List of justices of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

The following is a list of justices of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court which are broken down by pre- and post-statehood appointments. Historically, only three individuals have declined appointment to the Court which all occurred during the Provincial Congress period: William Reed in 1775, Robert Treat Paine in 1776, and James Warren in 1777. In the modern era, mandatory retirement has been a requirement when a given justice reaches the age of 70. This has been in place since 1976 when Chief Justice G. Joseph Tauro stepped down.

Current justices edit

Title Name Began active service Appointed by Reaches age 70
Chief Justice Kimberly S. Budd 2020 Charlie Baker 2036
Associate Justice Frank Gaziano 2016 2034
Associate Justice Scott L. Kafker 2017 2029
Associate Justice Dalila Argaez Wendlandt 2020 2038
Associate Justice Serge Georges Jr. 2020 2038
Associate Justice Bessie Dewar 2024 Maura Healey 2050
Associate Justice Gabrielle Wolohojian Designate 2030

Superior Court of Judicature (1692–1780) edit

  •   Appointed by Provincial Congress[a]

Chief Justices edit

Justice Succeeded Tenure Appointed by
1   William Stoughton
(1631–1701)
Inaugural[b] 1692

July 7, 1701
(Died)
Sir William Phips
2   Wait Winthrop
(1642–1717)
W. Stoughton 1701

1701
(Resigned)
Governor's Council
3 Isaac Addington
(1645–1719)
W. Winthrop 1702

1703
(Resigned)
Joseph Dudley
4   Wait Winthrop
(1642–1717)
I. Addington 1708

November 7, 1717
(Died)
5   Samuel Sewall
(1652–1730)
W. Winthrop 1718

1728
(Resigned)
Samuel Shute
6   Benjamin Lynde Sr.
(1666–1749)
Sa. Sewall 1729

January 28, 1745
(Died)
William Burnet
7   Paul Dudley
(1666–1751)
B. Lynde Sr. 1745

January 25, 1751
(Died)
William Shirley
8 Stephen Sewall
(1702–1760)
P. Dudley 1751

September 10, 1760
(Died)
9   Thomas Hutchinson
(1711–1780)
St. Sewall 1761

1769
(Became Acting Governor)
Francis Bernard
10 Benjamin Lynde Jr.
(1700–1781)
T. Hutchinson 1769

1771
(Resigned)
Thomas Hutchinson
11 Peter Oliver
(1713–1791)
B. Lynde Jr. 1772

1775
(Removed from office)
12   John Adams
(1735–1826)
Inaugural 1775

1776
(Never presided, resigned)
Provincial Congress
13   William Cushing
(1732–1810)
J. Adams 1777

1780
(Constitution of 1780)

Associate Justices edit

Justice Succeeded Tenure Appointed by
1 Thomas Danforth
(bapt. 1623–1699)
Inaugural[b] 1692

November 5, 1699
(Died)
Sir William Phips
2   Wait Winthrop
(1642–1717)
Inaugural[b] 1692

1701
(Continued as Chief Justice)
3 John Richards
(bef. 1630–1694)
Inaugural[b] 1692

April 2, 1694
(Died)
4   Samuel Sewall
(1652–1730)
Inaugural[b] 1692

1718
(Continued as Chief Justice)
5   Elisha Cooke Sr.
(1637–1715)
J. Richards 1695

1702
(Resigned)
William Stoughton
6 John Walley
(d. 1712)
T. Danforth 1700

1712
(Died)
7 John Saffin
(bapt. 1626–1710)
W. Winthrop 1701

1702
(Appointment not renewed)
Governor's Council
8 John Hathorne
(1641–1717)
E. Cooke 1702

1712
(Resigned)
Joseph Dudley
9   John Leverett
(1662–1724)
J. Saffin 1702

1708
(Resigned)
10   Jonathan Corwin
(1640–1718)
J. Leverett 1708

1717
(Appointment not renewed)
11   Benjamin Lynde Sr.
(1666–1749)
Vacant[c] 1712

1729
(Continued as Chief Justice)
12 Nathaniel Thomas
(1643–1718)
1712

October 22, 1718
(Died)
13 Addington Davenport
(1670–1736)
J. Corwin December 9, 1715

