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List of anime by release date (pre-1939)

A clip from the short film Namakura Gatana (1917), the oldest extant film made for cinemas known to exist.

This is a list of anime by release date which covers Japanese animated productions that were made between 1917–1938. Anime in Japan can be traced back to three key figures whom in the early 20th century started experimenting with paper animation. It is unknown when the first animated film was made, but historians have tied the year 1917 as being the key date. Very few of the first animations that were made survive to this day due to the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. At one point it was even thought that all animated works made before the earthquake were lost until the discovery of two films in 2008. Production of animated works resumed again after the earthquake, and by the early/mid 1930s sound, and cel animation were starting to appear. Later in the decade, Japan went to war with China, resulting in paper needed for the war to be used sparingly. As a result, new manga stories disappeared from the public while the Japanese government stepped in to regulate what was being released through the cinemas to take its place. The mid to late 1930s saw more animated works that were propaganda-themed to rally the public's support.

Contents

1917–1922Edit

1917 was the year of definitive firsts in the history of Japanese animation. The three key figures at the time were Ōten Shimokawa, Seitarou Kitayama, and Junichi Kouchi each contributing to making the first short films that would be known as anime. There is much debate over which gets the honor of the first animated film, and even the exact date of that film's premiere. According to contemporary sources of the time, an unknown titled film of Tennenshoku Katsudō Shashin premiered in January. Evidence of this comes from Kinema Record, with the July edition making specific claim to the first release occurring in January, but does not specify the title of the work.[1] Shimokawa's film Imokawa Mukozo the Doorman is conventionally and largely claimed to be the first work, but contemporary sources portray it as the "third" film. Speculation about the error is debated, but the two now lost films and their contents have been reported by various sources allowing for a clearer picture of the early history.

The first confirmed film release occurred in the first ten days of February, with Shimokawa's Dekobō shingachō – Meian no shippai (凸坊新画帳・名案の失敗, Bumpy new picture book – Failure of a great plan).[1] The film was produced with chalk on a blackboard, with redrawing for each frame. Shimokawa would switch to paper for later, but the exact date and work to depict the switch is unknown.[1] Kouchi's first film Hanawa Hekonai Meitō no Maki (塙凹内名刀之巻, Hanawa Hekonai – The famous sword) also known as Namakura Gatana (なまくら刀, Dull Katana) and Tameshigiri (試し斬, The sword test) premiered on June 30. This film is currently the earliest surviving work, and was only rediscovered in March 2008.[2] Katsudō Shashin was widely reported as possibly dating to 1907, but is of unconfirmed origin and is not known to have premiered or been produced for commercial interest.

Of the animated films produced in 1918, at least eight are known. These films include Momotarō, which was the first animated film to be shown outside Japan, and Tarou Urashima which is based on the Japanese legend Urashima Tarō.[3] There are no known animated films that were made from 1919 to 1923 in existence, which could be the result of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.

