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List of people killed or wounded in the 20 July plot

A black-and-white photograph of six men in military uniforms while surveying a shattered conference building.
Hermann Göring and Martin Bormann surveying the shattered conference hut shortly after the explosion. Neither man was present during the conference.[1]
People present at the 20 July conference
Outcome   Victims
Slightly injured
7
Injured
10
Seriously injured
3
Killed
4

On 22 June 1944, the Soviet Armed Forces launched a massive attack against the German forces based in Belorussia, which were made up of two strategic army groups known as Army Group Centre.[2] By mid July, Army Group Centre had lost no fewer than 250,000 men in less than a month of fighting, making the German position close to hopeless.[3][4]

In deciding what to do, a series of military conferences were scheduled at the Wolf's Lair headquarters in East Prussia.[5] On 20 July, Adolf Hitler and his top military commanders entered the briefing hut of the headquarters, as the usual bombproof room, with no windows and thick walls of solid concrete, was considered "unbearably hot".[5] In attendance was Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, who had lost an eye, his right hand and half his left in action during the North African theatre.[6] Undetected by Hitler's ring of bodyguards, Stauffenberg carried a British-made bomb in his briefcase.[7] His plan was to get as close as possible to Hitler, leave the briefcase nearby, and then make an excuse to quickly leave the conference by car with his adjutant and fellow conspirator Werner von Haeften.[5] This was part of a larger planned coup d'état led by a group of army officers who were appalled by the way Hitler was leading Germany.[8] Everything proceeded according to plan until the bomb exploded, as Stauffenberg walked towards his car, earlier than anticipated.[5] When the explosion tore through the hut, Stauffenberg was thoroughly convinced that no one in the room could possibly have survived.[5] Unbeknownst to Stauffenberg, Colonel Heinz Brandt had moved the bomb-containing briefcase further away from Hitler, placing it behind a solid wooden table leg, as it was in his way. Hitler survived with only minor injuries,[9] as did most of the others present, although three officers, including Brandt, and a stenographer were killed.[5]

Although strictly against security doctrines imposed at the Wolf's Lair, Stauffenberg and Haeften were allowed to pass through all three checkpoints and proceed to the airport, succeeding in getting away before clarity could be established back at the now completely demolished briefing hut.[5] In the last hours of 20 July, Stauffenberg, Haeften, and several other plotters, were arrested and summarily condemned to death.[1] The executions were carried out by soldiers under Major Otto Remer early on the morning of 21 July.[1]

Following the assassination attempt Hitler came to believe that the Wehrmacht leadership could not be trusted; he launched a purge of the officer corps and also used the shock of the attack to round up all the surviving members of the old opposition in the Reichstag.[1] At the same time, those officers who had been injured or killed by the bomb were awarded the 20 July Wound Badge and hailed as heroes.[10] General Günther Korten, General Rudolf Schmundt, Colonel Heinz Brandt and stenographer Heinz Berger were given a state funeral with a eulogy delivered by Vice-Chancellor Hermann Göring.[1]

Contents

ParticipantsEdit

Alphabetically listed per their Christian name
Name Rank Position Years of Service Outcome Image Ref.
Adolf Heusinger 19-HGeneralleutnant Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Army 1915–1945 and 1955–1964 Slightly injured   [5]
Adolf Hitler 23-WSupreme Commander of the German Armed Forces Führer und Reichskanzler 1935–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Alfred Jodl 20-HGeneral Chief of Staff of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1910–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Ernst John von Freyend 15-HMajor Adjutant to Wilhelm Keitel
Injured
[11]
Franz von Sonnleithner 1-H
Foreign Ministry representative
Injured
[12]
Günther Korten 21-HGeneraloberst Chief of General Staff of the Luftwaffe 1914–1944 Killed outright   [5]
Hans-Erich Voss 18-MKonteradmiral Liaison officer
Slightly injured
[13]
Heinrich Borgmann 16-HOberstleutnant Adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1932–1945 Seriously injured
[14][5]
Heinz Assmann 17-MKapitän zur See Staff officer
Injured
[15]
Heinz Berger 0-H
Stenographer
Killed outright and both legs were blown off
[16][5]
Heinz Brandt 17-HOberst Aide-de-camp to Adolf Heusinger 1925–1944 Killed outright and one of his legs was blown off
[5]
Heinz Buchholz 0-H
Stenographer
Injured
[12]
Heinz Waizenegger 16-HOberstleutnant Staff officer
Injured
[17]
Herbert Büchs 15-HMajor Adjutant to Alfred Jodl
Injured
[12]
Hermann Fegelein 19-WSS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS Schutzstaffel (SS) representative 1925–1945 Injured   [18]
Karl Bodenschatz 20-LGeneral Adjutant to Hermann Göring 1910–1945 Seriously injured
[19][5]
Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer 18-MKonteradmiral Naval adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1917–1945 Injured [20][5]
Nicolaus von Below 17-HOberst Luftwaffe adjutant to Adolf Hitler 1929–1945 Injured   [21]
Otto Günsche 15-WSturmbannführer Schutzstaffel (SS) adjutant and bodyguard to Adolf Hitler 1933–1945 Slightly injured   [22][5]
Rudolf Schmundt 20-HGeneral Chief of the Army Staff Office 1914–1944 Killed outright   [23][5]
Walther Buhle 20-HGeneral der Infanterie Chief of Army Staff at the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1914–1944 Injured   [24]
Wilhelm Keitel 22-HFeldmarschall Chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1901–1945 Slightly injured   [5]
Walter Scherff 18-HGeneralmajor Military historian
Seriously injured
[25][5]
Walter Warlimont 20-HGeneral Deputy Chief of Staff of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) 1914–1945 Slightly injured   [5]

