an M1 periscope – with an integral telescope – on the top of the sponson. The periscope rotated with the gun. The sight was marked from zero to 3,000 yd (2,700 m)[i], with vertical markings to aid deflection shooting at a moving target. The gunner laid the gun on target through geared handwheels for traverse and elevation. The shorter barreled 75 mm M2 cannon sometimes featured a counterweight at the end of the barrel to balance the gun for operation with the gyrostabilizer until the longer 75 mm M3 variant was brought into use.[8]

The 37 mm gun was aimed through the M2 periscope, mounted in the mantlet to the side of the gun. It also sighted the coaxial machine gun. Two range scales were provided: 0–1,500 yd (1,400 m) for the 37 mm and 0–1,000 yd (910 m) for the machine gun. The 37 mm gun also featured a counterweight – a long rod under the barrel – though it was ill maintained by crews who knew little about its use.

 
British M3 Grant (left) and Lee (right) at El Alamein (Egypt), in the Sahara Desert, 1942, showing differences between the British turret and the original design.

There were also two .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns mounted in the hull, fixed in traverse but adjustable in elevation, which were controlled by the driver. These were, due to coordination issues, removed, though they would be seen on early Sherman tanks.[9]

Though not at war, the U.S. was willing to produce, sell and ship armored vehicles to Britain. The British had requested that their Matilda II infantry tank and Crusader cruiser tank designs be made by American factories, but this request was refused. With much of their equipment left on the beaches near Dunkirk, the equipment needs of the British were acute. Though not entirely satisfied with the design, they ordered the M3 in large numbers. British experts had viewed the mock-up in 1940 and identified features that they considered flaws – the high profile, the hull mounted main gun, the lack of a radio in the turret (though the tank did have a radio down in the hull), the riveted armor plating (whose rivets tended to pop off inside the interior in a deadly ricochet when the tank was hit by a non-penetrating round), the smooth track design, insufficient armor plating and lack of splash-proofing of the joints.[10]

The British desired modifications for the tank they were purchasing. A bustle rack was to be made at the back of the turret to house the Wireless Set No. 19. The turret was to be given thicker armor plate than in the original U.S. design, and the machine gun cupola was to be replaced with a simple hatch. Extended space within the turret of the new M3 also allowed the use of a smoke bomb launcher, although the addition of the radio would take the space for storage of fifty 37 mm rounds, reducing the ammunition capacity to 128 rounds. Several of these new "Grant" tanks would also be equipped with sand shields for action in North Africa, though they often fell off.[9][11] With these modifications accepted, the British ordered 1,250 M3s. The order was subsequently increased with the expectation that when the M4 Sherman was available, it could replace part of the order. Contracts were arranged with three U.S. companies. The total cost of the order was approximately US$240 million, the sum of all British funds in the US; it took the US Lend-Lease act to solve the financial shortfall.

The prototype was completed in March 1941 and production models followed, with the first British-specification tanks produced in July. Both U.S. and British tanks had thicker armor than first planned.[12] The British design required one fewer crew member than the US version due to the radio in the turret. The U.S. eventually eliminated the full-time radio operator, assigning the task to the driver. After extensive losses in Africa and Greece, the British realized that to meet their needs for tanks, both the Lee and the Grant types would need to be accepted.

The U.S. military used the "M" (Model) letter to designate nearly all of their equipment. When the British Army received their new M3 medium tanks from the US, confusion immediately set in[13] between the different M3 medium tank and M3 light tank. The British Army began naming their American tanks after American military figures, although the U.S. Army never used those terms until after the war.[14] M3 tanks with the cast turret and radio setup received the name "General Grant", while the original M3s were called "General Lee", or more usually just "Grant" and "Lee".[15]

The chassis and running gear of the M3 design was adapted by the Canadians for their Ram tank. The hull of the M3 was also used for self-propelled artillery as with the original design of the M7 Priest, of which nearly 3,500 were built, and recovery vehicles.

Operational historyEdit

Of the 6,258 M3 variants manufactured in the United States, 2,855 (45%) were officially handed over to the British government. The M3 Grant first saw action with the Royal Armoured Corps in North Africa, during May 1942. However, most of the M3s ordered by the UK quickly became surplus to the requirements of the British Army.

