List of premiers of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador is current title of the First Minister for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, which was at certain points in its history a colony, dominion, and province. The province had a system of responsible government from 1855 to 1934, and again since 1949. Newfoundland became a British crown colony in 1855, in 1907 it became a dominion, and in 1949, it became a province and joined Canadian Confederation. Since then, the province has been a part of the Canadian federation and has kept its own legislature to deal with provincial matters. The province was named Newfoundland and Labrador on April 1st 1949 .[1]

Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador

The province has a unicameral Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which the Premier is the leader of the party that controls the most seats in the House of Assembly. The Premier is Newfoundland and Labrador's head of government, and the Queen of Canada is its head of state and is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Premier picks a cabinet from the elected members to form the Executive Council of Newfoundland and Labrador, and presides over that body. Members are first elected to the House during general elections. General elections must be conducted every four years from the date of the last election. An election may also take place if the governing party loses the confidence of the legislature by the defeat of a supply bill or tabling of a confidence motion.[2]

From 1855 to 1907, the position of first minister was known as Premier. After the colony was granted dominion status, the position became known as Prime Minister.[3] Democratic government was suspended in 1934 and replaced by an appointed Commission of Government, until 1949 Newfoundland became a province of Canada. Since the reinstitution of democratic government in 1949, the position of First Minister has been known as Premier.[4]

Since 1855, Newfoundland and Labrador has been led by ten Colonial Premiers, nine Dominion Prime Ministers, three Chairmen of Commission of Government, and twelve Provincial Premiers. Of the Provincial Premiers, seven are from the Liberal Party, and seven are from the Progressive Conservative Party.

Premiers of the Newfoundland Colony (1855-1907)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliament) Political party


1 Philip Francis Little
(1824–1897)
MHA for St. John's
7 May[5] 1855

16 July[6] 1858
Liberal Party


First premier as colony achieves responsible government.
2 John Kent
(1805–1872)
MHA for St. John's East
16 July 1858

March[7] 1861
Liberal Party


Largely supported by Catholics, Kent was dismissed by the governor after accusing him of conspiring against the government. The subsequent election was fought on sectarian lines; rioting broke out when the governor cancelled voting in the Catholic town of Harbour Grace thus denying Kent two seats needed to prevent a Conservative majority.
3 Sir Hugh Hoyles
(1814–1888)
March 1861

4 March 1865
Conservative Party


Appointed by the governor after his predecessor's dismissal, Hoyle narrowly won the subsequent election. Government tried to reduce sectarian tensions by inviting Catholics into his cabinet and including them in patronage appointments.
4
(1 of 2)
Sir Frederick Carter
(1819–1900)
March 1865

11 February[8] 1870
Conservative Party


Proposed confederation with Canada but was defeated by Anti-Confederate opposition in 1869.
5 Charles Fox Bennett
(1793–1883)
MHA for Placentia—St. Mary's
14 February[9] 1870

30 January[9] 1874
Anti-Confederation Party


Opposed confederation with Canada; abolished mining royalties; increased geological survey grant and funds for roads and public works; improved coastal steamship service and instituted direct shipping service to England; reorganized Newfoundland Constabulary to take over policing duties after British garrison withdrawn; acquiesced to US fishing rights in Treaty of Washington (1871); began a lead mine at Port au Port, challenging France's rights to the French Shore, but was forced to close by UK government.
4
(2 of 2)
Sir Frederick Carter
(1819–1900)
MHA for Twillingate—Fogo
30 January[10] 1874

April[11] 1878
Conservative Party


Created publicly funded denominational school system
6
(1 of 3)
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
MHA for Trinity Bay
April[11] 1878

October[11] 1885
Conservative Party


Non-sectarian government including Catholics and Protestants; Proposed and arranged financing for construction of the transinsular railway in order to develop and diversify the economy; government collapsed following sectarian riots in Harbour Grace when several Protestant ministers quit to protest government's conciliatory attitude towards Catholics.
7 Sir Robert Thorburn
(1836–1906)
MHA for Trinity Bay
12 October[12] 1885

1889
Reform Party


Rejected preceding government's railway plan in order to focus on developing fishery based economy; belatedly attempted to invest in public works when fishery downturn caused economic stagnation. Represented Newfoundland at the First Colonial Conference in London.
6
(2 of 3)
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
December[11] 1889

11 April[11] 1894
Liberal Party


Continued development of the railway; government lost power due to corruption scandal.
8 Augustus F. Goodridge
(1839–1920)
April[13] 1894

December 1894
Tory Party


9 Daniel Joseph Greene
(1850–1911)
13 December[14] 1894

8 February[14] 1895
Liberal Party


6
(3 of 3)
Sir William Whiteway
(1828–1908)
8 February[11] 1895

1897
Liberal Party


Failed negotiations with Canada to enter confederation. Represented Newfoundland at the 1897 Colonial Conference in London.
10 Sir James Spearman Winter
(1845–1911)
1897

5 March[15] 1900
Tory Party


11 Sir Robert Bond
(1857–1927)
15 March[16] 1900

25 September 1907
Liberal Party


Settlement of French Shore territorial dispute giving Newfoundland undisputed control of the island; failed attempt to negotiate free trade with the United States. Represented Newfoundland at the 1902 Colonial Conference and then at the 1907 Imperial Conference, where it was agreed that Newfoundland and other self-governing colonies would be given dominion status.

