London and Paris Conferences
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany. The talks concluded with the signing of the Paris Agreements (Paris Pacts, or Paris Accords), which granted West Germany full sovereignty, ended the occupation, and allowed its admittance to NATO. Furthermore, both West Germany and Italy joined the Brussels Treaty on 23 October 1954. The Agreements went into force on 5 May 1955. The participating powers included France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany, Italy, Canada, the United States, and remaining NATO members.
Since the end of World War II, West Germany had been occupied by Allied forces and lacked its own means of defense. On 23 July 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community came into existence, bonding the member states economically. By 1951, fear of possible Soviet aggression in Europe led to preparation of an ill-fated European Defense Community (EDC). EDC was a proposed joint Western European military force, at the time favored over admitting Germany to NATO. The General Treaty (German: Deutschlandvertrag) of 1952 formally named the EDC as a prerequisite of the end of Allied occupation of Germany. EDC was, however, rejected by the French National Assembly on August 30, 1954, and a new solution became necessary.
At the London Conference, often called the Nine-Power Conference (not to be confused with the Nine Power Treaty), it was agreed that the occupying powers would make every effort to end the occupation. The limits of German re-armament were also very important especially to France, which was still concerned with a powerful Germany.
Belgium was represented by Paul-Henri Spaak, Canada by Lester B. Pearson, France by Pierre Mendès-France, Germany by Konrad Adenauer, Italy by Gaetano Martino, Luxembourg by Joseph Bech, the Netherlands by Jan Willem Beyen, the United Kingdom by Anthony Eden, and the United States by John Foster Dulles.
The powers met again in Paris on October 20–23, in an intergovernmental conference followed by a NATO Council meeting, to put the decisions reached in London into formal declarations and protocols to existing treaties. "Protocol No. I Modifying and Completing the Brussels Treaty" formally added West Germany and Italy to the Brussels Treaty, creating the Western European Union (WEU), which, while not as broad or powerful as the previously proposed EDC, nevertheless was sufficient for the Deutschlandvertrag to come into force and therefore to end the occupation of West Germany and admit it as an ally in the Cold War.
Altogether there were as many as twelve international agreements signed in Paris. the Bonn–Paris conventions ended the occupation of West Germany and West Germany obtained "the full authority of a sovereign state" on 5 May 1955 (although "full sovereignty" was not obtained until the Two Plus Four Agreement in 1990).[a] The treaty allowed Allied troops to remain in the country.
An agreement expanded the Brussels Treaty of 1948 to include West Germany and Italy, creating the Western European Union. This agreement allowed West Germany to start a limited rearmament program though it banned development of certain weapons, such as large warships. It was signed by the Brussels Treaty countries (Belgium, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and by West Germany and Italy.
The negotiations on Saar status, only between France and West Germany, were held on the night before the conference, on 19 October. The territory had been essentially annexed by France and a referendum was set up to determine the will of its people (the outcome was that Saarland rejoined West Germany in 1956-1957). On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty officially made Saarland a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Maastricht Treaty (TEU)
|Content:||(est. alliance)||(founded WU)||(founded ECSC)||(protocol amending WU to become WEU)||(founded EEC and EURATOM)||(merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities)||(founded TREVI)||(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+
|(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to transform it into EC)+
|(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA)||(amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU)||(abolished the 3 pillars and WEU by amending: EURATOM, EC=>TFEU, and TEU)
(founded EU as an overall legal unit with Charter of Fundamental Rights, and reformed governance structures & decision procedures)
|Three pillars of the European Union:|
(with a single Commission & Council)
|European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)|
|European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)||Treaty expired in 2002||European Union (EU)|
|European Economic Community (EEC)||European Community (EC)|
|Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI)||Justice and Home Affairs
|Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)|
|European Political Cooperation (EPC)||Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)|
|Franco-British alliance||Western Union (WU)||Western European Union (WEU)|
|Treaty terminated in 2011|
- Detlef Junker of the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg states "In the October 23, 1954, Paris Agreements, Adenauer pushed through the following laconic wording: 'The Federal Republic shall accordingly [after termination of the occupation regime] have the full authority of a sovereign state over its internal and external affairs.' If this was intended as a statement of fact, it must be conceded that it was partly fiction and, if interpreted as wishful thinking, it was a promise that went unfulfilled until 1990. The Allies maintained their rights and responsibilities regarding Berlin and Germany as a whole, particularly the responsibility for future reunification and a future peace treaty".
- Sutton, Michael (2011-03-18). France and the Construction of Europe, 1944-2007: The Geopolitical Imperative. pp. 74–76. ISBN 9780857452900.
- Haftendorn, Helga (2006-02-28). Coming of Age: German Foreign Policy Since 1945. pp. 30–32. ISBN 9780742538764.
- Critchfield, James H (2003). Partners at the Creation: The Men Behind Postwar Germany's Defense and Intelligence Establishments. pp. 177–178. ISBN 9781591141365.
- Detlef Junker (editor), Translated by Sally E. Robertson, The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, A Handbook Volume 1, 1945–1968 Series: Publications of the German Historical Institute ISBN 0-511-19218-5. See Section "THE PRESENCE OF THE PAST" paragraph 9.
- Final Act of the London Conference Full text.
- Declaration Inviting Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany to Accede to the Brussels Treaty, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. I (and Annex) Modifying and Completing the Brussels Treaty, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. II on Forces of Western European Union, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. III (and Annexes) on the Control of Armaments, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- Protocol No. IV on the Agency of Western European Union for the Control of Armaments, October 23, 1954 Full text.
- NATO on the Paris Agreements
- "Appendix B—Four powers conference", Journals of the Senate of Canada - Second session of the twenty-second Parliament (1955), Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955, p. 62a–62f
- 1. Protocol 1. on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany
- 2. Resume of the Five Schedules Attached to the Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime
- Declaration of the Federal Republic on Aid to Berlin
- Convention on the presence of Foreign Forces in the Federal Republic of Germany
- 5. Three-Power Declaration on Berlin
- "Appendix C—Nine powers conference", Journals of the Senate of Canada - Second session of the twenty-second Parliament (1955), Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955, p. 62f–62t
- 1. Declaration inviting Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany to accede to the Brussels Treaty
- 2. Protocol modifying and completing the Brussels Treaty
- 3. Letters with reference to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice from, respectively, the Governments of the Federal Republic and of Italy to the other Governments signatory of the Protocol Modifying and Completing the Brussels Treaty
- 4. Resolution on Production and Standardization of Armaments (Adopted by the Nine-Power Conference on 21sl October, 1954)
- "Appendix D—NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL", Journals of the Senate of Canada - Second session of the twenty-second Parliament (1955), Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1955, p. 62t–62II
- 1 Resolution to Implement Section IV of the Final Act of the London Conference
- 2. Resolution of Association
- Declaration by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Declaration by the Governments of United States of America, United Kingdom and France
- 3. Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the Accession of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 4 Resolution on Hesulis of the Four and Nine Power Meetings (Adopted by the North Atlantic Council on 22nd October 1954)
- Final Act of the London Conference (October 3rd)
- Federal Chancellor's List — Declaration by the Powers
- British Statement
- Canadian Affirmation
- German Membership of NATO — Powers' Recommendation
- Principles of UN Charter — German Acceptance
- Declaration by the German Federal Republic
- Declaration by the Governments of U.S.A., U.K. and France
- European Unity — Close Association of Britain
- Annex 1. Draft Declaration and Draft Protocol Inviting Italy and the German Federal Republic to Accede to the Brussels Treaty