The old M-63 Plamen (Serbian: Пламен; "flame") is a 128mm multiple rocket launcher developed in 1963 in Yugoslavia for use in the Yugoslav People's Army.

M-94 Plamen S
М94 PlamenS 2.jpg
M-94 Plamen S
TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Place of originSerbia
Service history
In service1963–present
WarsYugoslav Wars
Production history
DesignerMilitary Technical Institute Belgrade - project manager Prof. Obrad Vucurović
ManufacturerIMK 14. oktobar Kruševac, TRZ Cacak, Krusik Valjevo
VariantsM-94 Plamen-S
Mass2,134 kg (4,705 lb)
Length3.68 m (12 ft 1 in)
Width2.21 m (7 ft 3 in)
Height1.26 m (4 ft 2 in)

ShellLength: 0.8 m (2 ft 7 in)
Weight: 23 kg (51 lb)
Caliber128 mm (5.0 in)
CarriageSplit trail
Elevation0° to 48°
Muzzle velocity420 m/s (1,400 ft/s)
Maximum firing range12.6 km (7.8 mi)[1]


Serbian Prof. Obrad Vučurović, mechanical engineer at the Military Technical Institute Belgrade was project manager and chief engineer of development of the M-63 Plamen and all other Yugoslavia MLRS until breakdown of country when he continued to develop for Serbia M96 Orkan 2. His knowledge and previous development has influenced new MLRS systems developed in Serbia in last couple of years including new 150 km long range MLRS which is in project phase of development. His work is widely acknowledged and many of his unique developed features could be found on MLRS around world.[2]

MRL M-63 Plamen main purpose is support of front-line units, with strong and sudden attacks on enemy forces. It can be also used against enemy structures such as encampments, airfields, industrial facilities, command centers, communication centers, storehouses, etc.

The M-63 Plamen consists of 32 Ø128mm tubes, which can fire original Plamen-A and Plamen B rockets with a range of 8,600m. The effect of each rocket on the target is equivalent to the effect of a 105mm artillery shell. All 32 rockets can be fired in either 6.4, 12.5 or 19.2 seconds. The launcher is mounted on a single axle trailer which can be towed by vehicles with an 800mm high tow hitch. The towing vehicle carries reserve rockets, so the battle complement is 64 missiles.

The M-63 Plamen was widely used during the Yugoslav Wars. It has also been sighted in the Syrian Civil War, used by rebel fighters under the Free Syrian Army.[3]


M-94 Plamen-S self-propelled multiple rocket launcher of Serbian Army.
RAK 12 version of Croatian Army.
  • M-63 Plamen – Original towed 32-tube 128 mm multiple rocket launcher. Uses Plamen-A and Plamen-B rockets (with a range of 8,600 m).[4]
  • M-94 Plamen-S – Launcher mounted on 6x6 truck. The M-94 is able to use original Plamen-A and Plamen-B rockets (with a range of 8,600 m), and improved Plamen-D rocket with extended range (12,625 m). build by FRY, Serbia and Montenegro and Serbia state[5]
  • RAK-12 – Croatian built version with twelve 128 mm tubes, enabling weapon to be towed by lighter vehicles like Jeeps.[6] The launcher fires two types of rockets: M91 (range 8,500 m) and M93 (range 13,000 m).[7] The Croatian Army operates eight RAK-12 MRLs with some 60 held in reserve.
  • LOV RAK-24 – Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher with twenty-four 128 mm pipes. The MRL is mounted on Croatian-made light armored personnel carrier LOV.[8]


Map with M-63 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operatorsEdit

Former operatorsEdit

  •   Slovenia - 4 (in reserve - retired due to lack of ammunition and spare parts)
  •   Yugoslavia - passed on to successor states

See alsoEdit

Comparable systemsEdit

Replaced byEdit

  • LRSVM Morava New developed MLRS for Serbia Army and export intended to replace Oganj M-77, Plamen M-63 and Grad BM-21


  1. ^ Foss, Christopher (1977). Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. New York: Collier. p. 155. ISBN 0020806000. OCLC 911907988.
  2. ^ Vucurovic Archived 2013-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Croatian RAK-12 in Syria". 30 March 2013.
  4. ^ 128 mm M-63 - Jane'
  5. ^
  6. ^[dead link]
  7. ^[dead link]
  8. ^ "RH ALAN 128 mm (24-round) LOV RAK 24/128 self-propelled rocket launcher (Croatia) - Jane's Armour and Artillery". Archived from the original on 2009-03-04.
  9. ^ Administrator. "Bosnia Herzegovina army land ground armed defense forces military equipment armored vehicle UK | Bosnia Herzegovina army land ground forces UK | East Europe UK". Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  10. ^ "Syrie: rudes combats à Abou Dali entre les djihadistes d'Hayat Tahrir al-Cham et le régime de Damas". France Soir (in French). 19 October 2017.
  11. ^ Krott, Rob (October 2003). "Macedonia's Weaponry: A New Nation Re-Arms and Fights". Small Arms Review. Vol. 7, no. 1.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "LRSV Plamen S Prokuplje 2009". YouTube.