April 3, 1736
(Died)
William Tailer
14   Edmund Quincy III
(1681–1737)
Vacant[d] 1718

February 23, 1737
(Died)
Samuel Shute
15   Paul Dudley
(1666–1751)
1718

1751
(Continued as Chief Justice)
16 John Cushing B. Lynde Sr. 1728

1733
(Resigned)
William Burnet
17 Jonathan Remington
(1677–1745)
J. Cushing 1733

September 20, 1745
(Died)
Jonathan Belcher
18 Richard Saltonstall A. Davenport 1736

1756
(Resigned)
19 Thomas Graves
(1684–1747)
E. Quincy 1737

1738
(Resigned)
20 Stephen Sewall
(1702–1760)
T. Graves 1739

1745
(Continued as Chief Justice)
21 Nathaniel Hubbard
(1680–1748)
P. Dudley 1745

1746
William Shirley
22 Benjamin Lynde Jr.
(1700–1781)
J. Remington 1747

1769
(Continued as Chief Justice)
23 John Cushing Jr. N. Hubbard 1747

1771
(Resigned)
24 Chambers Russell
(1713–1766)
St. Sewall 1752

1766
(Died)
Spencer Phips
25 Peter Oliver
(1713–1791)
R. Saltonstall 1756

1772
(Continued as Chief Justice)
William Shirley
26 Edmund Trowbridge
(1709–1793)
C. Russell 1767

1775
(Removed from office)
Francis Bernard
27 Foster Hutchinson
(1724–1799)
B. Lynde Jr. 1771

1775
(Removed from office)
Thomas Hutchinson
28 Nathaniel Ropes
(1726–1774)
Vacant[e] 1772

1774
(Died)
29   William Cushing
(1732–1810)
1772

1775
(Reorganization of Court)
30 William Brown
(1737–1802)
N. Ropes 1774

1775
(Removed from office)
31   William Cushing
(1732–1810)
Inaugural 1775

1776
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Provincial Congress
32 Nathaniel Sargent
(1731–1791)
Inaugural 1775

1780
(Constitution of 1780)
33 Jedediah Foster
(1726–1779)
Inaugural 1776

October 17, 1779
(Died)
34   James Sullivan
(1744–1808)
Inaugural March 1776

1780
(Constitution of 1780)
35 David Sewall
(1735–1825)
W. Cushing 1777

1780
(Constitution of 1780)

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (1780–present) edit

List of justices edit

Image Justice Position Succeeded Tenure Appointed by
  William Cushing
(1732–1810)
Chief
Justice
Inaugural 1780

1789
(Appointed to Supreme Court of the United States)
Nathaniel Sargent
(1731–1791)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1780

1791
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  David Sewall
(1735–1825)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1780

1789
(Appointed to U.S. District Court)
  James Sullivan
(1744–1808)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1780

1782
(Resigned)
  Francis Dana
(1743–1811)
Associate
Justice
J. Foster (1779) 1785

1806
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  Increase Sumner
(1746–1799)
Associate
Justice
J. Sullivan 1782

1787
(Resigned to become Governor)
John Hancock
Nathaniel Sargent
(1731–1791)
Chief
Justice
W. Cushing 1790

October 2, 1791
(Died)
  Robert Treat Paine
(1731–1814)
Associate
Justice
D. Sewall 1790

1804
(Resigned)
Nathan Cushing
(1742–1812)
Associate
Justice
N. Sargent
(as Associate Justice)
1790

1800
(Resigned)
  Francis Dana
(1743–1811)
Chief
Justice
N. Sargent
(as Chief Justice)
1791

1806
(Resigned)
  Thomas Dawes
(1731–1809)
Associate
Justice
F. Dana 1792

1802
(Resigned)
Theophilus Bradbury
(1739–1803)
Associate
Justice
I. Sumner 1797

July 1803
(Removed due to poor health)
  Samuel Sewall
(1757–1814)
Associate
Justice
N. Cushing 1800

1814
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Caleb Strong
  Theodore Sedgwick
(1746–1813)
Associate
Justice
T. Dawes 1802

January 24, 1813
(Died)
Simeon Strong
(1736–1805)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1801

1805

(Died)
  George Thatcher
(1754–1824)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1801