Dominion Prime Ministers of Newfoundland (1907-1934)Edit

By Royal Proclamation, the colony was granted dominion status on 26 September 1907 becoming the Dominion of Newfoundland with its head of government being given the title Prime Minister of the Dominion of Newfoundland.[17]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliament) Political party


1 Sir Robert Bond
(1857–1927)
26 September[18] 1907

2 March[19] 1909
Liberal Party


2 Sir Edward Patrick Morris
(1859–1935)
2 March[19] 1909

31 December[20] 1917
People's Party


Expansion of the transinsular railway; allowed speculators to buy timber rights on Crown land. Second term was dominated by the war, introduced income tax and formed a wartime national government. Represented Newfoundland at the 1911 Imperial Conference and the Imperial War Conference. Upon retirement became first and only Newfoundland born person to be raised to the peerage.
3 Sir John Crosbie
(1876–1932)
31 December 1917

5 January 1918
People's Party


Caretaker prime minister
4 Sir William F. Lloyd
(1864–1937)
5 January[21] 1918

20 May[21] 1919
Liberal Party (national government)


Introduced conscription for the Newfoundland Regiment; led coalition government through the conclusion of the war.
5 Sir Michael Patrick Cashin
(1864–1926)
22 May[22] 1919

17 November[23] 1919
People's Party


6 Sir Richard Squires
(1880–1940)
17 November[23] 1919

23 July[23][24] 1923
Liberal Reform Party


Attempted to diversify the economy and to reform the fisheries; nationalized the financially struggling transinsular railway; government fell due to a bribery scandal.
7 William Warren
(1879–1927)
24 July[25][26] 1923

7 May[27] 1924
Liberal Reform Party


8 Albert Hickman
(1875–1943)
10 May[27] 1924

9 June[27] 1924
Liberal-Progressive (caretaker)


Joined with some members of former Liberal Reform Party and some members of other parties to form a Liberal-Progressive government
9 Walter Stanley Monroe
(1871–1952)
9 June 1924

15 August[28] 1928
Liberal-Conservative Party


Settlement of the Labrador boundary dispute with Quebec after Newfoundland successfully argued its case at the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
10 Frederick C. Alderdice
(1872–1936)
15 August[28] 1928

17 November[29] 1928
Liberal-Conservative Party


(6) Sir Richard Squires
(1880–1940)
17 November[23] 1928

11 June[28] 1932
Liberal Party


Attempted to govern during the Great Depression which saw a collapse of fish prices and widespread unemployment; Newfoundland requested to join Confederation in exchange for a bailout but was rejected by Canada; economic instability and allegations of corruption inflamed public opinion resulting in a riot and the fall of the government.
(10) Frederick C. Alderdice
(1872–1936)
11 June[28] 1932

16 February[28] 1934
United Newfoundland Party


Alderdice's United Newfoundland Party wins election on the promise that it will examine the possibility of suspending the constitution and having a commission administer the country until the financial crisis improves. UK and Canada agree to give the dominion financial aid in exchange for a Royal Commission on the Newfoundland's future. Alderdice accepts the Commission's recommendation to suspend responsible government and replace it with a Commission of Government appointed by London.

Chairmen of the Commission of Government (1934-1949)Edit

With the suspension of responsible government the dominion was administered by the Commission of Government, from 1934 to 1949. It was a body of seven appointed by the British government, made up of three British officials, three Newfoundlanders, and chaired by the Governor of Newfoundland.[30]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office
1 Admiral Sir David Murray Anderson
(1874–1936)
16 February 1934[28] October 1935[31]
2 Vice-Admiral Sir Humphrey T. Walwyn
(1879–1957)
February 1936[32] 16 January 1946[31]
3 Gordon MacDonald
(1888–1966)
16 January 1946[31] 1 April 1949[31]

Premiers of the Provinces of Newfoundland (1949-2001) and Newfoundland and Labrador (2001–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office[33] Electoral mandates (Assembly) Political party


