List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot

On 22 June 1944, the Soviet Armed Forces launched a massive attack against the German forces based in Byelorussia, which were made up of two strategic Wehrmacht army groups known as Army Group Centre.[2] By mid July, Army Group Centre had lost no fewer than 250,000 men in less than a month of fighting, making the German position close to hopeless.[3][4]

A black-and-white photograph of six men in military uniforms while surveying a shattered conference building.
Hermann Göring and Martin Bormann surveying the shattered conference hut shortly after the explosion. Neither man was present during the conference.[1]
People present at the 20 July conference
Outcome   Victims
Slightly injured
7
Injured
10
Seriously injured
3
Killed
4

In deciding what to do, a series of military conferences were scheduled at the Wolf's Lair headquarters in East Prussia.[5] On 20 July, Adolf Hitler and his top military commanders entered the briefing hut of the headquarters, as the usual bombproof room, with no windows and thick walls of solid concrete, was considered "unbearably hot".[5] In attendance was Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, who had been severely wounded in 1943 in Tunisia, losing his left eye, right hand and half of his left hand.[6] Undetected by Hitler's ring of bodyguards, Stauffenberg carried a British-made bomb in his briefcase.[7] His plan was to get as close as possible to Hitler, leave the briefcase nearby, and then make an excuse to quickly leave the conference by car with his adjutant and fellow conspirator Werner von Haeften.[5] This was part of a larger planned coup d'état led by a group of army officers who were appalled by the way Hitler was leading Germany in World War II.[8] Everything proceeded according to plan until the bomb exploded, as Stauffenberg walked towards his car, earlier than anticipated.[5] When the explosion tore through the hut, Stauffenberg was thoroughly convinced that no one in the room could possibly have survived.[5] Unbeknownst to Stauffenberg, Colonel Heinz Brandt had moved the briefcase containing the bomb further away from Hitler, placing it behind a solid wooden table leg, as it was in his way. Hitler survived with only minor injuries,[9] as did most of the others present. A stenographer was killed instantly. Three officers, including Brandt, died of their injuries.[5]

Although strictly against security doctrines imposed at the Wolf's Lair, Stauffenberg and Haeften were allowed to pass through all three checkpoints and proceed to the airport, succeeding in getting away before clarity could be established back at the now completely demolished briefing hut.[5] In the last hours of 20 July, Stauffenberg, Haeften, and several other plotters, were arrested and summarily condemned to death.[1] The executions were carried out by soldiers under Major Otto Remer early on the morning of 21 July.[1]

Following the assassination attempt Hitler came to believe that the Wehrmacht leadership could not be trusted; he launched a purge of the officer corps and also used the shock of the attack to round up all the surviving members of the old opposition in the Reichstag.[1] At the same time, those officers who had been injured or killed by the bomb were awarded the 20 July Wound Badge and hailed as heroes.[10] General Günther Korten, General Rudolf Schmundt, Colonel Heinz Brandt and stenographer Heinrich Berger were given a state funeral with a eulogy delivered by Hermann Göring.[1]