January 1824
(Resigned)
  Theophilus Parsons
(1750–1813)
Chief
Justice
F. Dana 1806

October 13, 1813
(Died)
  Isaac Parker
(1768–1830)
Associate
Justice
S. Strong 1806

1814
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Charles Jackson
(1775–1855)
Associate
Justice
T. Sedgwick 1813

1823
(Resigned)
  Samuel Sewall
(1757–1814)
Chief
Justice
T. Parsons 1814

June 8, 1814
(Died)
  Daniel Dewey
(1766–1815)
Associate
Justice
S. Sewall 1814

May 26, 1815
(Died)
Samuel Putnam Associate
Justice
I. Parker
(as Associate Justice)
1814

1842
(Resigned)
  Isaac Parker
(1768–1830)
Chief
Justice
S. Sewall 1814

July 25, 1830
(Died)
Samuel Wilde
(1771–1855)
Associate
Justice
D. Dewey 1815

1850
(Resigned)
  Levi Lincoln Jr.
(1782–1868)
Associate
Justice
G. Thatcher 1824

1825
(Elected Governor)
William Eustis
  Marcus Morton
(1784–1864)
Associate
Justice
L. Lincoln Jr. 1825

1840
(Elected Governor)
Levi Lincoln Jr.
  Lemuel Shaw
(1781–1861)
Chief
Justice
I. Parker August 30, 1830

August 21, 1860
(Resigned)
Charles Augustus Dewey
(1793–1866)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1837

1866
(Died)
Edward Everett
Samuel Hubbard
(d. 1847)
Associate
Justice
S. Putnam 1842

1847
(Died)
John Davis
  Theron Metcalf
(1784–1875)
Associate
Justice
M. Morton I (1840) 1848

1865
(Resigned)
George N. Briggs
Charles E. Forbes
(1795–1881)
Associate
Justice
T. Metcalf 1848

1848
(Resigned)
  Richard Fletcher
(1788–1869)
Associate
Justice
C. Forbes 1848

1853
(Resigned)
  George Tyler Bigelow
(1810–1878)
Associate
Justice
S. Wilde 1850

1860
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  Caleb Cushing
(1800–1879)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1852

1853
(Appointed U.S. Attorney General)
George S. Boutwell
  Benjamin Thomas
(1813–1878)
Associate
Justice
R. Fletcher 1853

1859
(Resigned)
John H. Clifford
  Pliny Merrick
(1794–1867)
Associate
Justice
C, Cushing 1853

1864
(Resigned)
  Ebenezer R. Hoar
(1816–1895)
Associate
Justice
J. Nolan 1859

1869
(Appointed U.S. Attorney General)
Nathaniel Prentice Banks
  George Tyler Bigelow
(1810–1878)
Chief
Justice
L. Shaw 1860

1867
(Resigned)
  Reuben Atwater Chapman
(1801–1873)
Associate
Justice
1860

1868
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  Horace Gray
(1828–1902)
Associate
Justice
N. Clifford 1864

September 15, 1873
(Continued as Chief Justice)
John Albion Andrew
James Denison Colt
(1819–1881)
Associate
Justice
T. Metcalf 1865

1866
(Resigned)
  Dwight Foster
(1828–1884)
Associate
Justice
C. A. Dewey 1866

1869
(Resigned)
Alexander H. Bullock
John Wells
(d. 1875)
Associate
Justice
J. D. Colt 1866

1875
(Died)
  Reuben Atwater Chapman
(1801–1873)
Chief
Justice
G. T. Bigelow 1868

June 28, 1873
(Died)
James Denison Colt
(1819–1881)
Associate
Justice
R. A. Chapman 1868

1881
(Died)
  Marcus Morton II
(1819–1891)
Associate
Justice
E. Hoar 1869

1882
(Continued as Chief Justice)
William Claflin
Seth Ames
(1805–1881)
Associate
Justice
D. Foster 1869

1881
(Resigned)
  Horace Gray
(1828–1902)
Chief
Justice
R. A. Chapman September 15, 1873

January 9, 1882
(Appointed to Supreme Court of the United States)
William B. Washburn
  Charles Devens
(1820–1891)
Associate
Justice
H. Gray 1873

