List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum

This is a selected list of authors and works listed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The Index was discontinued on June 14, 1966 by Pope Paul VI.[1][2]

The complete works of Gregorio Leti (Critique historique pictured) were listed, including his treatise on cardinal-nephews and his biographies of Olimpia Maidalchini and Pope Sixtus V.

A complete list of the authors and writings present in the subsequent editions of the index are listed in J. Martinez de Bujanda, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, 1600–1966, Geneva, 2002.

The Index includes entries for single or multiple works by an author, all works by an author in a given genre or dealing with a given topic. The scope of the prohibition is defined by a Latin phrase in the Index:

  • Omnia opera dramatica: all plays
  • Omnes fabulae amatoriae: all novels, or romances
  • Opera omnia theologica: all theological works
  • Opera omnia: all works (see note below)

The Index includes entries banning all works of a particular writer. Most of these were inserted in the Index at a time when the Index itself stated that the prohibition of someone's "opera omnia" (all his works) did not cover works whose contents did not concern religion and were not forbidden by the general rules of the Index, but this explanation was omitted in the 1929 edition, an omission that was officially interpreted in 1940 as meaning that thenceforth "opera omnia" covered all the author's works without exception.[3]

List of authors and works in the final edition, with later additionsEdit

This is a selected list of the authors and works appearing in the final published edition of the Index in 1948, with later additions until the Index was discontinued in 1966.