  • 1,700 were transferred to the Australian Army, for home defence and training duties in Australia.[16]
  • The British Indian Army received 900 Grants
  • A further 22% (1,386) were exported directly from the US to the Soviet Union,[17] although only 976 of these reached Russian ports, due to German U-boat and air attacks on Allied convoys.

North African campaignEdit

The M3 brought much-needed firepower to British forces in the North African desert campaign.

 
Crew of M3 tank at Souk el Arba, Tunisia, November 23, 1942.

The American M3 medium tank's first action during the war was in 1942, during the North African Campaign.[18] British Lees and Grants were in action against Rommel's forces at the Battle of Gazala on 27 May that year. Their appearance was a surprise to the Germans, who were unprepared for the M3's 75 mm gun. They soon discovered the M3 could engage them beyond the effective range of their 5 cm Pak 38 anti-tank gun, and the 5 cm KwK 39 of the Panzer III, their main medium tank. The M3 was also vastly superior to the Fiat M13/40 and M14/41 tanks employed by the Italian troops, whose 47 mm gun was effective only at point blank range, while only the few Semoventi da 75/18 self-propelled guns were able to destroy it using HEAT rounds.[19] In addition to the M3's 75 mm gun outranging the Panzers, they were equipped with high explosive shells to take out infantry and other soft targets, which previous British tanks lacked; upon the introduction of the M3, Rommel noted:

Up to May of 1942, our tanks had in general been superior in quality to the corresponding British types. This was now no longer true, at least not to the same extent.

Despite the M3's advantages and surprise appearance during the Battle of Gazala, it could not win the battle for the British. In particular, the high-velocity 88 mm Flak gun, adapted as an anti-tank gun, proved deadly if British tanks attacked without artillery support.[20]

Grants and Lees served with British units in North Africa until the end of the campaign. Following Operation Torch (the invasion of French North Africa), the U.S. also fought in North Africa using the M3 Lee.

The US 1st Armored Division had been issued new M4 Shermans, but had to give up one regiment's worth to the British Army prior to the Second Battle of El Alamein. Consequently, a regiment of the division was still using the M3 Lee in North Africa.

The M3 was generally appreciated during the North African campaign for its mechanical reliability, good armor protection and heavy firepower.[ii] In all three aspects, the M3 was capable of engaging German tanks and towed anti-tank guns.

However, the high silhouette and low, hull-mounted 75 mm were tactical drawbacks since they prevented fighting from a hull-down firing position. In addition, the use of riveted hull superstructure armor on the early versions led to spalling, where the impact of enemy shells caused the rivets to break off and become projectiles inside the tank. Later models were built with all-welded armor to eliminate this problem. These lessons had already been applied to the design and production of the M4.

The M3 was replaced in front-line roles by the M4 Sherman as soon as the M4 was available. However, several specialist vehicles based on the M3 were later employed in Europe, such as the M31 armored recovery vehicle and the Canal Defence Light.

Eastern EuropeEdit

 
A pair of Soviet M3 Lees at the Battle of Kursk.

Beginning from 1941, 1,386 M3 medium tanks were shipped from the USA to the Soviet Union, with 410 lost during shipping (when they went down with their transporting vessels which were lost to German submarine, naval and aerial attacks en-route).[22] These were supplied through the American Lend-Lease program between 1942 to 1943.

Like British Commonwealth units, Soviet Red Army personnel tended to refer to the M3 as the "Grant", even though all of the M3s shipped to Russia were technically of the "Lee" variants. The official Soviet designation for it was the М3 средний (М3с), or "M3 Medium", to distinguish the Lee/Grant from the US-built M3 Stuart light tank, which was also acquired by the USSR under Lend-Lease and was officially known there as the М3 лёгкий (М3л), or "M3 Light".[citation needed] Due to the vehicle's petrol-fuelled engine, a high tendency to catch fire and its vulnerability against most types of German armour the Soviet troops encountered from 1942 onwards, the tank was almost entirely unpopular with the Red Army since its induction into the Eastern Front.[23]

With almost 1,500 of their own T-34 tanks being built every month, Soviet use of the M3 medium tank declined soon after mid-1943. Soviet troops still fielded their Lee/Grant tanks on secondary and quieter/less-action fronts, such as in the Arctic region during the Red Army's Petsamo–Kirkenes Offensive against German forces in Norway in October of 1944, where the then-obsolete US tanks faced mainly captured French tanks used by the Germans, such as the SOMUA S35, which to a limited extent was somewhat comparable to the Lee/Grant it fought against.

