Local government in Kerala

  (Redirected from Local governance in Kerala)

Kerala is a state in the southernmost part of India. Kerala, with appreciative development indicators comparable to developed countries, has been experimenting with decentralization and participatory local democracy, ultimately aimed at realization of the constitutional goal of establishing genuine "institutions of local self government" since the enactment of Kerala Panchayat Raj Act & The Kerala Municipality Act in the year 1994.

Gram Panchayats in Kerala

District Wise DataEdit

Kerala has 941 Village Panchayats (Grama panchayats), 152 Block Panchayats and 14 District Panchayats; in the urban areas, it has 87 Municipalities and 6 Corporations, a total of 1200 Local Self Government Institutions. The list of number of local government institutions from the period 1995-2015 is given below:[1]

Local body type 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Grama Panchayat 990 991 999 978 941
Block Panchayat 152 152 152 152 152
District Panchayat 14 14 14 14 14
Municipality 55 53 53 60 87
Municipal Corporation 3 5 5 5 6

The President of the Panchayat Raj Institutions(PRIs) has been declared as the executive authority. The senior most officials of various departments brought under the control of the Panchayat Raj Institutions have been declared as ex-officio Secretaries for that subject. The Panchayats have full administrative control including powers of disciplinary action over its own staff as well as staff transferred to it. To encourage a healthy relationship between officials and elected Members, the Act prescribes a code of conduct that lays down principles of polite behavior, respect for elected authorities, and protection of the freedom of the civil servant to render advice freely and fearlessly. All these features are there in the Kerala Municipality Act as well.

The Kerala Panchayat Raj Act and Kerala Municipalities Act 1994 were thoroughly restructured in 1999 and several innovative features laying strong legal foundation for evolving genuine institutions of Local Self Government were built in. The list of various local self governments in the state of Kerala are given below:


Kasaragod districtEdit

Block Panchayats (6)[2]Edit

  1. Karadukka
  2. Manjeshwaram
  3. Kasaragod
  4. Kanhangad
  5. Parappa
  6. Neeleshwaram

Grama Panchayats (38) [3]Edit

  1. Kumbadaje
  2. Bellore
  3. Karadka
  4. Muliyar
  5. Delampady
  6. Bedadka
  7. Kuttikol
  8. Manjeswaram
  9. Vorkady
  10. Meenja
  11. Mangalpady
  12. Paivalige
  13. Puthige
  14. Enmakaje
  15. Kumbala
  16. Badiadka
  17. Mogral Puthur
  18. Madhur
  19. Chemnad
  20. Chengala
  21. Udma
  22. Pallikara
  23. Ajanur
  24. Pullur Periya
  25. Madikai
  26. Kodom Belur
  27. Kallar
  28. Panathady
  29. Balal
  30. Kinanur karinthalam
  31. West Eleri
  32. East Eleri
  33. Kayyur cheemeni
  34. Cheruvathur
  35. Valiyaparamba
  36. Padne
  37. Pilicode
  38. Thrikaripur

Kannur districtEdit

Block Panchayats (11) [4]Edit

  1. Koothuparambu
  2. Peravoor
  3. Panoor
  4. Edakkad
  5. Irikkur
  6. Payyanur
  7. Kalliasseri
  8. Taliparamba
  9. Kannur
  10. Iritty
  11. Thalassery

Grama Panchayats (71)[5]Edit

  1. Kunjimangalam
  2. Ramanthali
  3. Kankol - Alappadamba
  4. Karivellur - Peralam
  5. Eramom - Kuttoor
  6. Peringome - Vayakkara
  7. Cherupuzha
  8. Cheruthazham
  9. Ezhom
  10. Madayi
  11. Mattool
  12. Cherukunnu
  13. Kalliasseri
  14. Kannapuram
  15. Narath
  16. Pattuvom
  17. Chengalayi
  18. Kurumathur
  19. Pariyaram
  20. Chapparapadavu
  21. Naduvil
  22. Udayagiri
  23. Alakkode
  24. Kadannappally - Panappuzha
  25. Irikkur
  26. Eruvessi
  27. Malappattam
  28. Payyavoor
  29. Kuttiyatoor
  30. Mayyil
  31. Padiyoor
  32. Ulickal
  33. Pappinisseri
  34. Chirakkal
  35. Valapatanam
  36. Azheekode
  37. Kolacheri
  38. Kadambur
  39. Chempilode
  40. Munderi
  41. Peralassery
  42. Anjarakandi
  43. Muzhappilangad
  44. Dharmadam
  45. Eranjoli
  46. Pinarayi
  47. New Mahee
  48. Vengad
  49. Kottayam
  50. Thrippangottur
  51. Chittariparamba
  52. Kunnothuparambu
  53. Mangattidam
  54. Pattiyam
  55. Kathiroor
  56. Chokli
  57. Mokeri
  58. Panniyannur
  59. Aaralam
  60. Ayyankunnu
  61. Keezhallur
  62. Thillankeri
  63. Koodali
  64. Payam
  65. Kanichar
  66. Kelakam
  67. Kottiyoor
  68. Muzhakkunnu
  69. Kolayad
  70. Maloor
  71. Peravoor