1 Joey Smallwood
(1900–1991)
MHA for Bonavista North (until 1959; 1962-1966)
MHA for St. John's West (1959-1962)
MHA for Humber West (1966-1971)
1 April[34] 1949

18 January 1972
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1949


Led successful campaign for Newfoundland to join Canada; longest serving first minister in Newfoundland history; creation of welfare state; development of hydroelectricity, mining and paper industries; Churchill Falls Generating Station and hydro contract with Quebec.
2 Frank Moores
(1933–2005)
MHA for Humber West
18 January[34] 1972

26 March 1979
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1970


First Progressive Conservative premier; emphasized rural development and resource control
3 Brian Peckford
(b. 1942)
MHA for Green Bay
26 March[34] 1979

22 March 1989
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1979


Youngest first minister in Newfoundland history; Negotiated first Atlantic Accord with Ottawa to give province greater say in and financial benefit from offshore energy exploitation; Hibernia oil field development; new provincial flag, expansion of high school to grade 12; construction of Trans-Labrador Highway; creation of the Department of the Environment. Brought greenhouse cucumbers to the province.
4 Tom Rideout
(b. 1948)
MHA for Baie Verte-Springdale
22 March[34] 1989

5 May 1989
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1989


5 Clyde Wells
(b. 1937)
MHA for Bay of Islands
5 May[34] 1989

26 January 1996
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1987


Obstructed the Meech Lake Accord, negotiated Charlottetown Accord, creation of a public school system replacing two parochial streams, budgetary reform, economic diversification in response to collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery.
6 Brian Tobin
(b. 1954)
MHA for Bay of Islands (until 1999)
MHA for The Straits – White Bay North (from 1999)
26 January[34] 1996

16 October 2000
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1996


Completed replacement of separate school system with public schools,
7 Beaton Tulk
(1944–2019)
MHA for Bonavista North
16 October[34] 2000

13 February 2001
Liberal Party
Named leader in interim


8 Roger Grimes
(b. 1950)
MHA for Exploits
13 February[34] 2001

6 November 2003
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2001


Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada
9 Danny Williams
(b. 1949)
MHA for Humber West
6 November[34] 2003

3 December[35] 2010
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2001


Reorganization of health and education; negotiated Second Atlantic Accord to keep 100% of oil revenues in the province; negotiated deals to develop Hebron offshore oil field and expand Hibernia oil field; successfully opposed sale of New Brunswick Power to Hydro-Québec; further development of Lower Churchill Project and Muskrat Falls with transmission lines to Maritimes and the US;
10 Kathy Dunderdale
(b. 1952)
MHA for Virginia Waters
3 December[36] 2010

24 January 2014
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2011[1]


First female premier; school board consolidation; further resource development; sanctioning of Muskrat Falls and negotiation of federal loan guarantee for the project;
11 Tom Marshall
(b. 1946)
MHA for Humber East
24 January[37] 2014

26 September[38] 2014
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2014 (interim)


12 Paul Davis
(b. 1961)
MHA for Topsail
26 September[38] 2014

14 December 2015
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 2014


Reduced the number of electoral districts in the province to 40; introduced the Downpayment Assistance Program.
13 Dwight Ball
(b. 1957)
MHA for Humber-Gros Morne
14 December 2015

19 August 2020
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2013


Called a public inquiry into cost overruns of the Muskrat Falls Lower Churchill Project and negotiated with the federal government, changes in the financial structure of the project in an attempt to mitigate the impact of cost overruns on energy rates and the provincial debt. Re-elected to a minority government in 2019. Resigned following criticisms over the awarding of non-competitive contracts and appointments benefiting individuals with links to the Liberal Party.
14 Andrew Furey
(b. 1975)
MHA for Humber-Gros Morne
19 August 2020

Liberal Party
Named leader in 2020


Was not an MHA until winning the seat left by his predecessor, Dwight Ball.
1.^ Dunderdale was named interim Progressive Conservative Party leader on 26 November 2010,[35] she was not elected party leader until 2 April 2011.[39]

Timeline of Newfoundland and Labrador PremiersEdit

Andrew FureyDwight BallPaul Davis (Canadian politician)Tom Marshall (politician)Kathy DunderdaleDanny Williams (politician)Roger GrimesBeaton TulkBrian TobinClyde WellsTom RideoutBrian PeckfordFrank MooresJoey Smallwood

Living former premiersEdit

As of February 2021, ten former premiers are alive, the oldest being Clyde Wells (1989–1996, born 1937). The most recent former premier to die was Beaton Tulk (2000–2001), on 23 May 2019.

