Máximo Gómez y Báez (November 18, 1836 – June 17, 1905) was a Dominican Generalissimo in Cuba's War of Independence (1895–1898). He was known for his controversial scorched-earth policy, which entailed dynamiting passenger trains and torching the Spanish loyalists' property and sugar plantations—including many owned by Americans. He greatly increased the efficacy of the attacks by torturing and killing not only Spanish soldiers, but also Spanish sympathizers and especially Cubans loyal to Spain. By the time the Spanish–American War broke out in April 1898, the rebellion was virtually defeated in most of Western Cuba, with only a few operating pockets in the center and the east. He refused to join forces with the Spanish in fighting off the United States, and he retired to the Quinta de los Molinos, a luxury villa outside of Havana after the war's end formerly used by captains generals as summer residence.
|Born||November 18, 1836|
Baní, Peravia, Dominican Republic
|Died||June 17, 1905 (aged 68)|
Havana, La Havana, Cuba
|Allegiance|| Dominican Republic (1854–1861)|
|Years of service||1852 – 1905|
|Battles/wars||Dominican War of Independence Cuban War of Independence|
Early life edit
Gómez was born on November 18, 1836, in the town of Baní, in the province of Peravia, in what is now the Dominican Republic. During his teenage years, he joined in the battles against the frequent Haitian incursions of Faustin Soulouque in the 1850s. He fought alongside the Spanish forces in the Dominican Restoration War (1863–1865), earning promotion from sergeant to commander in a famous victory over the Dominican general, Pedro Florentino.
He arrived in Cuba with the Spanish troops evacuated from Santo Domingo in 1865, starting an agricultural enterprise. In Cuba, he married Bernarda Toro, who accompanied him during the war.
Changes allegiance edit
After the Spanish forces were defeated and fled the Dominican Republic in 1865 by the order of Queen Isabel II, many supporters of the Annexionist cause left with them, and Gómez moved his family to Cuba.
Gómez retired from the Spanish Army and soon took up the rebel cause in 1868, helping transform the Cuban Army's military tactics and strategy from the conventional approach, favored by Thomas Jordan and others. He gave the Cuban mambises their most feared tactic, the "machete charge."
Cuban War of Independence edit
On October 25, 1868, during the Battle of Pino de Baire, Gómez led a machete charge on foot, ambushing a Spanish column and obliterating it; the Spanish suffered 233 casualties. The Spanish Army was terrified of the charges because most were infantry troops, mainly conscripts, who were fearful of being cut down by the machetes. Because the Cuban Army always lacked sufficient munitions, the usual combat technique was to shoot once and then charge the Spanish.
In 1871, Gómez led a campaign to clear Guantánamo from forces loyal to Spain, particularly the rich coffee growers, who were mostly of French descent and whose ancestors had fled from Haiti after the Haitians had slaughtered the French. Gómez carried out a bloody but successful campaign, and most of his officers went on to become high-ranking officers, including Antonio and José Maceo, Adolfo Flor Crombet, Policarpo Pineda "Rustán."
After the death in combat of Major General Ignacio Agramonte y Loynáz in May 1873, Gómez assumed the command of the military district of the province of Camaguey and its famed Cavalry Corps. Upon first inspecting the corps, he concluded that they were the best trained and disciplined in the nascent indigenous Cuban Army, and they would significantly contribute to the war for independence.
On February 19, 1874, Gómez and 700 other rebels marched westward from their eastern base and defeated 2,000 Spanish troops at El Naranjo. The Spaniards lost 100 killed in action, 200 wounded in action; the rebels incurred 150 casualties. A battalion of 500 Chinese fought under the command of Gómez in the Battle of Las Guasimas (March 1874). The battle cost the Spanish 1,037 casualties and the rebels 174 casualties. However, the rebels had exhausted their resources: the unusual departure from guerrilla tactics had proved a costly enterprise.
In early 1875, with fewer than 2,000 men, Gómez crossed the Trocha—a string of Spanish military fortifications—and burned 83 plantations around Sancti Spíritus and freed their slaves. However, the conservative Revolutionary leaders feared the consequences of these actions and diverted troops away from Gómez' army, causing the campaign to fizzle. In 1876, Gómez surrendered his command when he was told by General Carlos Roloff that the officers of Las Villas would no longer follow his orders since he was Dominican.
Puerto Rican conflict edit
In the interlude between the two Cuban independence wars, Gómez held odd jobs in Jamaica and Panama (among them, he supervised a laborers' brigade during the construction of the Panama Canal), but he remained as an active player for the cause of Cuban independence as well as that for the rest of the Antilles. For example, when Puerto Rico experienced a period of severe political repression in 1887 by the Spanish governor, Romualdo Palacio, which led to the arrest of many local political leaders, including Román Baldorioty de Castro, Gómez offered his services to Ramón Emeterio Betances, the previous instigator of the island's first pro-independence revolution, the Grito de Lares, who was then exiled in Paris. Gómez sold most of his personal belongings to finance a revolt in Puerto Rico and volunteered to lead any Puerto Rican troops if any such revolt occurred. The revolt was deemed unnecessary later that year, when the Spanish government recalled Palacio from office to investigate charges of abuse of power from his part, but Gómez and Betances established a friendship and logistical relationship that lasted until Betances's death, in 1898.