Wayanad districtEdit

Block Panchayats (4)[6]Edit

  1. Sulthan Betheri
  2. Mananthavadi
  3. Kalpatta
  4. Panamaram

Grama Panchayats (23)[7]Edit

  1. Vellamunda
  2. Thirunelli
  3. Thondernad
  4. Edavaka
  5. Thavinhal
  6. Nenmeni
  7. Noolpuzha
  8. Ambalavayal
  9. Meenangadi
  10. Vengapally
  11. Pozhuthana
  12. Vythiri
  13. Thariyode
  14. Meppadi
  15. Muppainad
  16. Kottathara
  17. Muttil
  18. Padinjarathara
  19. Panamaram
  20. Kaniyampatta
  21. Poothadi
  22. Pulppalli
  23. Mullankolly

Kozhikode districtEdit

Block Panchayats (12)[8]Edit

  1. Vatakara
  2. Thuneri
  3. Kunnummal
  4. Thodannur
  5. Melady
  6. Perambra
  7. Balussery
  8. Koduvally
  9. Panthalayani
  10. Chelannur
  11. Kunnamangalam
  12. Kozhikode

Grama Panchayats (70)[9]Edit

  1. Azhiyur
  2. Chorode
  3. Eramala
  4. Onchiyam
  5. Chekiad
  6. Purameri
  7. Thuneri
  8. Valayam
  9. Vanimel
  10. Edacheri
  11. Nadapuram
  12. Kunnummal
  13. Velom
  14. Kayakkodi
  15. Kavilumpara
  16. Kuttiadi
  17. Maruthonkara
  18. Narippatta
  19. Ayancheri
  20. Villiappally
  21. Maniyur
  22. Thiruvallur
  23. Thurayur
  24. Keezhariyur
  25. Thikkodi
  26. Meppayur
  27. Cheruvannur
  28. Nochad
  29. Changaroth
  30. Kayanna
  31. Koothali
  32. Perambra
  33. Chakkittappara
  34. Balussery
  35. Naduvannur
  36. Kottur
  37. Ulliyeri
  38. Unnikulam
  39. Panangad
  40. Koorachundu
  41. Chemancheri
  42. Arikkulam
  43. Moodadi
  44. Chengottukavu
  45. Atholi
  46. Kakkodi
  47. Chelannur
  48. Kakkur
  49. Nanmanda
  50. Narikkuni
  51. Thalakkulathur
  52. Thiruvambadi
  53. Koodaranhi
  54. Kizhakkoth
  55. Madavoor
  56. Puthuppadi
  57. Thamarassery
  58. Omassery
  59. Kattippara
  60. Kodancherry
  61. Kodiyathur
  62. Kuruvattur
  63. Mavoor
  64. Karassery
  65. Kunnamangalam
  66. Chathamangalam
  67. Peruvayal
  68. Perumanna
  69. Kadalundi
  70. Olavanna

Malappuram districtEdit

Block Panchayats (15) [10]Edit

  1. Nilambur
  2. Kottakkal
  3. Kondotty
  4. Wandoor
  5. Kalikkavu
  6. Areecode
  7. Malappuram
  8. Perinthalmanna
  9. Mankada
  10. Kuttipuram
  11. Tanur
  12. Tirur
  13. Vengara
  14. Tirurangadi
  15. Ponnani
  16. Perumpadappu

Grama Panchayats (94) [11]Edit

  1. Vazhikkadavu
  2. Pothukal
  3. Edakkara
  4. Moothedam
  5. Chunkathara
  6. Chaliyar
  7. Cherukavu
  8. Pallikkal
  9. Vazhayur
  10. Vazhakkad
  11. Pulickal
  12. Muthuvallur
  13. Chelembra
  14. Wandoor
  15. Thiruvali
  16. Mampad
  17. Poroor
  18. Pandikkad
  19. Thrikkalangode
  20. Kalikkavu
  21. Chokkad
  22. Karuvarakundu
  23. Thuvoor
  24. Amarambalam
  25. Karulayi
  26. Edapatta
  27. Areecode
  28. Oorngattiri
  29. Kavanur
  30. Keezhuparambu
  31. Kuzhimanna
  32. Cheekode
  33. Pulpatta
  34. Edavanna
  35. Anakkayam
  36. Morayur
  37. Ponmala
  38. Pookottur
  39. Othukkungal
  40. Kodur
  41. Aliparambu
  42. Elamkulam
  43. Melattur
  44. Keezhattur
  45. Thazhekkad
  46. Vettathur
  47. Pulamanthole
  48. Angadipuram
  49. Kuruva
  50. Koottilangadi
  51. Puzhakkatiri
  52. Moorkkanad
  53. Makkaraparambu
  54. Mankada
  55. Athavanad
  56. Edayur
  57. Irumbiliyam
  58. Marakkara
  59. Kuttipuram
  60. Kalpakancheri
  61. Ponmundam
  62. Cheriyamundam
  63. Ozhur
  64. Niramaruthur
  65. Thanaloor
  66. Valavanoor
  67. Perumanna Clari
  68. A.R. Nagar
  69. Parappur
  70. Thennala
  71. Vengara
  72. Kannamangalam
  73. Oorakam
  74. Edarikode
  75. Nannambra
  76. Munniyoor
  77. Thenjipalam
  78. Vallikunnu
  79. Peruvallur
  80. Purathur
  81. Mangalam
  82. Thrippangode
  83. Vettom
  84. Thalakkad
  85. Thirunavaya
  86. Thavanoor
  87. Vattamkulam
  88. Edappal
  89. Kaladi
  90. Alangode
  91. Maranjeri
  92. Nannamukku
  93. Perumpadappu
  94. Veliyangode

Palakkad districtEdit

Block Panchayats (13) [12]Edit

  1. Thrithala
  2. Pattambi
  3. Ottappalam
  4. Sreekrishnapuram
  5. Mannarkkad
  6. Attapadi
  7. Palakkad
  8. Kuzhalmandam
  9. Chittur
  10. Kollengode
  11. Nenmara
  12. Malampuzha
  13. Alathur

Grama Panchayats (88) [13]Edit

  1. Anakkara
  2. Chalisseri
  3. Kappur
  4. Nagalassery
  5. Pattithara
  6. Thirumittakkode
  7. Thrithala
  8. Koppam
  9. Kulukkallur
  10. Muthuthala
  11. Ongallur
  12. Thiruvegapppura
  13. Vilayoor
  14. Paruthoor
  15. Ambalappara
  16. Ananganadi
  17. Chalavara
  18. Lekkidi Peroor
  19. Vaniyamkulam
  20. Thrukkadeeri
  21. Vallappuzha
  22. Nellaya
  23. Kadmpazhipuram
  24. Karimpuzha
  25. Sreekrishnapuram
  26. Vellinezhi
  27. Karakurissi
  28. Thachanattukara
  29. Pookottukavu
  30. Alanallur
  31. Karimpa
  32. Kottopadam
  33. Kumaramputhur
  34. Kanjirapuzha
  35. Thachampara
  36. Thenkara
  37. Agali
  38. Puthoor
  39. Sholayoor
  40. Pirayiri
  41. Mundoor
  42. Kongad
  43. Keralassery
  44. Mannur
  45. Mankara
  46. Parali
  47. Kottayi
  48. Kuthanoor
  49. Kuzhalmannam
  50. Mathoor
  51. Peringottukurissi
  52. Thenkurissi
  53. Kannadi
  54. Eruthempathi
  55. Kozhinjampara
  56. Nalleppilly
  57. Perumatty
  58. Vadakarapathy
  59. Elappulli
  60. Polppulli
  61. Kollamkode
  62. Koduvayur
  63. Muthalamada
  64. Puthunagaram
  65. Vatavannur
  66. Peruvempu
  67. Pattancheri
  68. Ayiloor
  69. Nelliyampathy
  70. Elavancheri
  71. Pallassena
  72. Melarkode
  73. Nenmara
  74. Vandazhi
  75. Akathethara
  76. Malampuzha
  77. Marutha Road
  78. Puthupariyaram
  79. Puthussery
  80. Kodumpu
  81. Alathur
  82. Erimayur
  83. Kavassery
  84. Kizhakkanchery
  85. Puthukkode
  86. Tharoor
  87. Vadakkanchery
  88. Kannambra

Thrissur districtEdit

Block Panchayats (16) [14]Edit

  1. Chavakkad
  2. Chowannur
  3. Wadakkanchery
  4. Pazhayannur
  5. Ollukkara
  6. Puzhakkal
  7. Mullassery
  8. Thalikulam
  9. Mathilakam
  10. Anthikkad
  11. Cherpu
  12. Kodakara
  13. Irinjalakuda
  14. Vellangallur
  15. Mala
  16. Chalakudy

Grama Panchayats (86) [15]Edit

  1. Kadappuram
  2. Orumanayur
  3. Punnayur
  4. Punnayurkulam
  5. Vadakkekad
  6. Choondal
  7. Chowannur
  8. Kadavallur
  9. Kandanassery
  10. Kattakampal
  11. Porkulam
  12. Kadangode
  13. Velur
  14. Desamangalam
  15. Erumapetty
  16. Mulloorkara
  17. Thekkumkara
  18. Varavoor
  19. Chelakkara
  20. Vallathol Nagar
  21. Kondazhy
  22. Panjal
  23. Pazhayannur
  24. Thiruvilwamala
  25. Madakkathara
  26. Nadathara
  27. Pananchery
  28. Puthur
  29. Adat
  30. Avanoor
  31. Kaiparambu
  32. Mulamkunnathukavu
  33. Tholur
  34. Kolazhy
  35. Elavally
  36. Mullassery
  37. Pavaratty
  38. Venkidangu
  39. Engandiyur
  40. Vadanappilly
  41. Thalikulam
  42. Nattika
  43. Valappad
  44. Edathiruthy
  45. Kaipamangalam
  46. Mathilakam
  47. Perinjanam
  48. Sreenarayanapuram
  49. Edavilangu
  50. Eriyad
  51. Anthikad
  52. Thanniam
  53. Chazhoor
  54. Manalur
  55. Arimbur
  56. Avinissery
  57. Cherpu
  58. Paralam
  59. Vallachira
  60. Alagapanagar
  61. Kodakara
  62. Mattathur
  63. Nenmanikkara
  64. Pudukkad
  65. Thrikkur
  66. Varantharappilly
  67. Karalam
  68. Kattur
  69. Muriyad
  70. Parappukkara
  71. Padiyur
  72. Poomangalam
  73. Puthenchira
  74. Vellangallur
  75. Velukkara
  76. Aloor
  77. Annamanada
  78. Kuzhur
  79. Mala
  80. Poyya
  81. Kadukutty
  82. Kodadssery
  83. Koratty
  84. Melur
  85. Pariyaram
  86. Athirappilly

Ernakulam districtEdit

Block Panchayats (14) [16]Edit

  1. Alangad
  2. Angamaly
  3. Edappally
  4. Koovappady
  5. Kothamangalam
  6. Mulanthuruthy
  7. Muvattupuzha
  8. Palluruthy
  9. Pampakuda
  10. Parakkadavu
  11. Paravur
  12. Vadavucode
  13. Vazhakulam
  14. Vypin

Grama SabhaEdit

Kerala has created a three-tier in the form of Grama Sabhas equated with the electoral constituency of a Village Panchayat All the electors of the Ward are members of the Grama Sabha. It is an attempt to create a new set up for direct democracy – involving the people of the ward. The Grama Sabhas have been given clear rights and responsibilities with absolute powers for identification of beneficiaries, strong advisory powers for prioritizing developmental needs and wide powers of social audit.[17]

Functions of local governmentsEdit

The 11th Schedule of the Constitution of India lists out developmental areas where local governments should have a role in planning for economic development and social justice and in the implementation of such plans. Unlike many other States, Kerala State defined the functional areas of the different tiers of local governments so precisely. In infrastructure and management of public institutions, the functional differentiation is sharp and clear, but in productive sectors the functions could not be earmarked clearly for each tier. There is a clear recognition that there is a role-range for local governments as Agent, Adviser, Manager, Partner and Actor – with the objective being to reduce the agency role and expand the autonomous – actor role. The Kerala Act classifies functions as mandatory functions, general functions and sector-wise functions. in its schedules.

According to a study Dr Martin Patrick (Chief Economist) CPPR, "Gram panchayats are performing better when compared to their performance three decades earlier but they are still not meeting expected standards in generating own funds with which they can plan their own special projects, s Steps need to be taken to generate own assets by collecting more non-tax revenue, particularly collecting potential building and professional tax"[18]

Committee SystemEdit

All Village and Block Panchayats have three Standing Committees and the District Panchayat five Standing Committees. The Standing Committees are constituted in such a way that every Member of the Panchayat gets a chance to function in one Standing Committee or the other. Each Standing Committee is assigned certain subjects and these Committees are expected to go into the subject areas both at the planning and implementation stage in great detail. For the purpose of co-ordination, a steering committee is constituted consisting of the President and Vice President of the Panchayat and the Chairpersons of Standing Committees. In addition, there are Functional Committees for different subjects which can include experts and practitioners and the Panchayats are free to constitute Sub Committees to assist the Standing Committee or Functional Committee. There is also provision for constitution of Joint Committees with neighbouring Local Governments.

The Role of State GovernmentEdit

The amended Kerala Panchayat Raj & Municipality Acts drastically reduces the powers of direct governmental control over Panchayat Raj Institutions. While Government can issue general guidelines regarding national and State policies it cannot meddle in day-to-day affairs or individual decisions. The Government can cancel resolutions of the Panchayat only through a process and in consultation with the Ombudsman or Appellate Tribunal according to the subject matter of the resolution. Similarly a Panchayat can be dissolved directly by government, only if it fails to pass the budget or if majority of its members have resigned. In all other cases a due process has to be followed and the Ombudsman has to be consulted before dissolution takes place. This is a unique feature which does not exist even in Center-State relations.

Independent Oversight InstitutionsEdit

To reduce governmental control and foster growth of self-government as envisaged in the Constitution, the Act provides for creation of independent institutions to deal with various aspects of local government functioning. They are listed below:-[19]

  • The State Election Commission. The Election Commission has been given powers which go beyond those required for the conduct of elections. It is empowered to involve in delimitation of Wards as a member of the Delimiation Committee. Delimitation of wards was formerly done through the executive. The Commission has been given powers to disqualify defectors.
  • The State Finance Commission. This has been given the mandate as required by the Constitution. The first SFC was constituted in 1994 and the second SFC in 1999.
  • Ombudsman for Local Governments. This is a high power institution which has been given vast powers to check malfeasance in local governments in the discharge of developmental functions.
  • Tribunal for Local Governments. These are to be constituted at the Regional/District level to take care of appeals by citizens against decisions of the local government taken in the exercise of their regulatory role like issue of licence, grant of permit etc.
  • State Development Council. This is headed by the Chief Minister and consists of the entire Cabinet, Leader of opposition, Vice-Chairman of the State Planning Board, the Chief Secretary, all the District Panchayat Presidents who are also Chairperson of District Planning Committee and representatives of other tiers of local governments. This institution is expected to take the lead in policy formulation and in sorting out operation issues.

Extent of DecentralizationEdit

The extent of decentralization and its nature can be gauged from the following facts:

  • In the Health sector all institutions other than medical colleges and big regional speciality hospitals have been placed under the control of the local governments.
  • In the Education sector, in rural areas the high schools and upper primary schools have been transferred to the District Panchayats and the primary schools have been transferred to village Panchayats; in urban areas, all schools have been transferred to the urban local governments.
  • The entire responsibility of poverty alleviation has gone to the local governments; all the centrally sponsored anti-poverty programmes are planned and implemented through them.
  • As regards Social welfare, barring statutory functions relating to juvenile justice, the entire functions have gone to local governments. The ICDS is fully implemented by Village Panchayats and Urban Local Governments. Care of the disabled, to a substantial degree has become a local government responsibility.
  • In the Agriculture and allied sectors, the de facto and de jure local government functions are Agricultural extension including farmer oriented support for increasing production and productivity, Watershed management and minor irrigation, Dairy development, Animal Husbandry including veterinary care & Inland fisheries.
  • Barring highways and major district roads, connectivity has become local government responsibility.
  • The whole of sanitation and most of rural water supply have moved over to local governments.
  • Promotion of tiny, cottage and small industries is mostly with the local governments.
  • All the welfare pensions are administered by the local governments.[20]

Present scenarioEdit

In short, most of the responsibilities relating to human and social development have been passed down to local governments. Welfare and poverty reduction are now largely dependent on local governments who also have considerable area of responsibility in the primary sector.

Local infrastructure creation is also largely in the domain of Panchayats and Nagarapalikas. Critical institutions of public service like hospitals, schools, anganwadis, veterinary institutions, Krishi Bhawans, hostels for Scheduled Castes and Care institutions for different disadvantaged groups have been transferred to local governments on as is where is condition. The responsibility of local governments which are typical of a non-plan nature in respect of these institutions include -

  1. routine and heavy maintenance of infrastructure
  2. upkeep and maintenance of equipment
  3. replenishment of consumables
  4. administrative charges relating to telephone, water, electricity, fuel etc.
  5. noon-meal cost in schools.

Proposed reformsEdit

The Second Administrative Reforms Commission, set up on 31 August 2005 to prepare a detailed blue print for revamping the public administration system, suggested measures to achieve a proactive, responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administration at all levels of the country in the country, including the local government system, submitted its sixth report exclusively on local governance under the title Local Governance: An Inspiring Journey into the future [1]. A brief summary of the report is there in the article[21]

Kerala Grama Panchayat AssociationEdit

Kerala has a Grama Panchayath Association, formed under the Kerala Government Order No 85191/pt.sppl.1/66 & R D D on 29 December 1966 as an association of Grama Panchayaths. All Grama Panchayaths are affiliated to the Grama Panchayath Association. The Kerala Grama Panchayath Association has responsibility in strengthening decentralization process and local governance in Kerala. For the purpose, the association organizes necessary research activities, Studies, action Researches, some study models and conduct discussions, seminars, training etc., on issues confronting panchayaths in the state.

E-GovernanceEdit

E-DistrictEdit

Kerala E-District project intends to provide Government services to citizens through Common Service Centers(CSC) which are easily accessible. Services from different departments are brought under one umbrella at any CSC. Some of the services are also made available through online portal. It utilizes backend computerization to e-enable the delivery of services and ensures transparency and uniform application of rules. The project involves integrated and seamless delivery of services to public by automation, integration and incorporating Business Process Re-Engineering(BPR) where ever required. In a nutshell E-District is a tailor-made program for minimizing effort and time to provide prompt and effective services to the public.

E-GramEdit

Honourable Chief Minister of Kerala Shri. Oommen Chandy has declared Pampakuda panchayat, Ernakulam as the first digital panchayat in Kerala on 28 June 2014. Pampakuda panchayat has achieved this feat by digitalizing over 18,000 citizens' survey data with the help of E-Gram, a software built by a private IT company operating in Technolodge Piravom.

E-Gram is a cloud based platform built exclusively for Gram Panchayats and is a data analytic tool which stores and analyses all information regarding people in a panchayat. E-Gram generates real-time analytics on population, literacy rate, male-female ratio, poverty threshold, internet penetration, access to electricity, access to clean water, healthcare etc. E-Gram's objective is to make panchayats more efficient, transparent and symbols of modernity by leveraging ICT at the cutting edge level to ensure transparency and accountability in their functioning through disclosure of information, social audit, efficient delivery of services and improving internal processes and management of panchayats. E-Gram has built-in SMS functionality which helps interact with people faster. This helps panchayats to roll out benefits, announcements, or even acknowledgement receipts for certificates in Malayalam. This automated SMS service can also send reminder SMSs to citizens who are due to pay their taxes.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Local body institutions in Kerala (1995-2015)". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 12 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ "Block Panchayats of Kasaragod". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Kasaragod". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Block Panchayats of Kannur". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Kannur". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Block Panchayats of Wayanad". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Wayanad". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Block Panchayats of Kozhikode". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Kozhikode". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ "Block Panchayats of Malappuram". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Malappuram". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. ^ "Block Panchayats of Palakkad". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Palakkad". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. ^ "Block Panchayats of Thrissur". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. ^ "Grama Panchayats of Thrissur". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  16. ^ "Block Panchayats of Ernakulam". lsgkerala.gov.in. Retrieved 11 March 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. ^ Status of Grama Sabha / Ward Sabha in Kerala
  18. ^ "Kerala panchayats performing better but not generating adequate funds: Study – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  19. ^ Local Governments in Kerala : Reforms, Decentralized Development & Local Government Finances, Mulagunnathukavu, Kerala Institute of Local Administration, 2003 Contents
  20. ^ See Economic Review 2001 of the Kerala State Planning Board
  21. ^ See K Rajasekharan: Reforming Local Governance in India : A New Paradigm for Development In T M Joseph, Ed : New Governance Paradigm : Issues in Development P327 - 346, Delhi, Kalpaz Publications, 2008

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