English Name Japanese Name Romaji Format Original Release Date Status
Battle of a Monkey and a Crab 猿蟹合戦 Sarukani gassen Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
Bumpy new picture book – Failure of a great plan 凸坊新画帳・名案の失敗 Dekobō shingachō – Meian no shippai Short Film 1917[1] Lost film[4]
Bunbuku kettle
(Fairy-tale: Bunbuku kettle)
文福茶釜
(お伽噺・文福茶釜)
Bunbuku chagama
Otogibanashi-Bunbuku chagama
Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
Cat and Mice 猫と鼠 Neko to nezumi Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Chamebō ‒ Air gun
aka: "Chame’s air gun"
茶目坊空気銃の巻
茶目の空気銃
Chamebō Kūkijū no maki
"Chame no kūkijū"
Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Chamebō's new picture book – The Revenge of Mr. and Mrs. Flea 茶目坊新画帳・蚤夫婦仕返しの巻 Chamebō shingachō – Nomi fūfu shikaeshi no maki Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Great Oaks from Little Acorns Grow 塵も積もれば山となる Chiri mo tsumoreba yama to naru Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Hanawa Hekonai – The Famous Sword
aka: "Dull Katana" or "The Sword Test"
塙凹内名刀之巻
なまくら刀 or 試し斬
Hanawa Hekonai Meitō no Maki
"Namakura Gatana" or "Tameshigiri"
Short Film 1917[1][5] Extant
Hanawa Hekonai – The Kappa Festival 塙凹内かっぱまつり Hanawa Hekonai Kappa matsuri Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Imokawa Mukuzō goes fishing
aka: "Chamebōzu goes fishing"
芋川椋三釣の巻
茶目坊主魚釣の巻
Imokawa Mukuzō Tsuri no maki
"Chamebōzu Uozuri no maki"
Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Imokawa Mukuzō – Somersault 芋川椋三宙返りの巻 Imokawa Mukuzō - Chūgaeri no maki Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Imokawa Mukozo the Doorman 芋川椋三玄関番の巻 Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
Kachikachi Mountain カチカチ山 Kachikachiyama Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
Naughty Mailbox いたずらポスト Itazura posuto Short Film 1917[1] Unknown
Sparrow with no Tongue 舌切雀 Shitakire suzume Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
The Dream Car 夢の自動車 Yume no jidōsha Short Film 1917[1][6] Unknown
The Ministry of Culture's Art Exhibition 文展の巻 Bunten no maki Short Film 1917 Unconfirmed to exist[1]
The Old Man Who Made Flowers Bloom 花咲爺 Hanasaka-jiji Short Film 1917[1][7] Lost film
The Pot and the Black Cat お鍋と黒猫の巻 Onabe to kuroneko no maki Short Film 1917 Unconfirmed to exist[1]
What to do with your Postal Savings 貯金の勧 Chokin no susume Short Film 1917[1] Lost film
Issun-bōshi (Little One Inch) 一寸法師 Issun-bōshi Short Film 1918[8] Unknown
Kintarō 金太郎 Kintarou Short Film 1918[9] Unknown
Momotarō (anime) 桃太郎 Momotarou Short Film 1918[3] Extant
Snowman 雪達磨 Yukidaruma Short Film 1918[10] Unknown
Taro the Guard, The Submarine
Taro no Banpei, Senkotei no Maki Short Film 1918[11] Fragmented
The Ant and the Pigeon 蟻と鳩 Ari to Hato Short Film 1918[12] Unknown
The Frog's Dream 蛙の夢 Kaeru no Yume Short Film 1918[13] Unknown
Tarou Urashima 浦島太郎 Urashima Tarou Short Film 1918[2][14] Extant

1923 earthquakeEdit

 
Total destruction of Nihonbashi and Kanda seen from the Roof of Dai-ichi Sogo Building, Kyōbashi

The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake which occurred on September 1 dealt incredible damage in Japan, the greatest prior to World War II which resulted in 105,385 confirmed deaths.[15][16][17] Prior to the rediscovery of several Japanese animated films it was presumed that all prints produced up to its date had been destroyed. The account and record of these films themselves has been expanded, with Patten's Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews 2004 book claiming that three films were produced in 1917 when over a dozen works are now known.[1][18] Despite the findings, the earthquake along with World War II have resulted in only 4% of all Japanese films made before 1945 being known to exist today.[19]

1924–1938Edit

After the earthquake production of new films took place within a year. For the early films, benshi, storytellers were hired who sat next to the screen and narrated the silent movies. They were descendants of kabuki jōruri, kōdan storytellers, theater barkers and other forms of oral storytelling.[20] The first animated "talkie" or sound film titled Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka ("World of Power and Women") was made in 1933, now a lost film it was a breakthrough for Japanese animation.[21] However, at the time more than 80 percent of movies made in the country were still silents.[22] By the mid 1930s the animation style was changing as well, chiyogami or paper animation was being phased out in favor of cel animation. Previously this latter form had been dismissed as too costly to use.[23] In 1934, the first entirely cel animated short entitled The Dance of the Chagamas was made.[11] Cel animated shorts of the mid 1930s borrowed aspects that were being used at the time by Disney. Towards the end of the decade, political events taking place at home as well as abroad were changing animation styles in Japan towards propaganda, and national pride.

