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List of drugs used by militaries

Various drugs have been or are being used by militaries worldwide. Psychoactive substances may improve performance of soldiers by suppressing hunger, increasing and lengthening wakefulness and concentration, suppressing fear, reducing empathy, improving reflexes and memory-recall among other things.

Contents

ContemporaryEdit

For drugs that recently were or currently are being used by militaries.
Administration tends to include strict medical supervision and prior briefing of the medical risks.[citation needed]
Caffeine, diet pills, painkillers and alcohol are not featured in the list, neither is non-administrated, illegal usage.

Substance Description   United States of America   China   Russia   India   Germany   United Kingdom   France   Turkey   Japan   Saudi Arabia   Israel
Amphetamine
(and close derivatives)
US Air Force and potentially other branches prescribed it to pilots for long endurance flights or for critical missions. Until 2012[1][2][3][4][5]
Still used?[6]
Unknown Unknown Unknown Until 1970s/1988(East)[4][7][8] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Cocaine Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Fenethylline Used by ISIS[9][10][11][12][13] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Modafinil Militaries of several countries are known to have expressed interest in modafinil as an alternative to amphetamine—the drug traditionally employed in combat situations where troops face sleep deprivation, such as during lengthy missions. The French government indicated that the Foreign Legion used modafinil during certain covert operations.[citation needed] The United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence commissioned research into modafinil[14] from QinetiQ and spent £300,000 on one investigation.[15] In 2011, the Indian Air Force announced that modafinil was included in contingency plans.[16]

In the United States military, modafinil has been approved for use on certain Air Force missions, and it is being investigated for other uses.[17] As of November 2012, modafinil is the only drug approved by the Air Force as a "go pill" for fatigue management.[18] The use of dextroamphetamine (a.k.a., Dexedrine) is no longer approved.[18]
Yes[17][19][20] Confirmed testing[5] Unknown Yes[16][19][21][22] Unknown Yes[19][23] Yes[5][19][24][25] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Methamphetamine Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Methylphenidate Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Night Eagle Unknown Confirmed development[19][24][26][27][28] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Sleeping pills
(generally)
Yes[3] Unknown Unknown Yes[22] Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown

HistoricEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "‘Go pills’: A war on drugs?". MSNBC. 27 February 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  2. ^ Stoker, Liam. "Creating Supermen: battlefield performance enhancing drugs". Army Technology. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "This is Your Military on Drugs". New Republic. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "Die Super-Soldaten, die auf den Schlachtfeldern der Zukunft kämpfen werden" (in German). Vice Motherboard. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Saletan, William (29 May 2013). "The War on Sleep". Slate. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Combat Pilots on Speed". ABC News. 6 January 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  7. ^ ""Pervitin" - Großvater des Crystal Meth". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  8. ^ ""Wunderpille" Pervitin - Drogeneinnahme für das Vaterland". 3Sat. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  9. ^ Todd, Brian; McConnell, Dugald (21 November 2015). "Syria fighters may be fueled by amphetamines". CNN. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "Captagon, ISIS's favorite amphetamine, explained". Vox. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  11. ^ Henley, Jon (13 January 2014). "Captagon: the amphetamine fuelling Syria's civil war". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  12. ^ "This is the tiny pill fuelling the Syrian civil war". The Independent. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "These Are the People Making Captagon, the Drug ISIS Fighters Take to Feel ‘Invincible’". Daily Intelligencer. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  14. ^ Wheeler B (October 26, 2006). "BBC report on MoD research into modafinil". BBC News. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  15. ^ "MoD's secret pep pill to keep forces awake". The Scotsman. February 27, 2005. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "Pilot pill project". News – City. PuneMirror. February 16, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Taylor GP, Jr; Keys RE (December 1, 2003). "Modafinil and management of aircrew fatigue" (PDF). United States Department of the Air Force. Retrieved September 18, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b Air Force Special Operations Command Instruction 48–101 Archived 2014-06-11 at the Wayback Machine. (sects. 1.7.4), U.S. Air Force Special Operations Command, November 30, 2012.
  19. ^ a b c d e "PLA eyes 'Night Eagle' to make army of night owls". South China Morning Post. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "Super Soldiers? Military Drug New Rage". ABC News. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  21. ^ "IAF pilots pop pills to get fighting edge - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  22. ^ a b "Indian Air Force pilots popping pills to 'heighten alertness'". DAWN. 8 February 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  23. ^ "UK army tested 'stay awake' pills". BBC NEWS. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  24. ^ a b "Medicine developed for Chinese Army to fight sleep". Korea Times. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  25. ^ "Stay Awake, Comrades". Psychology Today. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  26. ^ "China Reform Monitor - No. 928". American Foreign Policy Council. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  27. ^ "Brain Doping: A Quiet Revolution". Asian Scientist Magazine. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  28. ^ "Re: [EastAsia] [OS] CHINA/CT/MIL - Chinese army develops drug to keep soldiers awake for up to 72 hours - paper". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  29. ^ Kamienski, Lukasz. "The Drugs That Built a Super Soldier". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  30. ^ "WW II German soldiers, civilians dropped amphetamines to give them boost to battle allies". NY Daily News. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  31. ^ "Soldiers Have Used Drugs to Enhance Their Killing Capabilities in Basically Every War - VICE". Vice. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  32. ^ Ulrich, Andreas. "The Nazi Death Machine: Hitler's Drugged Soldiers - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  33. ^ "Jeevan Vasagar: cocaine-based "wonder drug" tested on concentration camp inmates". Amphetamines.com. 19 November 2002. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 

External linksEdit