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Litoria is a genus of Hylidae tree frogs native to Australia, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Moluccan Islands, and Timor. They are sometimes collectively referred to as Australasian treefrogs. They are distinguishable from other tree frogs by the presence of horizontal irises, no pigmentation of the eyelids, and their Wallacean distribution. About 150 species are described, but several new species are described every year on average, most notably the Pinocchio frog, discovered in 2008 and described in 2019.[1][2]

Caerulea cropped(2).jpg
Australian Green tree frog (Litoria caerulea)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Pelodryadidae
Subfamily: Litoriinae
Genus: Litoria
Tschudi, 1838

Around 150, see text

The species within the genus Litoria are extremely variable in appearance, behaviour, and habitat. The smallest species is the javelin frog (L. microbelos), reaching a maximum length of 1.6 cm,[3][4] while the largest, the giant tree frog (L. infrafrenata), reaches a size of 13.5-14.0 cm. The appearance, behaviour, and habitat of each frog is usually linked. The small, darkly coloured frogs are generally terrestrial, and never, or infrequently, climb. The larger, green species are usually arboreal and some only venture to the ground to breed.



  1. ^
  2. ^ Richards, Stephen J.; Mumpuni, Mumpuni; Günther, Rainer; Oliver, Paul M. (2019-05-14). "Systematics of New Guinea treefrogs ( Litoria : Pelodryadidae) with erectile rostral spikes: an extended description of Litoria pronimia and a new species from the Foja Mountains". Zootaxa. 4604 (2): 335–348. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4604.2.6. ISSN 1175-5334.
  3. ^ Jean-Marc Hero, Dale Roberts, Paul Horner, Richard Retallick (2004). "Litoria microbelos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "Javelin Frog Litoria microbelos (Cogger 1966)". Government of Western Australia. 2013.
  5. ^ Anstis, Marion; Tyler, Michael J.; Roberts, Dale; Price, Luke C.; Doughty, Paul (2010). "A new species of Litoria (Anura: Hylidae) with a highly distinctive tadpole from the north-western Kimberley region of Western Australia" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2550: 39–57. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2550.1.3. hdl:2440/61497.
  6. ^ Mcdonald, Keith R.; Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Richards, Stephen J.; Frankham, Greta J (2016). "A new species of treefrog (Litoria) from Cape York Peninsula, Australia". Zootaxa. 4171 (1): 153–169. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4171.1.6. PMID 27701252.
  7. ^ Richards, Stephen J.; Oliver, Paul M.; Krey, Keliopas; Tjaturadi, Burhan (2009). "A new species of Litoria (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) from the foothills of the Foja Mountains, Papua Province, Indonesia". Zootaxa. 2277: 1–13.
  8. ^ Hoskin, Conrad J.; Hines, Harry B.; Meyer, Ed; Clarke, John; Cunningham, Michael (2013). "A new treefrog (Hylidae: Litoria) from Kroombit Tops, east Australia, and an assessment of conservation status". Zootaxa. 3646 (4): 426–446. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3646.4.6. PMID 26213773.