List of vassals prince peerages of Ming dynasty

After Hongwu Emperor of Ming dynasty succeeded the throne, he designated his eldest son, Zhu Biao as crown prince, and enfeoffed his all other sons and a grandnephew as vassals princes. Fiefs of nine of these princes were located at borders of Central and Mongol for defensive. Hongwu Emperor also posthumously bestowed his late patrilineal and matrilineal relatives with princely titles too.

This article shows all princes of Ming dynasty, included non-actual princes (male imperial members and nobles had not title).

Forefathers of House of ZhuEdit

For convenience to shows relationships of these imperial princes and emperors, this text will shows forefathers of Hongwu Emperor and their sons.

Birth name Spouse Temple name Posthumous name Birth & death dates Issue
Zhu Zhongba
Madan Chen
None ? -? Zhu Liu'er
Zhu Shi'er
Zhu Bailiu, Emperor Xuan
Zhu Bailiu
Empress Xuan
Zhu Siwu
Zhu Sijiu, Emperor
Zhu Sijiu
Empress Heng
Zhu Chuyi, Emperor Yu
Zhu Chu'er
Zhu Chuwu
Zhu Chushi
Zhu Chuyi
Empress Yu
Zhu Wuyi, Prince of Shouchun
Zhu Wu'er
A premature died son
Zhu Shizhen, Emperor Chun
Zhu Shizhen
Zhu Wusi
Empress Chun
1281 - 1344 Zhu Xinglong, Prince of Nanchang
(grandfather of Zhu Shouqian)
Zhu Xingsheng, Prince of Xuyi
Zhu Xingzu, Prince of Linhuai
Zhu Fonǚ (朱佛女), Princess Caoguo (曹國公主)
(paternal grandmother of Li Jinglong)
Princess Taiyuan (太原公主)
Hongwu Emperor

Numbers of actual peeragesEdit

1st rank princely peeragesEdit


By Southern MingEdit

  • By Longwu Emperor: 3 peerage, 2 from line of Prince of Tang, 1 from cadet peerage of line of Prince of Yi
  • By Zhu Yihai: 1 peerage, from cadet peerage of line of Prince of Ning

List of actual princely peeragesEdit

By Hongwu EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Qin (inherited)
  • Prince of Jing (晉) (inherited)
  • Prince of Yan (no inherited)
  • Prince of Zhou (inherited)
  • Prince of Chu (inherited)
  • Prince of Qi (no inherited)
  • Prince of Tan (No heir)
  • Prince of Lu (鲁) (inherited)
  • Prince of Jingjiang (inherited)
  • Prince of Shu (inherited)
  • Prince of Xiang (湘) (no heir)
  • Prince of Dai (inherited)
  • Prince of Su (inherited)
  • Prince of Liao (inherited)
  • Prince of Qing (inherited)
  • Prince of Ning (inherited)
  • Prince of Min (inherited)
  • Prince of Gu (no inherited)
  • Prince of Han (韩) (inherited)
  • Prince of Shen (inherited)
  • Prince of An (inherited)
  • Prince of Tang (inherited)
  • Prince of Yin (inherited)
  • Prince of Yi (inherited)

By Jianwen EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Wu (demoted to Comm. Prince of Guangze, no inherited)
  • Prince of Heng (demoted to Comm. Prince of Huai'en, no heir)
  • Prince of Xu (徐) (demoted to Comm. Prince of Fuhui & Comm. Prince of Ouning, no heir)

By Yongle EmperorEdit

By Hongxi EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Zheng (inherited)
  • Prince of Yue (no heir)
  • Prince of Xiang (inherited)
  • Prince of Jing (荊) (inherited)
  • Prince of Huai (inherited)
  • Prince of Teng (no heir)
  • Prince of Liang (no heir)
  • Prince of Wei (no heir)

By Xuande EmperorEdit

By Emperor YingzongEdit

  • Prince of De (inherited)
  • Prince of Xu (許) (no heir)
  • Prince of Xiu (no heir)
  • Prince of Chong (inherited)
  • Prince of Ji (inherited)
  • Prince of Xin (忻) (no heir)
  • Prince of Hui (徽) (inherited)

