D-IX is a methamphetamine-based experimental performance enhancer developed by Nazi Germany in 1944 for military application.[1][2] The researcher who rediscovered this project, Wolf Kemper, said that "the aim was to use D-IX to redefine the limits of human endurance."[3] One dose contained 5 mg oxycodone (brand name Eukodal, an analgesic opioid), 5 mg cocaine, and 3 mg methamphetamine (brand name Pervitin).[4]

German doctors were enthusiastic about the results, and planned to supply all German troops with the pills, but the war ended before D-IX could be put into mass production, though it did see limited use among a handful of Neger and Biber pilots.[5]


Due to increased Allied pressure on the German war effort, Nazi Germany had grown desperate for new soldiers to continue the war effort, and one way to mitigate the massive losses was to increase the combative power of the remaining soldiers in the Wehrmacht. Though simpler drugs such as Pervitin and Isophan helped to keep soldiers properly stimulated, Vice Admiral Hellmuth Heye in March 1944 requested a drug that could also provide the users with superhuman strength and a boosted sense of self-esteem.

Pharmacologist Gerhard Orzechowski [de] and a group of other researchers were commissioned in Kiel to develop this drug, and by later in the year developed a formula which contained in each tablet: 5 mg of oxycodone (brand name Eukodal), 5 mg of cocaine, and 3 mg of methamphetamine (then called Pervitin, now available under the brand name Desoxyn).[5]

Nazi researchers found that equipment-laden prisoners from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp could march for up to 90 kilometers (55 miles) per day without rest while carrying a 20 kilogram (45 lb) backpack.[3]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Mangesh & Jason (17 November 2007). Peled, Asaf; Weiss, Sharon (eds.). "Armies Hopped Up on Drugs". Mental Floss. New York City, New York, United States of America: Minute Media (Pro Sportority (Israel) Ltd). ISSN 1543-4702. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015.
  2. ^ Ulrich, Andreas (6 May 2005). "Hitler's Drugged Soldiers". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b Vasagar, Jeevan (19 November 2002). Rusbridger, Alan (ed.). "Nazis tested cocaine on camp inmates". The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  4. ^ "Intoxicated into battle". Der Spiegel (online). Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  5. ^ a b Paterson, Lawrence (2006). Weapons of Desperation: German Frogmen and Midget Submarines of World War II. Chatham Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-86176-279-5.