Banned Name Works Ref.
1600 Bruno, Giordano All works [a]
1626, 1657, 1658,
1659, 1672
Grotius, Hugo All works of theology;
De Imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (pub. 1647);
Annales et historiae de rebus belgicis (pub. 1657);
+6 more
[b]
1645 Browne, Thomas Religio Medici; the religion of a physician [c]
1649 Hobbes, Thomas All works [d]
1657, 1789 Pascal, Blaise Lettres provinciales (1657);
Pensées (pub. 1670), with notes by Voltaire
[e]
1659 Calvin, John Judicial lexicon of imperial and canon law [f]
1663 Descartes, René Meditations (1641);
Les passions de l'âme (1649);
Opera philosophica. Donec corrig.;
+4 more
[g]
1667 Leti, Gregorio All works [h]
1668 Bacon, Francis (Baco, Franciscus) De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum libri IX. Donec corrig. [i]
1676 Montaigne, Michel de Essays [j]
1679, 1690 Spinoza, Baruch Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (1677);
Posthumous works
[k]
1684 Eriugena, Johannes Scotus (Erigena, Ioannes Scotus) De divisione naturae libri quinque diu desiderati [l]
1689, 1707, 1712 Malebranche, Nicolas Traité de la nature et de la grace (1680);
Traité de morale (1684);
+4 more
[m]
1694, 1758 Milton, John Literae pseudo-senatus anglicani, Cromwellii reliquorumque perduellium nomine ac iussu conscriptae (1676);
Paradise Lost (1667)
[n]
1703 La Fontaine, Jean de Contes et Nouvelles [o]
1717 Maimonides 'Tractate on Idolatry from the Mishneh Torah with notes by Dionysius Vossius' [p]
1729 Addison, Joseph Remarks on Several Parts of Italy (1705; revised 1718) [q]
1734, 1737 Locke, John An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689);
The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures (1695)
[r]
1738 Swedenborg, Emanuel Principia (1734) [s]
1742 Berkeley, George Alciphron, or The Minute Philosopher [t]
1743 Defoe, Daniel The Political History of the Devil (1726) [u]
1744 Richardson, Samuel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) [v]
1751, 1762 Montesquieu Lettres Persanes (1721);
De l'esprit des lois (1748)
[w]
1752, 1753, 1757,
1761, 1762, 1765,
1766, 1768, 1769,
1771, 1773, 1776,
1779
Voltaire Candide (1759);
Traité sur la tolérance (1763);
Lettres philosophiques (1733; revised 1778);
+38 more
[x]
1758, 1804 Diderot, Denis Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (1751–72);
Jacques le fataliste et son maître (pub. 1796)
[y]
1758 d'Alembert, Jean le Rond Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (1751–72) [z]
1759, 1774 Helvétius, Claude Adrien De l'Esprit (1758);
De l'homme, de ses facultés intellectuelles et de son éducation
[aa]
1761 Hume, David All works [ab]
1762, 1766, 1806, Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Émile, ou de l'éducation (1762);
Du contrat social (1762);
Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761)
[ac]
1764 Kollár, Adam František (Kollarius, Adamus Franciscus) De originibus et usu perpetuo potestatis legislatoriae circa sacra apostolicorum regum Ungariae (1764) [ad]
1766 Beccaria, Cesare Dei Delitti e delle pene (1764) [4]
1783 Gibbon, Edward Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–1788) [ae]
1815, 1840, 1859,
1863, 1866, 1896
Michelet, Jules 6 titles [af]
1817 Darwin, Erasmus Zoonomia; or The Laws of Organic Life (1794) [ag]
1819 Sterne, Laurence A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (1768) [ah]
1827 Condorcet, Nicholas de Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (1794) [ai]
1827 Kant, Immanuel Critique of Pure Reason (1781; revised 1787) [aj]
1828 Stendhal All love stories [ak]
1834, 1837, 1838,
1841, 1843, 1846,
Lamennais, Hugues Felicité Robert de 7 works [al]
1834 Casanova, Giacomo Mémoires [am]
1835 Bentham, Jeremy Deontology, or The science of morality (1834);
+3 more
[an]
1836 Heine, Heinrich Reisebilder;
De l'Allemagne;
De la France
[ao]
1840 Sand, George All love stories [ap]
1841 Balzac, Honoré de All love stories [aq]
1849 Gioberti, Vincenzo All works [ar]
1852 Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph All works [as]
1856 Mill, John Stuart Principles of Political Economy (1848) [at]
1859, 1860, 1863,
1866, 1869, 1877,
1881, 1882, 1884,
1891, 1892,
Renan, Ernest 19 titles [au]
1863, 1880 Dumas, Alexandre (fils) All love stories;
La question du divorce
[av]
1863 Dumas, Alexandre (père) All love stories [aw]
1864 Comte, Auguste Cours de philosophie positive [ax]
1864 Flaubert, Gustave Madame Bovary (1856);
Salammbô (1862)
[ay]
1873 Larousse, Pierre Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle (1866–76) [az]
1876 Draper, John William History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874) [ba]
1894 Zola, Émile All works [bb]
1911, 1928, 1935,
1939
D'Annunzio, Gabriele All plays;
All love stories;
+3 more
[bc]
1914 Bergson, Henri Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience;
Matière et mémoire; essai sur la relation du corps à l'esprit;
L'évolution créatrice
[bd]
1914 Maeterlinck, Maurice All works [be]
1922 France, Anatole All works [bf]
1931 van de Velde, Theodoor Hendrik Het volkomen huwelijk (1926) [bg]
1948 Sartre, Jean-Paul All works [5]
1952 Gide, André All works [6]
1952 Moravia, Alberto All works [7]
1953 Kazantzakis, Nikos The Last Temptation of Christ (1955) [8]
1956 de Beauvoir, Simone The Second Sex (1949);
The Mandarins (1954)
[9]

Reversals and non-inclusionsEdit

There have been cases of reversal with respect to works that were on the Index, such as those of Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence.[10] In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorised the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific works[11] which included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue.[12] In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.[13] All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index.[14]

Not on the Index were Aristophanes, Juvenal, John Cleland, James Joyce and D. H. Lawrence. According to Wallace et al., this was because the primary criterion for banning the work was anticlericalism, blasphemy and heresy.