By Jingtai EmperorEdit

By Chenghua EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Xing (inherited & absorbed into the crown: Jiajing Emperor)
  • Prince of Qi (岐) (no heir)
  • Prince of Yi (益) (inherited)
  • Prince of Heng (2nd creation) (inherited)
  • Prince of Yong (雍) (no heir)
  • Prince of Shou (no heir)
  • Prince of Ru (no heir)
  • Prince of Jing (涇) (no heir)
  • Prince of Rong (2nd creation) (inherited)
  • Prince of Shen (no heir)

By Jiajing EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Yu (absorbed into the crown: Longqing Emperor)
  • Prince of Jing (景) (no heir)

By Longqing EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Lu (潞) (inherited)

By Wanli EmperorEdit

By Tianqi EmperorEdit

By Chongzhen EmperorEdit

  • Prince of Ding (abolished)
  • Prince of Yong (永) (abolished)

Posthumous imperial princes & non-title imperial princesEdit

After Hongwu Emperor enthroned, he had posthumously bestowed his brothers and patrilineal relatives with various 2nd-rank princely titles. Also, some imperial sons who died prematurely were posthumously bestowed with 1st-rank princely titles, but some of them also had not posthumous titles, too. Below shows all of the posthumous princes of the imperial house, include descendants of Zhu Biao & Southern Ming princes, but exclude matrilineal relatives of Hongwu Emperor and other nobles, as they cannot considered as members of the imperial house.

  • Noted: Bold names refers posthumous princes and non-title imperial princes

Line of Hongwu Emperor patrilineal relativesEdit

  • Zhu Zhongba, doesn't have posthumous title.
    • 1st son: Zhu Liu'er (朱六二), doesn't have posthumous title.
    • 2nd son: Zhu Qianshi (朱千十), doesn't have posthumous title.
    • 3rd son: Zhu Bailiu (朱百六), posthumously honoured as "Emperor Dezu Xuan" (德祖玄皇帝).
      • 1st son: Zhu Siwu (朱四五), doesn't have posthumous title.
      • 2nd son: Zhu Sijiu (朱四九), posthumously honoured as "Emperor Yizu Heng" (懿祖恆皇帝).
        • 1st son: Zhu Chuyi (朱初一), posthumously honoured as "Emperor Xizu Yu" (熙祖裕皇帝).
          • 1st son: Zhu Wuyi (朱五一), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Shouchun" (壽春王).
            • 1st son: Zhu Chongyi (朱重一), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Huoqiu" (霍丘王).
              • 1st son: Zhu Saige (朱賽哥), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Gaosha" (高沙王).
              • 2nd son: Zhu Tiege (朱鐵哥), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Shouchun" (壽春王).
            • 2nd son: Zhu Chong'er (朱重二), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Baoying" (寶應王).
            • 3rd son: Zhu Chongsan (朱重三), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Anfeng" (安豐王).
              • 1st son: Zhu Zhuan'er (朱轉兒), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Liu'an" (六安王).
              • 2nd son: Zhu Ji'er (朱記兒), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Lai'an" (來安王).
              • 3rd son: Zhu Sao'er (朱臊兒), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Dumeng" (都蒙王).
              • 4th son: Zhu Run'er (朱潤兒), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Yingshan" (英山王).
            • 4th son: Zhu Chongsi (朱重四), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Mengcheng" (蒙城王).
          • 2nd son: Zhu Wu'er (朱五二), doesn't have posthumous title.
          • 3rd son: Unnamed, died prematurely.
          • 4th son: Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍), named Zhu Wusi (朱五四) during his lifetime, posthumously honoured as "Emperor Renzu Chun" (仁祖淳皇帝).
        • 2nd son: Zhu Chu'er (朱初二), doesn't have posthumous title.
        • 3rd son: Zhu Chuwu (朱初五), also name Zhu Xiao (朱孝), doesn't have posthumous title.
        • 4th son: Zhu Chushi (朱初十), doesn't have posthumous title.

