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Stellar streams in the Milky Way, discovered in 2007

This is a list of stellar streams. A stellar stream is an association of stars orbiting a galaxy that was once a globular cluster or dwarf galaxy that has now been torn apart and stretched out along its orbit by tidal forces.

Contents

Local Group streamsEdit

Milky Way Galaxy streamsEdit

Known streams in the Milky Way[1]
Name Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Discovery year
Arcturus stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown Unknown Old stars deficient in heavy elements 1971[2]
Cetus Polar Stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown Unknown Old stars 2009 [3]
Magellanic Stream Large and Small Magellanic Clouds 200 million 1 million Hydrogen gas 1972
Sagittarius Stream Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy 100 million 1 million Wide variety of stars 1994
Helmi stream Defunct dwarf galaxy 10 to 100 million Several complete loops around the Milky Way Old stars deficient in heavy elements 1999
Palomar 5 stream Globular cluster Palomar 5 5,000 30,000 Old stars 2001
Virgo stream Defunct dwarf galaxy 30,000 2001
Monoceros ring Canis Major dwarf galaxy 100 million 200,000 Intermediate-age stars 2002
Anticenter stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown 30,000 Old stars 2006
NGC 5466 stream

45 Degree Tidal Stream

Globular cluster NGC 5466 10,000 60,000 Very old stars 2006[4][5]
Orphan stream Unknown (hence its name) Unknown [6] 20,000 Old stars 2006
Acheron stream Globular cluster 2007[4][7]
Cocytus stream Globular cluster 2007[4][7]
Lethe stream Globular cluster 2007[7]
Styx stream Defunct dwarf galaxy (Possibly Boötes III (dwarf galaxy)) 2007[4][7]
Bootes III stream Embedded in, & possible progenitor of Styx stream 2007[4][7]
Aquarius Stream Defunct dwarf galaxy Unknown 30,000 Old stars 2010
Lamost 1 disrupted globular cluster 21,000 intermediate age stars 2015[8]

Andromeda Galaxy streamsEdit

Known streams in the Andromeda Galaxy
Name Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Discovery year
M31 Giant
stellar stream
Andromeda NE
stellar stream[9]
2004
Tidal Stream Northwest (Tidal Stream E and F)[10] 2009
Tidal Stream Southwest[10] 2009

Streams beyond the Local GroupEdit

Other known streams outside the Local Group
Name Location Origin Mass
(Solar masses)
Length
(light years)
Composition Characteristics Discovery year
Young Blue Tidal Stream[11] NGC 5128 A gas fragment or
a dwarf galaxy
2002
NGC 4013[12] former dwarf satellite
with low inclination orbit
large looping structure 2008
NGC 5907[13] low-mass satellite accretion multiple surrounding loops 2009
NGC 4651[14] satellite accretion narrow jet-like structure and surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 1055[14] satellite accretion box shaped halo pierced by multiple spikes 2010
NGC 3521[14] satellite accretion jet-like structure and surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 7531[14] satellite accretion surrounding debris shell 2010
NGC 1084[14] satellite accretion three giant disconnected plumes of similar width 2010
NGC 4216[14] satellite accretion ongoing tidal disruption of satellite galaxies
seen as long tails extending from the progenitor satellite
2010
NGC 1055[14] satellite accretion clear box shaped inner halo sprinkled with a plethora of coherent spikes 2010

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ibata, Rodrigo; Gibson, Brad (April 2007). "The Ghosts of Galaxies Past". Scientific American. 296 (4): 40–45. Bibcode:2007SciAm.296d..40I. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0407-40. PMID 17479629. 
  2. ^ Ibata, Rodrigo; Gibson, Brad (April 2007). "The Ghosts of Galaxies Past". Scientific American. 296 (4): 40–45. Bibcode:2007SciAm.296d..40I. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0407-40. PMID 17479629. 
  3. ^ Heidi Jo Newberg; Yanny, Brian; Willett, Benjamin A. (July 2009). "Discovery of a New, Polar-Orbiting Debris Stream in the Milky Way Stellar Halo". The Astrophysical Journal. 700 (2): L61–L64. arXiv:0906.3291 . Bibcode:2009ApJ...700L..61N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/L61. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Rings around the galaxy". Astronomy. June 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  5. ^ Grillmair, C. J.; Johnson, R. (1 March 2006). "The Detection of a 45° Tidal Stream Associated with the Globular Cluster NGC 5466". The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (1): L17–L20. arXiv:astro-ph/0602602 . Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..17G. doi:10.1086/501439. 
  6. ^ Heidi Jo Newberg; Willett, Benjamin A.; Yanny, Brian; Xu, Yan (January 2010). "The Orbit of the Orphan Stream". The Astrophysical Journal. 711: 32–49. arXiv:1001.0576 . Bibcode:2010ApJ...711...32N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/711/1/32. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Four New Stellar Debris Streams in the Galactic Halo". The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 693, Issue 2, pp. 1118-1127. March 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  8. ^ Vickers, John J.; Smith, Martin C.; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong (2015). "LAMOST 1: A Disrupted Satellite in the Constellation Draco". The Astrophysical Journal. 816: L2. arXiv:1512.05090 . Bibcode:2016ApJ...816L...2V. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L2. 
  9. ^ A New Giant Stellar Structure in the Outer Halo of M31, by Zucker + 19 more, 8 Jan 2004 (retrieved on 15 Apr 2008)
  10. ^ a b New tidal streams found in Andromeda reveal history of galactic mergers
  11. ^ A Young Blue Tidal Stream in NGC 5128, Peng, Ford, Freeman, White, 22 Aug 2002, (retrieved on 15 Apr 2009)
  12. ^ Discovery of a Giant Stellar Tidal Stream Around the Disk Galaxy NGC 4013, D Martinez-Delgado, M Pohlen, R. Jay Gabany, S. R. Majewski, J Penarrubia, C Palma , 24 Oct 2008
  13. ^ Fossils of the Hierarchical formation of the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 5907, D Martinez-Delgado, J Penarrubia , R. Jay Gabany, I Trujillo, S. R. Majewski, M Pohlen, 13 Aug 2009
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Stellar Tidal Streams in Spiral Galaxies of the Local Volume: A Pilot Survey with Modest Aperture Telescopes, D Martinez-Delgado, R. J. GaBany, K Crawford, S Zibbeti, S. R. Majewski, H Rix, J Fliri, J Carballo-Bello, D. C. Bardalez-Gagliuffi, J Penarrubia, T. R. Chonis, I Trujillo, M Schirmer, D. A. McDavid, 25 March 2010

External linksEdit