Pacific WarEdit

In the Pacific War, armoured warfare played a relatively minor role for the Allies, compared with that of naval,[24] air,[25] and infantry units.

In the Pacific Ocean Theater and Southwest Pacific Theater, the U.S. Army deployed none of its dedicated armored divisions and only a third of its 70 other, separate tank battalions.

A small number of M3 Lees saw action in the central Pacific Ocean Theater during 1943.

While the US Marine Corps deployed all six of its tank battalions,[26] none of these were equipped with the M3 Lee. (USMC tank battalions were equipped initially with M3 Stuarts, which were replaced by M4 Shermans in mid 1944.[27])

Some M3 Grants played an offensive role with the Indian Army, in the South-East Asian theatre.

 
A British M3 Lee in Mandalay, Burma, (Myanmar), during the 1944-1945 part of the Burma Campaign, March 1945. Spare tracks are welded onto the front for extra protection.

The Australian Army also used Grants during World War II, mainly for home defence and training purposes.

Pacific Ocean TheaterEdit

The only combat use of the M3 Lee by the US Army against Japanese forces[28] occurred during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign of 1943.

Following the better-known landing at Tarawa, the US 27th Infantry Division made an amphibious assault on Makin Island with armoured support from a platoon of M3A5 Lees equipped with deep-wading kits belonging to the US Army's 193rd Tank Battalion.

BurmaEdit

After British Commonwealth forces in Europe and the Mediterranean began receiving M4 Shermans, about 900 British-ordered M3 Lees/Grants were shipped to the Indian Army. Some of these saw action against Japanese troops and tanks in the Burma Campaign of WWII.[16]

They were used by the British Fourteenth Army[29] until the fall of Rangoon[29], regarded as performing "admirably" in its original intended role of supporting infantry in Burma between 1944 to 1945[29][30].

In the Burma Campaign, the M3 medium tank's main task was infantry support. It played a pivotal role during the Battle of Imphal, during which the Imperial Japanese Army's 14th Tank Regiment (primarily equipped with their own Type 95 Ha-Go light tanks, together with a handful of captured British M3 Stuart light tanks as well) encountered M3 medium tanks for the first time and found their light tanks outgunned and outmatched by the better British armour.[31] Despite their worse-than-average off-road performance, the British M3 tanks performed well as they traversed the steep hillsides around Imphal and defeated the assaulting Japanese forces. Officially declared obsolete in April 1944[29], nevertheless, the Lee/Grant saw action until the end of the war in September 1945.

AustraliaEdit

At the beginning of the war, Australian Army doctrine viewed tank units as minor offensive components within infantry divisions. It had no dedicated armoured branch and most of its very limited capabilities in tank warfare had been deployed to the North African Campaign (i.e. three divisional cavalry battalions). By early 1941, the effectiveness of large-scale German panzer attacks had been recognised, and a dedicated armoured mustering was formed. The Australian Armoured Corps initially included the cadres of three armoured divisions – all of which were equipped at least partly with M3 Grants made available from surplus British orders.