Approximate positions of participants when bomb explodedEdit

 
Approximate positions of the attendees at the meeting in relation to the briefcase bomb when it exploded: 1. Adolf Hitler 2. Adolf Heusinger 3. Günther Korten 4. Heinz Brandt 5. Karl Bodenschatz 6. Heinz Waizenegger 7. Rudolf Schmundt 8. Heinrich Borgmann 9. Walther Buhle 10. Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer 11. Heinz Berger 12. Heinz Assmann 13. Ernst John von Freyend 14. Walter Scherff 15. Hans-Erich Voss 16. Otto Günsche 17. Nicolaus von Below 18. Hermann Fegelein 19. Heinz Buchholz 20. Herbert Büchs 21. Franz von Sonnleithner 22. Walter Warlimont 23. Alfred Jodl 24. Wilhelm Keitel.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Isbouts & Schwartz 2008.
  2. ^ Zaloga 1996, p. 7.
  3. ^ Zaloga 1996, pp. 6–9.
  4. ^ Housden 2013, p. 513.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Martin & Newark 2009.
  6. ^ Housden 2013, pp. 113.
  7. ^ Housden 2013, pp. 115–117.
  8. ^ Moorhouse 2010, p. 281.
  9. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 29.
  10. ^ Williamson 2002, p. 40.
  11. ^ Hoffmann 1996, p. 663.
  12. ^ a b c BBC News 2004.
  13. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 32.
  14. ^ Hamilton 1984, p. 144.
  15. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 55.
  16. ^ Short & Dennis 2013, p. 74.
  17. ^ Domarus 2004, p. 2918.
  18. ^ Miller 2006, p. 316.
  19. ^ Eberle & Uhl 2009, p. 223.
  20. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 925.
  21. ^ Hoffmann 1996, p. 677.
  22. ^ Hamilton 1984, p. 148.
  23. ^ Weinberg 2013, p. 324.
  24. ^ Zeimke 2014, p. 419.
  25. ^ Williamson 2002, p. 43.

SourcesEdit

PrintedEdit

  • Domarus, Max (2004). Speeches and Proclamations, 1932–1945. University of Virginia. ISBN 978-0865162310.
  • Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias (2009). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-0786734917.
  • Hamilton, Charles (1984). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0.
  • Hoffmann, Peter (1996). History of the German Resistance, 1933–1945. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN 978-0773566408.
  • Housden, Martyn (2013). Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134808465.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-06757-2.
  • Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 978-93-297-0037-2.
  • Moorhouse, Roger (2010). Berlin at War. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465022755.
  • Short, Neil; Dennis, Peter (2013). Kill Hitler – Operation Valkyrie 1944. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1780962603.
  • Shirer, William (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Weinberg, Gerhard (2013). Hitler's Foreign Policy 1933–1939: The Road to World War II. Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1936274840.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2002). World War II German Battle Insignia. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841763521.
  • Williamson, Gordon (2002). German Army Elite. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1841764054.
  • Zaloga, Steven (1996). Bagration 1944: The Destruction of Army Group Centre. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-478-7.
  • Zeimke, Earl (2014). From Stalingrad to Berlin. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1473848085.


OnlineEdit