  • Note: The kanji 漫画 means "cartoon", this is found before some of the titles in the sources listed below.
English Name Japanese Name Romaji Format Original Release Date Status
Crab Temple 蟹満寺縁起 Kanimanjiengi Short Film 1924[24] Extant
Genzo Performs a Ceremony with a Parting Cup 赤垣源蔵徳利の別れ Akagaki Genzo tokkuri no wakare Short Film 1924[25] Unknown
Jewels Whisper 宝珠のささやき Hōshu no Sasayaki Short Film 1924[26] Unknown
Stand Up with Shinpei Goto 人気の焦点に立てる後藤新平 Ninki no shōten ni tateru Gotō Shinpei Short Film 1924[27] Unknown
The Hare and The Tortoise 兎と亀 Usagi to Kame Short Film 1924[28][29] Extant
Budget Politics 予算政治 Yosan seiji Short Film 1925[30] Unknown
Dreamy Urashima ノンキナトウサン竜宮参り Nonkinatousan Ryugu Mairi Short Film 1925[29] Lost film
Same Voters 醒めよ有権者 Sameyo yūkensha Short Film 1925[31] Unknown
Shiobara Tasuke 塩原多助 Shiobara Tasuke Short Film 1925[11][32] Extant
The Pot ポット Potto Short Film 1925[33] Extant
Ubasuteyama 姨捨山 Ubasuteyama Short Film 1925[34] Extant
A Story of Tobacco 煙り草物語 Kemurigusa Monogatari Short Film 1926[35] Extant
Burglars of "Baghdad" Castle 馬具田城の盗賊 Bagudajo no tozoku Short Film 1926[35] Extant
Diseases Spread 病毒の伝播 Byodoku no denpa Short Film 1926[35] Extant
Ethicization of Politics by Shinpei Goto, 1926 政治の倫理化 後藤新平 1926 Eigaenzetsu Seiji no rinrika Gotō Shinpei 1926 Short Film 1926[34] Extant
Journey to the West: Songoku's Story 西遊記孫悟空物語 Saiyuuki: Son Gokuu Monogatari Short Film 1926[36][37] Extant[38]
A Ship of Oranges みかん船 Mikan-bune Short Film 1927[36][37] Extant[38]
Kita Hell Paradise 弥次喜多 地獄極楽 Yaji-Kita jigoku gokuraku Short Film 1927[39] Unknown
Power of Co-operation 協同の力 Kyōdō no chikara Short Film 1927[40] Unknown
Battle of a Monkey and a CrabB 猿蟹合戦 Sarukani gassen Short Film 1927[41] Extant
The Octopus Skeleton タコなしホーン Tako no Hone Short Film 1927[37][42] Unknown
The Whale くじら Kujira Short Film 1927[43][44] UnknownA
Animal Olympic Games 動物オリムピック大会 Doubutsu Olympic Taikai Short Film 1928[41][45] Extant
For the Sake of Your Country 御国の為に Okuninotameni Short Film 1928[46] Extant
Mighty Taro's Reckless Training 大力太郎の無茶修行 Tairiki Tarou no Mucha Shugyou Short Film 1928[47] Extant
Momotaro the Undefeated 日本一桃太郎 Nihonichi Momotaro Short Film 1928[48][34] Extant
The Bunbuku Teapot 文福茶釜 Bunbuku Chagama Short Film 1928[11] Extant
Star Hoshi Short Film 1928[49] Lost film
The Eraeraera of the Proposed History Agreement 普選漫史協定案の巻 Fusen man shi kyōtei an no maki Short Film 1928[50] Unknown
The Nation of Fish 魚の國 Sakana no kuni Short Film 1928[33] Extant
The Old Man Who Made Flowers BloomB 花咲爺 Hanasaka-jiji Short Film 1928[41] Extant
The Special Congress of Eraeraera 普選漫史特別議会 Fusen man shi tokubetsu gikai Short Film 1928[51] Unknown
Liar's Castle うそつき城 Usotsuki-jō Short Film 1929[52] Unknown
Taro's Toy Train 太郎さんの汽車 Taro-san no Kisha Short Film 1929[53][54] Extant
The Black Cat 黒ニャゴ Kuro Nyago Short Film 1929[37][53] Extant
The Golden Flower こがねの花 Kogane no hana Short Film 1929[34] Extant
The Stolen Lump 瘤取り Kobutori Short Film 1929[53][54] Extant