1877
(Appointed U.S. Attorney General)
  William Endicott
(1826–1900)
Associate
Justice
Inaugural 1873

1882
(Resigned)
Otis Lord
(1812–1884)
Associate
Justice
J. Wells 1875

1882
(Resigned)
William Gaston
  Augustus Soule
(1827–1887)
Associate
Justice
C. Devens March 27, 1877

April 11, 1881
(Resigned)
Alexander H. Rice
  Walbridge A. Field
(1833–1899)
Associate
Justice
S. Ames 1881

September 4, 1890
(Continued as Chief Justice)
John D. Long
William Allen
(d. 1891)
Associate
Justice
1881

1891
(Died)
  Charles Devens
(1820–1891)
Associate
Justice
A. Soule 1881

1891
(Died)
  Marcus Morton II
(1819–1891)
Chief
Justice
H. Gray 1882

1890
(Resigned)
  Waldo Colburn
(1824–1885)
Associate
Justice
W. C. Endicott November 10, 1882

September 26, 1885
(Died)
  Charles Allen
(1827–1913)
Associate
Justice
M. Morton II 1882

1898
(Resigned)
  Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
(1841–1935)
Associate
Justice
O. Lord 1882

1899
(Continued as Chief Justice)
William Gardner
(1827–1888)
Associate
Justice
W. Colburn 1885

1887
(Resigned)
George D. Robinson
  Marcus Perrin Knowlton
(1839–1918)
Associate
Justice
W. Gardner 1887

1902
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Oliver Ames
  Walbridge A. Field
(1833–1899)
Chief
Justice
M. Morton September 4, 1890

July 15, 1899
(Died)
John Q. A. Brackett
  James Madison Morton Sr.
(1837–1923)
Associate
Justice
1890

1913
(Resigned)
  James Barker
(1839–1905)
Associate
Justice
W. Allen 1891

October 2, 1905
(Died)
William Russell
  John Lathrop
(1835–1910)
Associate
Justice
1891

1906
(Resigned)
  John Wilkes Hammond
(1837–1922)
Associate
Justice
C. Allen 1898

1914
(Resigned)
Roger Wolcott
  Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
(1841–1935)
Chief
Justice
W. A. Field August 2, 1899

December 4, 1902
(Appointed to Supreme Court of the United States)
  William Loring
(1851–1930)
Associate
Justice
O. W. Holmes September 7, 1899

September 16, 1919
(Resigned)
  Henry Braley
(1850–1929)
Associate
Justice
M. P. Knowlton 1902

1929
(Died)
Winthrop M. Crane
  Marcus Perrin Knowlton
(1839–1918)
Chief
Justice
O. W. Holmes 1902

September 7, 1911
(Resigned)
  Henry Sheldon Associate
Justice
Barker 1905

1915
(Resigned)
William Lewis Douglas
  Arthur Prentice Rugg
(1862–1938)
Associate
Justice
J. Lathrop 1906

1911
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Curtis Guild Jr.
  Arthur Prentice Rugg
(1862–1938)
Chief
Justice
M. P. Knowlton 1911

June 12, 1938
(Died)
Eugene Foss
  Charles DeCourcy
(1857–1924)
Associate
Justice
A.P. Rugg 1911

1924
(Died)
  John C. Crosby
(1859–1943)
Associate
Justice
J. Morton December 31, 1913

October 1, 1937
(Resigned)
David I. Walsh
Edward Pierce
(1852–1938)
Associate
Justice
J. Hammond 1914

1937
(Resigned)
James Carroll
(d. 1932)
Associate
Justice
Sheldon 1915

1932
(Died)
Charles Jenney
(1860–1923)
Associate
Justice
W. Loring 1919

November 29, 1923
(Died)
Calvin Coolidge
  William C. Wait
(1860–1935)
Associate
Justice
C. Jenney 1923

1934
(Resigned)
Channing H. Cox
George A. Sanderson
(1863–1932)
Associate
Justice
W. Wait 1924

1932
(Died)
Fred Tarbell Field
(1876–1950)
Associate
Justice
H. Braley January 30, 1929

June 30, 1938
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Frank G. Allen
Charles Donahue
(1877–1952)
Associate
Justice
March 17, 1932