Line of Hongwu Emperor's brothersEdit

  • Zhu Shizhen, "Emperor Renzu Chun"
    • 1st son: Zhu Xinglong (朱興隆; died 1344), named Zhu Chongwu (朱重五) during his lifetime. Initially posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Yuzhang" (豫章王), later changed to "Prince of Nanchang" (南昌王)
      • 1st son: Zhu Shengbao (朱聖保), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Shanyang" (山陽王).
      • 2nd son: Zhu Wenzheng (朱文正; died 1365)
    • 2nd son: Zhu Xingsheng (朱興盛), named Zhu Chongliu (朱重六) during his lifetime. Posthumously bestowed as Prince of Xuyi (盱眙王).
      • Zhu Wang'er (朱旺兒), posthumously bestowed as "Prince of Zhaoxin" (昭信王).
    • 3rd son: Zhu Xingzu (朱興祖), named Zhu Chongqin (朱重七) during his lifetime. Posthumously bestowed as Prince of Linhuai (臨淮王).
    • 4th son:   Hongwu Emperor

Line of Ming emperorsEdit

  •   Hongwu Emperor
    • 1st son: Zhu Biao, Crown Prince Yiwen
      • 1st son: Zhu Xiongying (朱雄英), "Prince Huai of Yu" (虞懷王)
      • 2nd son:   Jianwen Emperor
        • 2nd son: Zhu Wengui (朱文圭), "Prince Huai of Run" (潤懷王)
    • 4th son:   Yongle Emperor
      • 1st son:   Hongxi Emperor
        • 1st son:   Xuande Emperor
          • 1st son:   Emperor Yingzong
            • 1st son:   Chenghua Emperor
              • 1st son: Unnamed
              • 3rd son:   Hongzhi Emperor
                • 2nd son: Zhu Houwei (朱厚煒), "Prince Dao of Wei" (蔚悼王)
              • 4th son: Zhu Youyuan
                • 1st son: Zhu Houxi (朱厚熙), Prince Huai of Yue
                • 2nd son:   Jiajing Emperor
                  • 3rd son:   Longqing Emperor
                    • 2nd son: Zhu Yiling (朱翊鈴), "Comm. Prince of Lantian" (藍田郡王), later changed to "Prince Dao of Jing" (靖悼王)
                    • 3rd son:   Wanli Emperor
                      • 1st son:   Taichang Emperor
                        • 2nd son: Zhu Youxue (朱由㰒), "Prince Huai of Jian" (簡懷王)
                        • 3rd son: Zhu Youji (朱由楫), "Prince Si of Qi" (齊思王)
                        • 4th son: Zhu Youmo (朱由模), "Prince Hui of Huai" (懷惠王)
                        • 5th son:   Chongzhen Emperor
                          • 5th son: Zhu Cixuan (朱慈烜), "Prince Yin of Huai" (懷隱王)
                          • 6th son: Zhu Cican (朱慈燦), "Prince Huai of Dao" (悼懷王)
                          • 7th son: "Prince Liang of Dao" (悼良王)
                        • 6th son: Zhu Youyi (朱由栩), "Prince Huai of Xiang" (湘懷王)
                        • 7th son: Zhu Youshan (朱由橏), "Prince Zhao of Hui" (慧昭王)
                      • 2nd son: Zhu Changxu (朱常漵), "Prince Ai of Bin" (邠哀王)
                      • 4th son: Zhu Changzhi (朱常治), "Prince Huai of Yuan" (沅懷王)
                      • 8th son: Zhu Changpu (朱常溥), "Prince Si of Yong" (永思王)
                  • 5th son: Zhu Zailu (朱載𪉖), "Prince Shang of Ying" (潁殤王)
                  • 6th son: Zhu Zai... (朱載 ), "Prince Huai of Qi" (戚懷王)
                  • 7th son: Zhu Zaikui (朱載㙺), "Prince Ai of Ji" (薊哀王)
                  • 8th son: Zhu Zai... (朱載 ), Prince Si of Jun (均思王)
              • 10th son: Unnamed
            • 3rd son: Zhu Jianshi (朱見湜), no posthumous title
        • 4th son: Zhu Zhanyin (朱瞻垠), "Comm. Prince of Jingle" (靜樂郡王), later changed to "Prince Xian of Qi" (蘄獻王)
      • 4th son: Zhu Gaoxi (朱高爔), no posthumous title
    • 26th son: Zhu Nan (朱楠), no posthumous title