ParticipantsEdit

Alphabetically listed per their name
Name Rank Position Years of Service Outcome Image Ref.
Adolf Heusinger 19-HGeneralleutnant Chief of the General Staff of the Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) 1915–1945
and
1955–1964
Slightly injured   [5]
Adolf Hitler 23-WSupreme Commander of the German Armed Forces Führer und Reichskanzler 1935–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Alfred Jodl 20-HGeneraloberst Chief of Staff of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1910–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Ernst John von Freyend 15-HMajor Adjutant to Wilhelm Keitel
Injured   [11]
Franz von Sonnleithner 1-H
Foreign Ministry representative
Injured [12]
Günther Korten 21-HGeneralleutnant Chief of the General Staff of the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL) 1914–1944 Died two days later from injuries   [5]
Hans-Erich Voss 18-MKonteradmiral Liaison officer
Slightly injured [13]
Heinrich Borgmann 16-HOberstleutnant Adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1932–1945 Seriously injured [14][5]
Heinz Assmann 17-MKapitän zur See Staff officer
Injured [15]
Heinrich Berger 0-H
Stenographer 1905–1944 Killed outright, with both legs blown off   [16][5]
Heinz Brandt 17-HOberst Aide-de-camp to Adolf Heusinger 1925–1944 Died one day later from injuries, with one of his legs blown off   [5]
Heinz Buchholz 0-H
Stenographer
Injured [12]
Heinz Waizenegger 16-HOberstleutnant Staff officer
Injured [17]
Herbert Büchs 15-HMajor Adjutant to Alfred Jodl
Injured [12]
Hermann Fegelein 19-WSS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS Schutzstaffel (SS) representative 1925–1945 Injured   [18]
Karl Bodenschatz 20-HGeneral der Flieger Adjutant to Hermann Göring 1910–1945 Seriously injured   [19][5]
Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer 18-MKonteradmiral Naval adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1917–1945 Injured   [20][5]
Nicolaus von Below 17-HOberst Luftwaffe adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1929–1945 Injured   [21]
Otto Günsche 15-WSturmbannführer Schutzstaffel (SS) adjutant and bodyguard to Adolf Hitler 1933–1945 Slightly injured   [22][5]
Rudolf Schmundt 20-HGeneral der Infanterie Chief of the Army Personnel Office 1914–1944 Severely injured, died from complications on 1 October 1944   [23][5]
Walther Buhle 20-HGeneral der Infanterie Chief of Army Staff at the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1914–1944 Injured   [24]
Wilhelm Keitel 22-HFeldmarschall Chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1901–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Walter Scherff 18-HGeneralmajor Führer's Commissioner for the Writing of Military History
Seriously injured [25][5]
Walter Warlimont 20-HGeneral der Artillerie Deputy Chief of Staff of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1914–1945 Slightly injured   [5]

Approximate positions of participants when bomb explodedEdit

 
Approximate positions of the attendees at the meeting in relation to the briefcase bomb when it exploded: 1 Adolf Hitler; 2 Adolf Heusinger; 3 Günther Korten; 4 Heinz Brandt; 5 Karl Bodenschatz; 6 Heinz Waizenegger; 7 Rudolf Schmundt; 8 Heinrich Borgmann; 9 Walther Buhle; 10 Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer; 11 Heinrich Berger; 12 Heinz Assmann; 13 Ernst John von Freyend; 14 Walter Scherff; 15 Hans-Erich Voss; 16 Otto Günsche; 17 Nicolaus von Below; 18 Hermann Fegelein; 19 Heinz Buchholz; 20 Herbert Büchs; 21 Franz von Sonnleithner; 22 Walter Warlimont; 23 Alfred Jodl; 24 Wilhelm Keitel.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Isbouts & Schwartz 2008.
  2. ^ Zaloga 1996, p. 7.
  3. ^ Zaloga 1996, pp. 6–9.
  4. ^ Housden 2013, p. 513.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Martin & Newark 2009.
  6. ^ Housden 2013, pp. 113.
  7. ^ Housden 2013, pp. 115–117.
  8. ^ Moorhouse 2010, p. 281.
  9. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 29.
  10. ^ Williamson 2002, p. 40.
  11. ^ Hoffmann 1996, p. 663.
  12. ^ a b c BBC News 2004.
  13. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 32.
  14. ^ Hamilton 1984, p. 144.
  15. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 55.
  16. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 74.
  17. ^ Domarus 2004, p. 2918.
  18. ^ Miller 2006, p. 316.
  19. ^ Eberle & Uhl 2009, p. 223.
  20. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 925.
  21. ^ Hoffmann 1996, p. 677.
  22. ^ Hamilton 1984, p. 148.
  23. ^ Weinberg 2013, p. 324.
  24. ^ Zeimke 2014, p. 419.
  25. ^ Williamson 2002, p. 43.

SourcesEdit

PrintedEdit

  • Domarus, Max (2004). Speeches and Proclamations, 1932–1945. University of Virginia. ISBN 978-0865162310.
  • Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias (2009). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-0786734917.
  • Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.
  • Hoffmann, Peter (1996). History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 978-0773566408.
  • Housden, Martyn (2013). Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134808465.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
  • Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 978-93-297-0037-2.
  • Moorhouse, Roger (2010). Berlin at War. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465022755.
  • Short, Neil; Dennis, Peter (2013). Kill Hitler – Operation Valkyrie 1944. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1780962603.
  • Shirer, William (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard (2013). Hitler's Foreign Policy 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1936274840.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2002a). World War II German Battle Insignia. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841763521.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2002b). German Army Elite. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841764054.
  • Zaloga, Steven (1996). Bagration 1944: The Destruction of Army Group Centre. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-478-7.
  • Zeimke, Earl (2014). From Stalingrad to Berlin. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1473848085.

OnlineEdit