Luis González Bravo

Luis González Bravo y López de Arjona (8 July 1811, in Cádiz, Spain – 1 September 1871, in Biarritz, France) was a Spanish politician, diplomat, intellectual, speaker, author, arts mentor and promoter, and journalist graduated from law school, who served twice as prime minister of Spain (president of the Council of Ministers) from 1843 to 1844 and in 1868. During his first term, his government officially recognized Chile as an independent state.

Luis González Bravo
Retrato de Luis González Bravo.jpg
Prime Minister of Spain
In office
5 December 1843 – 3 May 1844
MonarchIsabella II
Preceded bySalustiano de Olózaga
Succeeded byRamon Maria Narvaez
In office
23 April 1868 – 19 September 1868
MonarchIsabella II
Preceded byRamon Maria Narvaez
Succeeded byJose Gutierrez de la Concha
Minister of State
In office
29 November 1843 – 3 May 1844
Preceded bySalustiano de Olózaga
Succeeded byManuel de la Pezuela, 2nd Marquis of Viluma
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
16 September 1864 – 21 June 1865
In office
10 July 1866 – 20 September 1868
Member of the Spanish Parliament (Cádiz)
Member of the Spanish Parliament (Madrid, Jaén, Málaga)
Member of the Spanish Parliament (Canary Islands)
Personal details
Born
Luis González Bravo y López de Arjona

8 July 1811
Cadiz, Andalusia, Spain
Died1 September 1871 (aged 60)
Biarritz, France
NationalitySpanish
Political partyModerate Party
Other political
affiliations
Traditionalist Communion
Alma materUniversity of Alcalá
OccupationPolitician

He held other important offices, such as once serving as minister of State and twice as minister of Home Affairs. He was appointed ambassador of Spain to the United Kingdom in Queen Victoria's rule, and ambassador of Spain to Portugal. He was a member of the Moderate Party, and occupied three times the post of Spanish Congressman for Cádiz, Madrid, Jaén, Málaga and the Canary Islands. He was acting minister of Justice for five days. He was head of the Spanish civil troops "Milicia Nacional". He was Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece and Knight of the Order of Charles III (of King Charles III of Spain, Carlos III). He founded four newspapers in Spain, and was the noted Spanish poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's benefactor and patron.

Independence of Chile and Chile Peace TreatyEdit

 
Chile and Spain Independence and Peace Treaty, 1844

On 25 April 1844, as Prime Minister and Minister of State simultaneously, President Luis González Bravo, together with Queen Isabella II of Spain made the peace negotiations and Treaty to recognise the Spanish American Independence of Chile as a country, for its official recognition by the Spanish Kingdom, called the Tratado de Paz y Amistad, in the government of President of Chile Manuel Bulnes. The signing plenipotentiaries were Luis González Bravo for Spain, and General José Manuel Borgoño for Chile.

It was the first Latin American independence peace treaty signed in Queen Isabella II's government since her proclamation of accession to the throne.

Anti-monarchist Revolution and ExileEdit

President Luis González Bravo was the first stable Prime Minister of Queen Isabella II's effective kingdom starting in 1843, and also her kingdom's last Prime Minister, 25 years later in 1868. Prime Minister Luis González Bravo was one of the few politicians who remained consistently faithful to Queen Isabella II throughout her ruling years, standing by her from the beginning of her effective monarchy, to the last days of her reign in 1868.

In September 1868, however, upon facing the first battle of the revolution, he advised Queen Isabella II to substitute him in the country's presidency for an experienced army general as Prime Minister, to better fight the ready to strike armed forces organized against her government. The Queen named Captain José Gutiérrez de la Concha as Prime Minister, who only lasted eleven days in power, from 19 September to 30 September 1868, his troops being defeated on 28 September, when the anti-monarchical revolution took over the country. Queen Isabella II and Prime Minister González Bravo were offered exile with their spouses and children in France by Emperor Napoleon III.

The Queen was exiled in Paris, where she died in 1904. Luis González Bravo lived in Biarritz with his wife and two daughters, and died there from coronary heart disease in 1871. In France, as a last resort to rescue and preserve the Bourbon monarchy in Spain in face of the anti-monarchist revolutionary takeover and Queen Isabella II's exile, he supported the Carlists two years before his death. Months later, in 1870, Queen Isabella II abdicated her crown in favour of her first son, Alfonso, so as to perpetuate the House of Bourbon dynasty in Spain, which came back into power in 1874 with him leading the Spanish Monarchy Restoration.

Works, Journalism and Intellectual AcademiesEdit

A talented and prolific columnist, Luis González Bravo founded four newspapers in Spain: El Guirigay (1837), La Legalidad, El Contemporáneo (1860) and Los Tiempos. He was also columnist for the newspapers El Español and El Eco del Comercio. A fervent and generous literature supporter and philanthropist, he was legendary Spanish poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer's patron, sponsor and benefactor. He also supported his brother actively, painter Valeriano Bécquer.

In his youth he was the playwright of the play Intrigar para morir (To Intrigue to Die). In 1835 he and Eugenio Moreno wrote the historical novel in four volumes Ramir Sanchez de Guzman, Año de 1072. He was a member of the Ateneo de Madrid (Athenæum of Madrid) since its foundation, and member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. He became a "C seat" Member of the Real Academia Española de la Lengua (Royal Academy of the Spanish Language) in 1863. Luis González Bravo is considered one of the best Spanish public speakers and orators of all time.

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of State
29 November 1843 – 3 May 1844
Succeeded by
President of Spain / Prime Minister of Spain
5 December 1843 – 3 May 1844
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of Spain / Prime Minister of Spain
23 April 1868 – 19 September 1868
Succeeded by
President for 11 last days of Queen Isabella II's kingdom: José Gutiérrez de la Concha