Non-imperial princesEdit

According to the regulation of the Ming dynasty, only the imperial sons and other imperial clan members (excluded matrilineal relatives of the imperial house) can award princely titles. For non-imperial and nobles (excluded matrilineal relatives of the imperial house), the highest rank title can be awarded is “duke” (国公), they can only posthumously awarded the second-rank princely title after died. This regulation was carried out until the extinction of the Ming dynasty, and regimes of Hongguang Emperor and Longwu Emperor. During the reign of Yongli Emperor, he abolished the regulation under the force of Sun Kewang, and granted various princely titles to Sun Kewang, Li Dingguo, Zheng Chenggong (known as Koxinga) and other military officers of Southern Ming.

Posthumously bestowed in Ming dynastyEdit

  • Mr. Hou (侯), "Prince of Da" (大王), maternal great-great-grandfather of Hongwu Emperor
  • Mr. Wang (王), "Prince of Gao" (高王), maternal great grandfather of Hongwu Emperor
  • Mr. Chen (陳), "Prince of Yang" (揚王), maternal grandfather of Hongwu Emperor
  • Mr. Ma (馬). "Prince of Xu" (徐王), father of Empress Xiaocigao
  • Guo Zixing (郭子興), "Prince of Chuyang" (郭子興)
  • Xu Da, "Prince Wuning of Zhongshan" (中山武寧王), the 1st Duke of Wei (魏國公)
  • Chen Youren (陳友仁), "Prince Kangshan" (康山王), 4th brother of Chen Youliang
  • Chang Yuchun, "Prince Zhongwu of Kaiping" (開平忠武王)
  • Tang He, "Prince Xiangwu of Dong'ou" (東甌襄武王), the 1st Duke of Xin (信國公)
  • Deng Yu (鄧愈), "Prince Wushun of Ninghe" (寧河武順王), the 1st Duke of Wei (衛國公)
  • Zhu Yong (朱永), "Prince Wuzhuang of Xuanping"{ (宣平武莊王), 1st Duke of Bao, and son-in-law of Zhang Fu

Li Zhen's lineEdit

  • Li Zhen (李貞), "Prince Gongxian of Longxi" (隴西恭獻王), the 1st Duke of Cao (曹國公), husband of Zhu Fonu (sister of Hongwu Emperor)
    • Li Wenzhong (李文忠), "Prince Wujing of Qiyang" (岐陽武靖王), the 2nd Duke of Cao, maternal nephew of Hongwu Emperor and father of Li Jinglong

Mu Ying's lineEdit

  • Mu Ying, "Prince Zhaojing of Qianning (黔寧昭靖王), the 1st Marquess of Xiping (西平侯)
    • Mu Sheng, "Prince Zhongjing of Dingyuan" (定遠忠敬王), the 2nd Marquess of Xiping and later the 1st Duke of Qian (黔國公)

Zhang Yu's lineEdit

  • Zhang Yu (general), "Prince Zhongwu of Hejian" (河間忠武王), originally posthumously bestowed as "Duke of Rong" (榮國公)
    • Zhang Fu, "Prince Zhonglie of Dingxing" (定興忠烈王), the 1st Duke of Ying (英國公)
      • Zhang Mao (張懋), "Prince Gongjing of Ningyang (寧陽恭靖王), the 2nd Duke of Ying

Zhu Neng's lineEdit

  • Zhu Neng (朱能), "Prince Wulie of Dongping" (東平武烈王), the 1st Duke of Cheng (成國公)
    • Zhu Yong (朱勇), "Prince Wumin of Pingyin" (平陰武愍王), the 2nd Duke of Cheng
      • Unknown generation
        • Zhu Xizhong (朱希忠), "Prince Gongjing of Dingxiang" (定襄恭靖王), the Duke of Cheng


  1. ^ 明史》诸王传、诸王世表
  2. ^ 明实录
  3. ^ 弇山堂别集