The 1st Australian Armoured Division was formed with a view towards complementing the three Australian infantry divisions then in North Africa. However, following the outbreak of hostilities with Japan,[32] the division was retained in Australia. During April–May 1942, the 1st Armoured Division's regiments were reported to be re-equipping with M3 Grants and were training, in a series of large exercises, in the area around Narrabri, New South Wales.[32]

The cadres of other two divisions, the 2nd and 3rd Armoured Divisions were both officially formed in 1942, as Militia (reserve/home defence) units. These divisions were also partly equipped with M3 Grants.[33]

In January 1943, the main body of the 1st Armoured Division was deployed to home defence duties between Perth and Geraldton, Western Australia, where it formed part of III Corps.[32]

By the middle of the war, the Australian Army had deemed the Grant to be unsuitable for combat duties overseas and M3 units were re-equipped with the Matilda II before being deployed to the New Guinea and Borneo Campaigns. Due to personnel shortages, all three divisions were officially disbanded during 1943 and downgraded to brigade- and battalion-level units.[33]

Post-war use in AustraliaEdit

During the war, the Australian Army had converted some M3 Grants for special purposes, including a small number of bulldozer variants, beach armoured recovery vehicles and wader prototypes.

Following the end of the war, 14 of the Australian Grants were converted to a local self-propelled gun design, the Yeramba, becoming the only SPG ever deployed by the Australian Army. Fitted with a 25-pounder field gun, the Yerambas remained in service with the 22nd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, until the late 1950s.

Many M3s deemed surplus to Australian Army requirements were acquired by civilian buyers during the 1950s and 1960s for conversion to earthmoving equipment and/or tractors.

ConclusionEdit

Overall, the M3 was able to be effective on the battlefield from 1942 until 1943. However, US armored units lacked tactical expertise on a method to overcome its design. [34] Its armor and firepower were the equal or superior to most of the threats it faced, especially in the Pacific. Long-range, high velocity guns were not yet common on German tanks in the African theater. However, the rapid pace of tank development meant that the M3 was very quickly outclassed. By mid-1942, with the introduction of the German Tiger I, the up-gunning of the Panzer IV to a long 75 mm gun, and the first appearance in 1943 of the Panther, along with the availability of large numbers of the M4 Sherman, the M3 was withdrawn from service in the European Theater.

VariantsEdit

 
M3 and its contribution to other AFVs of the Second World War.
 
M31 TRV showing dummy hull gun.
 
Chrysler plant manufacturing the M3 Lee.

British designations in parentheses

US variantsEdit

M3 (Lee I/Grant I)
Riveted hull, high profile turret, gasoline engine. 4,724 built.
M3A1 (Lee II)
Cast (rounded) upper hull. 300 built.
M3A2 (Lee III)
Welded (sharp edged) hull. Only 12 vehicles produced.
M3A3 (Lee IV/Lee V)
Twin GM 6-71 diesel variant of welded hull. Side doors welded shut or eliminated. 322 built.
M3A4 (Lee VI)
Stretched riveted hull, 1 x Chrysler A57 Multibank engine, made up of five 4.12 litre displacement, 6-cyl L-head car engines (block upwards) mated to a common crankshaft, displacement 21 litres, 470 hp (350 kW; 480 PS) at 2,700 rpm. Side doors eliminated. 109 built.
M3A5 (Grant II)
Twin GM 6-71 diesel variant of riveted hull M3. Although it had the original Lee turret, it was referred by the British as Grant II. 591 built.
M31 Tank Recovery Vehicle (Grant ARV I)
Based on M3 chassis, with dummy turret and dummy 75 gun. A 60,000 lb (27,000 kg) winch installed.
M31B1 Tank Recovery Vehicle
Based on M3A3.
M31B2 Tank Recovery Vehicle
Based on M3A5.
M33 Prime Mover
M31 TRV converted to the artillery tractor role, with turret and crane removed. 109 vehicles were converted in 1943-44.
105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M7 (Priest)
105 mm M1/M2 howitzer installed in open superstructure. A gunless version was used as an OP (observation post vehicle)
155 mm Gun Motor Carriage M12
Designed as the T6. A 155 mm howitzer on M3 chassis. 100 built in 1942-1943. M30 Cargo Carrier on same chassis to transport gun crew and ammunition.

British variantsEdit

 
A Grant Command variant used by General Montgomery housed at the Imperial War Museum in London.
  • Grant ARV
  • Grant Command
    • Fitted with map table and extra radio equipment and having guns removed or replaced with dummies.
  • Grant Scorpion III
    • 75 mm (3.0 in) gun removed, and fitted with Scorpion III mine flail, few made in early 1943 for use in North Africa.
  • Grant Scorpion IV
    • Scorpion III with additional motor to increase Scorpion flail power.
  • Grant CDL
    • From "Canal Defence Light"; 37 mm (1.5 in) turret replaced by one with a powerful searchlight for disorientation enemy and a machine gun. 355 were also produced by the Americans, who designated it Shop Tractor T10 to camouflage its purpose.
 