April 26, 1944(Resigned)
Joseph B. Ely
Henry Lummus Associate
Justice
1932

1955
Stanley Elroy Qua
(1880–1965)
Associate
Justice
1934

1947
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Arthur Dolan
(1876–1949)
Associate
Justice
J. C. Crosby 1937

August 20, 1949
(Resigned)
Charles F. Hurley
  Louis Cox
(1874–1961)
Associate
Justice
Edward Pierce 1937

1944
(Resigned)
Fred Tarbell Field
(1876–1950)
Chief
Justice
A. P. Rugg June 30, 1938

July 24, 1947
(Resigned)
James Ronan
(d. 1959)
Associate
Justice
F. T. Field 1938

1959
(Died)
Raymond Sanger Wilkins
(1891–1971)
Associate
Justice
L. Cox 1944

1956
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Leverett Saltonstall
John Spalding Associate
Justice
C. Donahue 1944

1971
Stanley Elroy Qua
(1880–1965)
Chief
Justice
F. T. Field 1947

1956
(Resigned)
Robert F. Bradford
  Harold P. Williams
(1882–1963)
Associate
Justice
S. Qua 1947

1962
(Resigned)
  Edward Counihan
(1882–1961)
Associate
Justice
A. Dolan 1949

1960
(Resigned)
Paul A. Dever
Arthur Whittemore
(1896–1969)
Associate
Justice
H. Lummus October 1955

October 1, 1969
(Died)
Christian Herter
Raymond Sanger Wilkins
(1891–1971)
Chief
Justice
S. E. Qua 1956

1970(Resigned)
R. Ammi Cutter Associate
Justice
1956

1972
  Paul G. Kirk Sr.
(1904–1981)
Associate
Justice
E. Counihan November 23, 1960

December 15, 1970
(Resigned)
Foster Furcolo
Jacob Spiegel
(1902–1984)
Associate
Justice
J. Ronan 1960

1972
(Resigned)
G. Joseph Tauro
(1906–1994)
Associate
Justice
1961

1970
(Continued as Chief Justice)
John Volpe
Paul Reardon
(1909–1988)
Associate
Justice
H. P. Williams 1962

1977
(Resigned)
G. Joseph Tauro
(1906–1994)
Chief
Justice
R. S. Wilkins 1970

1976
(Mandatory retirement)
Francis Quirico Associate
Justice
1969

1981
Francis W. Sargent
Robert Braucher
(1916–1981)
Associate
Justice
P. Kirk January 18, 1971

August 26, 1981
(Died)
Edward F. Hennessey
(1919–2007)
Associate
Justice
J. Spalding 1971

1976
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Benjamin Kaplan
(1911–2010)
Associate
Justice
R. A. Cutter 1972

1981
(Mandatory retirement)
Herbert P. Wilkins
(1930–)
Associate
Justice
J. Spiegel 1972

1996
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Edward F. Hennessey
(1919–2007)
Chief
Justice
G. J. Tauro 1976

1989
(Mandatory retirement)
Michael Dukakis
Paul J. Liacos
(1929–1999)
Associate
Justice
E. Hennessey 1976

June 20, 1986
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Ruth Abrams
(1930–2019)
Associate
Justice
P. Reardon 1978

2000
(Mandatory retirement)
  Joseph R. Nolan
(1925–2013)
Associate
Justice
F. Quirico 1981

1995
(Mandatory retirement)
Edward J. King
Neil L. Lynch
(1930–2014)
Associate
Justice
B. Kaplan 1981

2000
(Mandatory retirement)
Francis Patrick O'Connor
(1927–2007)
Associate
Justice
R. Braucher 1981

1997
(Mandatory retirement)
Paul J. Liacos
(1929–1999)
Chief
Justice
E. Hennessey June 20, 1986

September 30, 1996
(Resigned)
Michael Dukakis
John M. Greaney
(1939–)
Associate
Justice
P. Liacos 1989

2008
(Resigned)
  Charles Fried
(1935–2024)
Associate
Justice
J. Nolan September 1995

June 1999
(Resigned)
William Weld
  Margaret H. Marshall
(1944–)
Associate
Justice
1996

October 14, 1999
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Herbert P. Wilkins
(1930–)
Chief
Justice
P. Liacos 1996