Some authors whose views are generally unacceptable to the Church (e.g. Karl Marx) were never put on the Index; nor was Charles Darwin (see Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church).[15][16]

Works that were included in the Index, and later removed, include:

Banned Name Works Ref.
1585 Dante Alighieri De Monarchia (1312–13)?
1616 to 1835 Nicolaus Copernicus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)
to 1835 Johannes Kepler Astronomia nova (1609);
Harmonices Mundi (1619);
Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (1617–21)
Sade Justine (1791);
Juliette (1797–1801)
Madame de Staël Corinne, ou l'Italie (1807)
until 1959 Victor Hugo Notre Dame de Paris (1831);
Les Misérables (1862)

Beacon resultsEdit

  1. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Bruno
  2. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Grotius
  3. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Browne
  4. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Hobbes
  5. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Pascal
  6. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Calvin
  7. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Descartes
  8. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Leti
  9. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Baco
  10. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Montaigne
  11. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Spinoza
  12. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Erigena
  13. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Malebranche
  14. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Milton
  15. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Fontaine
  16. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Maimonides
  17. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Addison
  18. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Locke
  19. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Swedenborg
  20. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Berkeley
  21. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Defoe
  22. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Richardson
  23. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Montesquieu
  24. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Voltaire
  25. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Diderot
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  27. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Helvetius
  28. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Hume
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  30. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Kollarius
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  32. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Michelet
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  34. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Sterne
  35. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Condorcet
  36. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Kant
  37. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Stendhal
  38. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Lamennais
  39. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Casanova
  40. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Bentham
  41. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Heine
  42. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Sand
  43. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Balzac
  44. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Gioberti
  45. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Proudhon
  46. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Mill, John Stuart
  47. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Renan
  48. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Dumas
  49. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Dumas
  50. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Comte
  51. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Flaubert
  52. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Larousse
  53. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Draper
  54. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Zola
  55. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Annunzio
  56. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Bergson
  57. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Materlinck
  58. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for France
  59. ^ Beacon for Freedom of Expression search for Van de Velde

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Galileo and Books", Department of History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Cambridge
  2. ^ The Church in the Modern Age, (Volume 10) by Hubert Jedin, John Dolan, Gabriel Adriányi 1981 ISBN 082450013X, page 168
  3. ^ Jesús Martínez de Bujanda, Index librorum prohibitorum: 1600-1966 (Droz 2002 ISBN 2-600-00818-7), p. 36
  4. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 116. ISBN 9782894205228.
  5. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 808. ISBN 9782894205228.
  6. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 384. ISBN 9782894205228.
  7. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 634. ISBN 9782894205228.
  8. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 481. ISBN 9782894205228.
  9. ^ De Bujanda, Jesús Martínez; Richter, Marcella (2002). Index des livres interdits: Index librorum prohibitorum 1600-1966. Médiaspaul. p. 116. ISBN 9782894205228.
  10. ^ Heilbron (2005, p. 299).
  11. ^ Two of his non-scientific works, the letters to Castelli and the Grand Duchess Christina, were explicitly not allowed to be included (Coyne 2005, p. 347).
  12. ^ Heilbron (2005, pp. 303–04); Coyne (2005, p. 347). The uncensored version of the Dialogue remained on the Index of prohibited books, however (Heilbron 2005, p. 279).
  13. ^ Heilbron (2005, p. 307); Coyne (2005, p. 347) The practical effect of the ban in its later years seems to have been that clergy could publish discussions of heliocentric physics with a formal disclaimer assuring its hypothetical character and their obedience to the church decrees against motion of the earth: see for example the commented edition (1742) of Newton's 'Principia' by Fathers Le Seur and Jacquier, which contains such a disclaimer ('Declaratio') before the third book (Propositions 25 onwards) dealing with the lunar theory.
  14. ^ McMullin (2005, p. 6); Coyne (2005, p. 346).
  15. ^ Vatican opens up secrets of Index of Forbidden Books.
  16. ^ Heneghan, Tom, "Secrets Behind The Forbidden Books", America, The National Catholic Weekly, February 7, 2005
  17. ^ Halsall, Paul (May 1, 1998). "Modern History Sourcebook: Index librorum prohibitorum, 1557–1966 (Index of Prohibited Books)". Internet History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham University).

ReferencesEdit

  • Coyne, George V. (2005). The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth. In McMullin. pp. 340–359.
  • Heilbron, John L. (2005). Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo. In McMullin. pp. 279–322.
  • McMullin, Ernan, ed. (2005). The Church and Galileo. Notre Dame, In: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-03483-4.

External linksEdit