The Australian M3 BARV.

Australian variantsEdit

  • M3 BARV
    • A single M3A5 was converted into a "Beach Armoured Recovery Vehicle".
  • Yeramba Self Propelled Gun.
    • Australian SP 25 pounder. 13 vehicles built in 1949 on M3A5 chassis in a conversion very similar to the Canadian Sexton.

Designs based on chassisEdit

OperatorsEdit

 
World War II operators of the M3.

Film appearancesEdit

In the 1943 movie Sahara, starring Humphrey Bogart, the character's main form of transportation was an M3 Lee named "Lulu Belle"; the same is true of the 1995 remake starring Jim Belushi.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ later 3,500 yards
  2. ^ Initially there were problems with engine wear and suspension springs.[21]
  1. ^ AFV Database
  2. ^ Zaloga p. 16 & 20
  3. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 20 & 21
  4. ^ von Luck, Hans (2013). Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck. Dell. p. Paragraph 6.75.
  5. ^ "The British Army in Burma 1945". Imperial War Museum.
  6. ^ Hunnicutt p. 44
  7. ^ Zaloga, Armored Thunderbolt, p. 21
  8. ^ "Medium Tank M3 Lee"
  9. ^ a b https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_p7eJr0grTc Inside the Chieftain's Hatch: M3 Grant. Part 1
  10. ^ Fletcher, Great Tank Scandal, p. 90.
  11. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu8NwLls7PY&t=1048s Inside the Chieftain's Hatch: M3 Grant. Part 2
  12. ^ Fletcher, Great Tank Scandal, p. 93.
  13. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 18
  14. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 19
  15. ^ Bishop (The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II) p. 34
  16. ^ a b Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 30-31
  17. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 28, 30, 31
  18. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 28
  19. ^ Cappellano, F.; Battistelli, P.P (2012). Italian medium tanks: 1939-45. Oxford: Osprey Publ. pp. 34–38. ISBN 9781849087759.
  20. ^ The M-3 Grant: America's Nazi Germany Tank-Killer - Nationalinterest.org, 22 January 2017
  21. ^ Fletcher, Great Tank Scandal, p. 92.
  22. ^ Барятинский М. П. «Трёхэтажный» американец Сталина. Танк M3 «Генерал Ли» / «Генерал Грант». — М.: Яуза, Эксмо, 2011. — 104 с. — (Арсенал коллекция). — 1700 экз. — (in Russian), ISBN 978-5-699-49808-6
  23. ^ Charles D. Winchester; Ian Drury (20 August 2011). Hitler’s War on Russia. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-1-84908-995-1.
  24. ^ Zaloga (Japanese Tanks) back cover & p. 3
  25. ^ Ewing p. VII
  26. ^ Zaloga (Armored Thunderbolt) p. 24 & 301
  27. ^ USMC TOEs[page needed]
  28. ^ Zaloga Armored Thunderbolt p. 305
  29. ^ a b c d Hunnicutt (Sherman) p. 105
  30. ^ Zaloga Armored Thunderbolt p. 31
  31. ^ Zaloga (Japanese Tanks 1939-45) p. 40
  32. ^ a b c Zach Lambert, 2012, "The Birth, Life and Death of the 1st Australian Armoured Division", Australian Army Journal vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 96–97.
  33. ^ a b Ronald Hopkins, 1978, Australian Armour: A History of the Royal Australian Armoured Corps 1927–1972, Puckapunyal, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Tank Museum, pp. 125–130, 326.
  34. ^ Porter (Allied Tanks of World War II 1339-1945 The World's Greatest Weapons) p. 77
  35. ^ Mark Axworthy, Cornel I. Scafeș, Cristian Crăciunoiu, Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941-1945, p. 221

ReferencesEdit

  • USMC D-F Series Tables of Equipment (TOEs), 1942-1944

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit