Little Lord Fauntleroy

Little Lord Fauntleroy is a novel by Frances Hodgson Burnett. It was published as a serial in St. Nicholas Magazine from November 1885 to October 1886, then as a book by Scribner's (the publisher of St. Nicholas) in 1886.[2] The illustrations by Reginald B. Birch set fashion trends and the novel set a precedent in copyright law when Burnett won a lawsuit in 1888 against E. V. Seebohm over the rights to theatrical adaptations of the work.[3]

Little Lord Fauntleroy
First edition cover
AuthorFrances Hodgson Burnett
IllustratorReginald B. Birch[1]
LanguageEnglish
GenreChildren's novel
PublisherScribner's
Publication date
November 1885 – October 1886 (magazine)
1886 (novel)
Publication placeUnited Kingdom
United States
Pagesxi + 209 + [17][1]
LC ClassPZ7.B934 L[1]

Etymology

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The title surname Fauntleroy is an Anglo-French term ultimately derived from Le enfant le roy ("child of the king"), evoking the image of being pampered and spoiled. More proximally, it is from a Middle English variant faunt from enfaunt, meaning child or infant. It is attested as a real surname since the 13th century.[4]

Plot

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In a shabby New York City side street in the mid-1880s, young Cedric Errol lives with his mother (known to him as "Dearest") in genteel poverty after the death of his father, Captain Cedric Errol. One day, they are visited by a British lawyer named Liam with a message from young Cedric's paternal grandfather, the Earl of Dorincourt, a millionaire who despises the United States and was very disappointed when his youngest son married an American woman. With the deaths of his father's elder brothers, Cedric has now inherited the title Lord Fauntleroy and is the heir to the earldom and a vast estate. Cedric's grandfather wants him to live in the United Kingdom and be educated as a British aristocrat. He offers his son's widow a house and guaranteed income, but refuses to have anything else to do with her, even after she declines his money.

However, the Earl is impressed by the appearance and intelligence of his American grandson and is charmed by his innocent nature. Cedric believes his grandfather to be an honorable man and benefactor, and the Earl cannot disappoint him. The Earl therefore becomes a benefactor to his tenants, to their delight, though he takes care to let them know that their benefactor is the child, Lord Fauntleroy.

Meanwhile, back in New York, a homeless bootblack named Dick Tipton tells Cedric's old friend Mr. Hobbs, a New York City grocer, that a few years prior, after the death of his parents, Dick's older brother Benjamin married an awful woman who got rid of their only child together after he was born and then left. Benjamin moved to California to open a cattle ranch while Dick ended up in the streets. At the same time, a neglected pretender to Cedric's inheritance appears in the United Kingdom, the pretender's mother claiming that he is the offspring of the Earl's eldest son, Bevis. The claim is investigated by Dick and Benjamin, who come to the United Kingdom and recognize the woman as Benjamin's former wife. She flees, and the Tipton brothers and the pretender, Benjamin's son, do not see her again. Afterward, Benjamin goes back to his cattle ranch in California where he happily raises his son by himself. The Earl is reconciled to his American daughter-in-law, realizing that she is far superior to the impostor.

The Earl had planned to teach his grandson how to be an aristocrat. Instead, Cedric teaches his grandfather that an aristocrat should practice compassion towards those dependent on him. The Earl becomes the man Cedric always innocently believed him to be. Cedric is happily reunited with his mother and with Mr. Hobbs, who decides to stay to help look after Cedric.

Impact on fashion

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An illustration by Birch from 1886
 
Lobby card from the 1921 film adaptation starring Mary Pickford

The Fauntleroy suit[5] (see also Buster Brown suit), so well described by Burnett and realised in Reginald Birch's detailed pen-and-ink drawings, created a fad for formal dress for American middle-class children:

What the Earl saw was a graceful, childish figure in a black velvet suit, with a lace collar, and with lovelocks waving about the handsome, manly little face, whose eyes met his with a look of innocent good-fellowship.

— Little Lord Fauntleroy

The Fauntleroy suit appeared in Europe as well but nowhere was it as popular as in America. The classic Fauntleroy suit was a velvet cut-away jacket and matching knee pants, worn with a fancy blouse and a large lace or ruffled collar. These suits appeared right after the publication of Burnett's story (1885) and were a major fashion for boys until after the turn of the 20th century. Many boys who did not wear an actual Fauntleroy suit wore suits with Fauntleroy elements, such as a fancy blouse or floppy bow. Only a minority of boys wore ringlet curls with these suits, but the photographic record confirms that many boys did.[further explanation needed]

It was most popular for boys about 3–8 years of age, but some older boys wore them as well. It has been speculated that the popularity of the style encouraged many mothers to breech their boys earlier than before, and it was a factor in the decline of the fashion for dressing small boys in dresses and other skirted garments.[6] Clothing that Burnett popularised was modelled on the costumes which she tailored herself for her two sons, Vivian and Lionel.[3]

Reception

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Polly Hovarth writes that Little Lord Fauntleroy "was the Harry Potter of his time and Frances Hodgson Burnett was as celebrated for creating him as J. K. Rowling is for Potter". During the serialisation in St. Nicholas magazine, readers looked forward to new installments. The fashions in the book became popular with velvet Lord Fauntleroy suits being sold, as well as other Fauntleroy merchandise such as velvet collars, playing cards, and chocolates. During a period when sentimental fiction was the norm, and in the United States the "rags to riches" story popular, Little Lord Fauntleroy was a hit.[7]

Edith Nesbit included in her own children's book The Enchanted Castle (1907) a rather unflattering reference:

Gerald could always make himself look interesting at a moment's notice (...) by opening his grey eyes rather wide, allowing the corners of his mouth to droop, and assuming a gentle, pleading expression, resembling that of the late little Lord Fauntleroy who must, by the way, be quite old now, and an awful prig.

Adaptations

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Stage

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Elsie Leslie in the Broadway production of Little Lord Fauntleroy (1888).
 
Broadway cast listed in The Theatre.

The first stage adaptation of Hodgson's novel, titled simply Little Lord Fauntleroy, opened at the Prince of Wales' Theatre in London on 23 Feb 1888[8]. Written by E.V. Seebohm, the piece in three acts was "suggested by Mrs F. H, Burnett's story"[9], starred Annie Hughes as Cedric and played only a short season of matinees. After discovering her novel had been plagiarized for the stage, Burnett successfully sued and then wrote her own theatrical adaptation titled The Real Little Lord Fauntleroy. Opening on 14 May, at Terry's Theatre in London it played for 57 matinees [10] and was subsequently presented in the English provinces, France, Boston and New York City.[11]

The Broadway production of Burnett's play opened on 10 December 1888, at the Broadway Theatre, New York City.[12][13] The original cast follows:

  • Earl of Dorincourt – J. H. Gilmour
  • Cedric Errol (Lord Fauntleroy) – Elsie Leslie and Tommy Russell
  • Mr. Havisham, a Solicitor – F. F. Mackay
  • Mr. Hobbs, a Grocer – George A. Parkhurst
  • Dick, a Bootblack – Frank E. Lamb
  • Higgins, a Farmer – John Swinburne
  • Wilkins, a Groom – Alfred Klein
  • Thomas, a Footman – John Sutherland
  • James, a Servant – T. J. Plunkett
  • Mrs. Errol ("Dearest") – Kathryn Kidder
  • Minna – Alice Fischer
  • Mary – Effie Germon

Touring versions of the play were common in the late 19th and early 20th century. A 1906 version cast 11-year-old Buster Keaton in the role of Lord Fauntleroy.[14]

In 1994, an Australian open-air/site specific theatre production of Little Lord Fauntleroy, adapted by Julia Britton and directed by Robert Chuter, was presented in the historical gardens of the National Trust of Australia (Victoria) property Rippon Lea.[citation needed]

Film and television

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Dolores Costello and Freddie Bartholomew in Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936)

References

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  1. ^ a b c "Little Lord Fauntleroy". LC Online Catalog. Library of Congress (lccn.loc.gov). Retrieved 2016-02-29.
  2. ^ Joanne Shattock, ed. The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature: Volume 4 1800–1900. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 1475.
  3. ^ a b Rutherford
  4. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Etymology of fauntleroy". www.etymonline.com.
  5. ^ "Children wearing velvet suits inspired by Little Lord Fauntleroy style (c. 1909–1932) National Photo Company Collection; Library of Congress". Library of Congress. 1909.
  6. ^ "Historical boys Clothing site section on Fauntleroy suits". Histclo.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  7. ^ Hovarth, (2004), xi–xiv
  8. ^ Clarence, Reginald (1909). "The Stage" Cyclopaedia - A Bibiography of Plays. New York: Burt Franklin. p. 253.
  9. ^ Theatre programme: Little Lord Fauntleroy, Prince of Wales' Theatre.
  10. ^ Clarence, Reginald (1909). "The Stage" Cyclopaedia - A Bibliography of Plays. New York: Burt Franklin. p. 377.
  11. ^ McCarthy, Tom (November 1970). "The Real Little Lord Fauntleroy". American Heritage. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  12. ^ Burnett, Frances Hodgson (1913). Burnett, Frances Hodgson Little Lord Fauntleroy: A Drama in Three Acts, 1889/1913. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  13. ^ Little Lord Fauntleroy – Internet Broadway Database accessed 6.7.13
  14. ^ O’Brien, Geoffrey (20 October 2022). "Keep Your Eye on the Kid". New York Review of Books. 69 (16).
  15. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy" (1914) in Internet Movie Database
  16. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (1914)". BFI. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  17. ^ "A kis lord" (1918) in Internet Movie Database.
  18. ^ "A Kis lord". www.tcm.com. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  19. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy" (1921) in Internet Movie Database.
  20. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy". www.tcm.com. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  21. ^ L'ultimo lord (1932) in Internet Movie Database.
  22. ^ "L'ultimo lord (1926)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  23. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy" in Internet Movie Database.
  24. ^ Nugent, Frank S. (3 April 1936). "' Little Lord Fauntleroy,' a Pleasant Film Version of the Familiar Novel, at the Music Hall". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  25. ^ "Il ventesimo duca" in Internet Movie Database.
  26. ^ "Il ventesimo duca (1945) - Cast & Crew on MUBI". mubi.com. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  27. ^ "Richard O'Sullivan" in Internet Movie Database.
  28. ^ "BBC Programme Index". genome.ch.bbc.co.uk. 17 September 1957. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  29. ^ "Il piccolo lord (1960)" in Internet Movie Database.
  30. ^ "Il piccolo lord (1960)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  31. ^ "Manfred Kunst" in Internet Movie Database.
  32. ^ "Gøsta Hagenlund" in Internet Movie Database.
  33. ^ "Der kleine Lord (1962)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  34. ^ "Il piccolo lord (1971)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  35. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (1976)" in Internet Movie Database.
  36. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (1976)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  37. ^ "The Hour". google.com. Retrieved 1 February 2017 – via Google News Archive Search.
  38. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (1980)" in Internet Movie Database.
  39. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy". www.tcm.com. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  40. ^ "Umfrage: Die beliebtesten Weihnachtsfilme". Moviepilot.de. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  41. ^ "The Adventures of Little Lord Fauntleroy (1982)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  42. ^ "The Adventures of Little Lord Fauntleroy (1982)". BFI. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  43. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (TV) - Anime News Network". www.animenewsnetwork.com. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  44. ^ "Zweitausendeins. Filmlexikon FILME von A–Z – Der kleine Lord (1994 D/I)". Zweitausendeins.de. 18 December 1996. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  45. ^ "Der kleine Lord (Il piccolo lord) - 1994". Spielfilm.de (in German). Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  46. ^ "Little Lord Fauntleroy (1995)". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  47. ^ "Die kleine Lady". prisma.de. Retrieved 15 February 2014.

Sources

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  • Horvath, Polly (2004), "Foreword", Little Lord Fauntleroy, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-0-689-86994-5
  • Rutherford, L.M. (1994), "British Children's Writers 1880–1914", in Laura M. Zaldman, Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 141, Detroit: Gale Research Literature Resource Center
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