The Tiny One Makes it Big 一寸法師ノ出世 Issunboushi no Shusse Short Film 1929[53] Extant
Two Worlds 二つの世界 Futatsu no sekai Short Film 1929[55] Extant
At the Border Checkpoint お関所 Osekisho Short Film 1930[34] Extant
Chimney Sweep Pero 煙突屋ペロー Entotsuya Peroo Short Film 1930[56] Extant
Chopped Snake ちょん切れ蛇 Chongire Hebi Short Film 1930[37][57] Extant
My Ski Trip おい等のスキー Oira no suki Short Film 1930[41] Extant
Nonsense Story, Vol.1: Monkey Island 難船ス物語 第壱篇 猿ヶ嶋 Nansensu Monogatari Daiippen Sarugashima Short Film 1930[34] Extant
The Bat かうもり Komori Short Film 1930[53] Extant
The Donkey 驢馬 Roba Short Film 1930[33] Extant
The Monkey Masamune 猿正宗 Saru Masamune Short Film 1930[37][58] Extant
The Village Festival 村祭り Mura Matsuri Short Film 1930[59][60] Extant
A Fox and a Badger in Rivalry 動絵狐狸達引 Ugoki-e Kori no Tatehiki Short Film 1931[11] Extant
Animal Sumo 動物相撲大会 Doubutsu Sumo Taikai Short Film 1931[61] Extant
At the Circus 見世物見物 Misemono kenbutsu Short Film 1931[41] Extant
A Wolf is a Wolf 狼は狼だ Okami wa okamida Short Film 1931[33] Extant
Bakahachi to jōshu-sama 馬鹿八と城主様 Bakahachi to jōshu-sama Short Film 1931[62] Unknown
Chameko's Day 茶目子の一日 Chameko no Ichinichi Short Film 1931[63] Extant
Electrical Telegraphy, Electric Bells and Telephones 電信 電鈴 電話 Denshin Denrei Denwa Short Film 1931[55] Extant
Home Alone Mice 鼠の留守番 Nezumi no Rusuban Short Film 1931[61] Extant
Momotaro's Sky Adventure 空の桃太郎 Sora no Momotarou Short Film 1931[37][61] Extant
Old Man Goichi 五一ぢいさん Go ichi dji isan Short Film 1931[33] Extant
Our Baseball Match おい等の野球 Oira no Yakyuu Short Film 1931[53] Extant
Shipwreck Story - First Chapter - Monkey Island 難船ス物語 第一篇 猿ケ島 Nansensu Monogatari - Daiichi-hen - Sarugashima Short Film 1931[64] Extant
Shipwreck Story - Second Chapter - The Pirate Ship 難船ス物語 第二篇 海賊船 Nansensu Monogatari - Daini-hen - Kaizokusen Short Film 1931[65] Extant
Slave War 奴隷戦争 Dorei senso Short Film 1931[66][67] Unknown
Song of Spring 春の唄 Haru no Uta Short Film 1931[61][68] Extant
Spring Review レビュー 春 Rebyu Haru Short Film 1931[41] Extant
Tanukichi's Story タヌ吉のお話 Tanukichi no Ohanashi Short Film 1931[69] Unknown
Taro Urashima 浦島太郎 Urashima Taro Short Film 1931[53] Extant
The Candy Man's Raccoon Dog Dance あめやたぬき Ameyatanuki Short Film 1931[34] Extant
The Duckling Saves the Day アヒルのお手柄 Ahiru no Otegara Short Film 1931[70] Extant
The National Anthem Kimigayo 国歌 君か代 Kokka Kimigayo Short Film 1931[53][71] Extant
The Unlucky Butterfly 蝶のさいなん Cho no Sainan Short Film 1931[61] Extant
Three Little Bears 三匹の小熊さん Sanbiki no Koguma-san Short Film 1931[72] Extant
Will Power 心の力 Kokoro no chikara Short Film 1931[33] Extant
Armies of the World の列国陸軍 Rekkoku Rikugun Short Film 1932[54] Extant
Detective Felix in Trouble FELIXノ迷探偵 Felix no meitantei Short Film 1932[54] Extant
Momotarou of the Sea / Momotaro's Underwater Adventure 海の桃太郎 Umi no Momotaro Short Film 1932[61][73] Extant
Olympic Games on Dankichi Island ダン吉島のオリムピック大会 Dankichi-jima no Olympic Taikai Short Film 1932[74] Extant
Rhythmic Triangles/Fighting Cards 三角のリズム トランプの爭 Hatena, Sankaku no rizumu, Toranpu no arasoi Short Film 1932[55] Extant