Name Term Date of birth
Brian Peckford 1979–1989 (1942-08-27) 27 August 1942 (age 78)
Tom Rideout
1989
(1948-06-25) 25 June 1948 (age 72)
Clyde Wells 1989–1996 (1937-11-09) 9 November 1937 (age 83)
Brian Tobin 1996–2000 (1954-10-21) 21 October 1954 (age 66)
Roger Grimes 2001–2003 (1950-05-02) 2 May 1950 (age 71)
Danny Williams 2003–2010 (1949-08-04) 4 August 1949 (age 71)
Kathy Dunderdale 2010–2014 (1952-02-05) 5 February 1952 (age 69)
Tom Marshall
2014
(1946-10-26) 26 October 1946 (age 74)
Paul Davis 2014–2015 (1961-06-17) 17 June 1961 (age 59)
Dwight Ball 2015–2020 (1957-12-21) 21 December 1957 (age 63)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

General
  • "General Election Statistics". Elections Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on September 26, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
  • "Journal of the House of Assembly of Newfoundland". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved November 9, 2008.
Specific
  1. ^ "Newfoundland". Library and Archives Canada. 2 May 2005. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  2. ^ "History of the House of Assembly". Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
  3. ^ "Colonial Governors, 1855-1933". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
  4. ^ "Lieutenant-Governors, 1949-Present". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved November 12, 2008.
  5. ^ Tapin, Glen W. (1970). Canadian Chronology. Scarecrow Press. p. 149.
  6. ^ "Little, Philip Francis" (PDF). Public Archives of Canada. 1956. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  7. ^ Waite, P. B. (1972). "Kent, John". In Hayne, David (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. X (1871–1880) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  8. ^ "CARTER, Sir FREDERIC BOWKER TERRINGTON". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  9. ^ a b Hiller, James K. (1982). "Bennett, Charles James Fox". In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XI (1881–1890) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  10. ^ Hiller, J.K. (1990). "Carter, Sir Frederic Bowker Terrington". In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XII (1891–1900) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 21 May 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ a b c d e f Hiller, J.K. (1994). "Whiteway, Sir William Vallance". In Cook, Ramsay; Hamelin, Jean (eds.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XIII (1901–1910) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  12. ^ Hiller, J. K. (1994). "Thorburn, Sir Robert". In Cook, Ramsay; Hamelin, Jean (eds.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XIII (1901–1910) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  13. ^ Pitt, Robert D. "Augustus F. Goodridge". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  14. ^ a b Pitt, Robert D. "Daniel Joseph Greene". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  15. ^ Hiller, James K. (1998). "Winter, Sir James Spearman". In Cook, Ramsay; Hamelin, Jean (eds.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XIV (1911–1920) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  16. ^ Baker, Melvin; Neary, Peter (2005). "Bond, Sir Robert". In Cook, Ramsay; Bélanger, Réal (eds.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XV (1921–1930) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  17. ^ "From 'Colony of Newfoundland' to the 'Dominion of Newfoundland'". Archival Moments. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  18. ^ From ‘Colony of Newfoundland’ to the ‘Dominion of Newfoundland’ | Archival Moments Archived 2016-04-25 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ a b "Bond, Robert". Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador. p. 221.
  20. ^ "Morris, Edward Patrick". Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador. pp. 622–24.
  21. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, volume 3 [Extract: letter L] :: Centre for Newfoundland Studies
  22. ^ "CASHIN, Sir MICHAEL PATRICK". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  23. ^ a b c d "SQUIRES, Sir RICHARD ANDERSON". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  24. ^ "Sir Richard Anderson Squires". Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  25. ^ "Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, volume 5 [Extract: letter W] :: Centre for Newfoundland Studies - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador". collections.mun.ca.
  26. ^ Pitt, Robert. "William Robertson Warren". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, volume 2 [Extract: letter Hac-Hoy] :: Centre for Newfoundland Studies - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador". collections.mun.ca.
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Hon. F.C. Alderdice dead in St. John's". The Gazette. February 27, 1936. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
  29. ^ "Frederick Charles Alderdice". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  30. ^ "Commission Governors, 1934-1948". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
  31. ^ a b c d "The British Empire, Imperialism, Colonialism, Colonies". www.britishempire.co.uk.
  32. ^ "Walwyn, Sir Humphrey Thomas (1879-1957)". www.heritage.nf.ca.
  33. ^ "Former Premiers". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Newfoundland and Labrador". Parliamentary website. Library of Parliament. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  35. ^ a b "N.L. Premier Danny Williams to leave Dec. 3". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 26, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  36. ^ "Kathy Dunderdale sworn in as N.L. Premier". CTV News. December 3, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
  37. ^ "Tom Marshall sworn in as 11th premier". CBC News. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  38. ^ a b "Davis to be sworn-in as premier Friday". The Aurora. 25 September 2014. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  39. ^ "Dunderdale takes risk with Harper pledge". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. April 4, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.