Promotion to general edit
He adapted and formalized the improvised military tactics that had first been used by Spanish guerrillas against Napoleon Bonaparte's armies into a cohesive and comprehensive system, at both the tactical and the strategic levels. The concept of insurrection and insurgency and the asymmetric nature thereof can be traced intellectually to him.
He was shot in the neck in 1875 while he was crossing the fortified line or Trocha from Júcaro in the south to Morón, in the north; he was leading the failed attempt to invade Western Cuba. He then always wore a kerchief around his neck to cover the bullet hole, which remained open after it healed (he usually plugged it with a wad of cotton). His second and last wound came in 1896 while he was fighting in the rural areas outside Havana and completing a successful invasion of Western Cuba.
Fabian strategy edit
He was wounded only twice during 15 years of guerrilla warfare against an enemy far superior in manpower and logistics. In contrast, his most trusted officer and second-in-command, Lieutenant General Antonio Maceo y Grajales, was shot 27 times in the same span of time, with the 26th being the mortal wound. Gómez's son and Maceo's aide-de-camp, Francisco Gómez y Toro, nicknamed "Panchito," was killed while he was trying to recover Maceo's dead body in combat on December 7, 1896.
Soon afterward, Gómez implemented another warfare technique that proved to be very successful in crippling Spanish economic interests in Cuba: torching sugar cane haciendas and other strategic agricultural assets. He personally abhorred the idea of "setting to fire the product of our laborers' work over more than 200 years in a few hours" but countered that the state of misery most of the laborers still experienced, if that was the price to pay to redeem them from the economic system that enslaved them ¡Bendita sea la tea! ("Blessed be the torch!")
Proposal to join Spanish–American War edit
On March 5, 1898, the Captain-General of Cuba, Ramón Blanco y Erenas, proposed for Gómez and his Cuban troops to join him and the Spanish Army in repelling the United States in the face of the Spanish–American War. Blanco appealed to the shared heritage of the Cubans and Spanish and promised the island's autonomy if the Cubans would help fight the Americans. Blanco had declared, "As Spaniards and Cubans we find ourselves opposed to foreigners of a different race, who are of a grasping nature.... The supreme moment has come in which we should forget past differences and, with Spaniards and Cubans united for the sake of their own defense, repel the invader. Spain will not forget the noble help of its Cuban sons, and once the foreign enemy is expelled from the island, she will, like an affectionate mother, embrace in her arms a new daughter amongst the nations of the New World, who speaks the same language, practices the same faith, and feels the same noble Spanish blood run through her veins." Gómez refused to adhere to Blanco's plan.
At the end of the Cuban Independence War in 1898, he retired to a villa outside of Havana. In 1899, he was dismissed as general-in-chief of the Cuban army by the Asamblea del Cerro, and this position was abolished. He refused the presidential nomination that was offered to him in 1901, which he was expected to win unopposed, mainly because he always disliked politics. Also, after 40 years of living in Cuba, he still felt that being Dominican-born, he should not become the civil leader of Cuba.
He died in his villa in 1905 and was interred in the Colón Cemetery, Havana.
- Máximo Gómez Park, a park in Miami, Florida, United States, now known as Domino Park, was named in his honor.
- The British alternative rock band Maxïmo Park, in turn, named itself after the park.
- Gómez's portrait is portrayed on Cuban currency on the 10 peso bill.
- itself after a park in Florida, which had been named in his honor.
- A major avenue in the city of Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, is named after him.
- A secondary school is named after him in his hometown of Baní, Dominican Republic.
- A provincial university was named in his honor: Universidad Máximo Gómez Báez de Ciego de Ávila, in Cuba.
- The current Dominican Senator for Peravia Province, Wilton Guerrero, has proposed changing the name of the province to "Máximo Gómez Province."
- A statue is in the front of the Instituto Preuniversitario in Camaguey, Cuba; he is seen on a horse with his scarf galloping while he is armed as if leading a machete charge.
- A station on Line 1 (Blue Line) of the Metro of Santo Domingo, capital city of the Dominican Republic is named after him.
See also edit
- "MAJOR GENERAL MÁXIMO GÓMEZ BÁEZ". cubagob.cu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2013-10-03.
- Roorda, Eric Paul (2016). Historical Dictionary of the Dominican Republic. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810879065.
- Jones, Howard (2009). Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations to 1913. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 270.
- Ledbetter, Mark David. America's Forgotten History. Part Three: A Progressive Empire. p. 398.
- Tone, John Lawrence (2006). War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895-1898. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 61.
- Stoner, K. Lynn (1991-04-30). From the House to the Streets: The Cuban Woman's Movement for Legal Reform, 1898-1940. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1149-2.
- Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 306. ISBN 978-0786474707.
- Simons, Geoff. Cuba: From Conquistador to Castro. Springer. p. 148.
- Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America's Wars: Volume 1. Potomac Books.
- "Proposicion del Capitan General Ramon Blanco Erenas". autentico.org.
- "Ramón Blanco y Erenas". Library of Congress.
- "Máximo Gómez Park | Little Havana, Miami | Attractions". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
- "Maximo Gómez Park (Miami) - All You Need to Know BEFORE You Go". Tripadvisor. Retrieved 2023-08-09.
- Listin Diario (28 October 2023). "Wilton apoya Peravia sea provincia Máximo Gómez". listindiario.com.