October 13, 1999
(Resigned)
Roderick L. Ireland
(1944–)
Associate
Justice
1997

December 20, 2010
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  Margaret H. Marshall
(1944–)
Chief
Justice
H. Wilkins October 14, 1999

October 31, 2010
(Resigned)
Paul Cellucci
Judith Cowin
(1942–)
Associate
Justice
C. Fried 1999

2011
(Resigned)
Francis X. Spina
(1946–)
Associate
Justice
M. Marshall 1999

August 12, 2016
(Mandatory retirement)
Martha B. Sosman
(1950–2007)
Associate
Justice
N. Lynch 2000

March 10, 2007
(Died)
Robert J. Cordy
(1949–)
Associate
Justice
R. Abrams 2001

August 12, 2016
(Resigned)
  Margot Botsford
(1947–)
Associate
Justice
M. Sosman September 4, 2007

March 15, 2017
(Mandatory retirement)
Deval Patrick
  Ralph Gants
(1954–2020)
Associate
Justice
J. Greaney January 29, 2009

July 28, 2014
(Continued as Chief Justice)
Roderick L. Ireland
(1944–)
Chief
Justice
M. Marshall December 20, 2010

July 25, 2014
(Mandatory retirement)
  Barbara Lenk
(1950–)
Associate
Justice
J. Cowin June 8, 2011

December 1, 2020
(Mandatory retirement)
Fernande R.V. Duffly
(1949–)
Associate
Justice
R. Ireland February 1, 2011

July 12, 2016
(Resigned)
  Ralph Gants
(1954–2020)
Chief
Justice
R. Ireland July 28, 2014

September 14, 2020[1][2]
(Died)
Geraldine Hines
(1947–)
Associate
Justice
R. Gants July 31, 2014

August 18, 2017
(Mandatory retirement)
  Frank Gaziano
(1963–)
Associate
Justice
F. Spina August 18, 2016

Incumbent
Charlie Baker
  Kimberly S. Budd
(1966–)
Associate
Justice
F. Duffly August 24, 2016

December 1, 2020
(Continued as Chief Justice)
  David A. Lowy
(1959/60–)
Associate
Justice
R. Cordy August 24, 2016

February 3, 2024
(Retired)
  Elspeth B. Cypher
(1959–)
Associate
Justice
M. Botsford March 31, 2017

January 12, 2024
(Retired)
  Scott Kafker
(1959–)
Associate
Justice
G. Hines August 21, 2017

Incumbent
  Kimberly S. Budd
(1966–)
Chief
Justice
R. Gants December 1, 2020

Incumbent
  Dalila Argaez Wendlandt
(1968/69–)
Associate
Justice
B. Lenk December 4, 2020

Incumbent
  Serge Georges Jr.
(1969-70–)
Associate
Justice
K. Budd December 16, 2020

Incumbent
Bessie Dewar
(1980–)
Associate
Justice
E. Cypher January 16, 2024

Incumbent
Maura Healey
Gabrielle Wolohojian
(1960–)
Associate
Justice
D. Lowy Designate


Notes edit

  1. ^ These justices were appointed by a provisional government. The Province of Massachusetts Bay was dissolved in 1780 when the Constitution of Massachusetts was adopted.
  2. ^ a b c d e All judges appointed before 1695 were reappointed in that year (except John Richards, who had died) because the legislation creating the court was vetoed in that year by the Privy Council. Several further attempts to legislate the court's existence were vetoed, and it was not until 1699 that the provincial assembly enacted laws creating courts that satisfied the Privy Council.
  3. ^ Lynde and Thomas were appointed to fill vacancies created by the death of John Whalley and the resignation of John Hathorne.
  4. ^ Quincy and Dudley were appointed to fill vacancies created by the deaths of Wait Winthrop and Nathaniel Thomas.
  5. ^ Ropes and Cushing were appointed to replace John Cushing and Benjamin Lynde Jr., both of whom resigned. Peter Oliver was named Chief Justice, replacing Lynde.

References edit

  1. ^ Becker, Deborah. "Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice Ralph Gants Dies At 65". www.wbur.org. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
  2. ^ Marquard, Bryan. "SJC Chief Justice Ralph D. Gants has died - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2020-09-14.

Further reading edit