Sports Day at Animal Village 動物村のスポーツデー Doubutsu-mura no Sports Day Short Film 1932[61][75] Extant
The Bear Brothers まぐこ弟兄 Ma guko otōto ani Short Film 1932[33] Extant
The Cat Purr Dance ニヤゴダンス Nyago dansu Short Film 1932[76] Extant
The Development of the Train 汽車の發達 Kisya no hattatsu Short Film 1932[55] Extant
The Plane Cabby's Lucky Day 大当り空の円タク Ooatari Sora No Entaku Short Film 1932[61] Extant
The Ugly Duckling あひるの子 Ahiru no ko Short Film 1932[55] Extant
Tonpei and Sarukichi 豚平と猿吉 Tonpei to Sarukichi Short Film 1932[35] Extant
A Day after a Hundred Years 百年後の或る日 Hyakunengo no aruhi Short Film 1933[54] Extant
General of the Swamp 沼の大将 Numa no Taishou Short Film 1933[77] Extant
Larks' Moving Day 雲雀の宿替 Hibari no Yadogae Short Film 1933[61] Extant
Preventing Tuberculosis 結核豫防 Kekkakuyobo Short Film 1933[34] Extant
Private 2nd Class Norakuro: The Training のらくろ二等兵 演習の巻 Norakuro Nitouhei: Enshuu no Maki Short Film 1933[61][78] Extant
Private 2nd Class Norakuro: The Drill のらくろ二等兵 教練の巻 Norakuro Nitouhei: Kyouren no Maki Short Film 1933[61][78] Extant
Rascal Racoon 紙芝居 いたづら狸の卷 Kamishibai Itazuratanuki no maki Short Film 1933[54] Extant
Sanko and the Octopus: A Fight Over a Fortune 三公と蛸~百万両珍騒動 Sanko to Tako: Hyakuman-ryo Chinsodo Short Film 1933[61] Extant
The Monkey's Big Catch お猿の大漁 Osaru no Tairyou Short Film 1933[79] Extant
The Three Fearless Frogs 蛙三勇士 Kaeru sanyushi Short Film 1933[35] Extant
World of Power and Women 力と女の世の中 Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka Short Film 1933[11] Lost film
Yoshichiro Salutes まんが劇 與七郎の敬禮 Mangageki Yoshichiro no keirei Short Film 1933[33] Extant
Corporal Norakuro のらくろ伍長 Norakuro Gochou Short Film 1934[37][80] Extant
Kamishibai Kintaro 紙芝居 金太郎の卷 Kamishibai Kintaro no maki Short Film 1934[76] Extant
Hyoei and Heibei's Tengu Hunt 天狗退治 Tengu Taiji Short Film 1934[80] Extant
Princess of the Moon Palace 月の宮の王女様 Tsuki no Miya no Oujo-sama Short Film 1934[81] Extant
Sankichi the Monkey: Shock Troops お猿の三吉 突撃隊 Osaru no Sankichi: Totsugeki Tai no Kan Short Film 1934[80] Extant
Sankichi and Osayo A Genroku Romance 元禄恋模様 三吉とおさよ Genrokukoimoyo Sankichi to Osayo Short Film 1934[41] Extant
Spring Comes to Ponsuke ポン助の春 Ponsuke no haru Short Film 1934[76] Extant
The Dance of the Chagamas/The Teakettle Marching Song 茶釜音頭 Chagama Ondo Short Film 1934[11] Extant
The Gang and Dancer ギャングと踊り子 Gyangu to Odoriko Short Film 1934[82] Unknown
Toy Box Series Episode 3: Picture Book 1936 オモチャ箱シリーズ第3話 絵本1936年 Omocha-Bako Series, Dai-3-Wa: Ehon 1936-nen Short Film 1934[83][84] Extant
An Expression AN EXPRESSION(表現) An Expression, Hyogen Short Film 1935[54] Extant
Cowardly Samurai Squad 弱虫珍選組 Yowamushi Chinsengumi Short Film 1935[85] Extant
Danemon Ban - The Monster Exterminator 證城寺の狸囃子 塙団右衛門 Ban Danemon - Shojoji no tanuki-bayashi Short Film 1935[11][86] Extant
Ninja Fireball in Edo 忍術火の玉小僧~江戸の巻 Ninjutsu Hinotama Kozou: Edo no Maki Short Film 1935[80] Extant
Private 1st Class NoraKuro のらくろ一等兵 Norakuro Ittohei Short Film 1935[87] Extant
Private 2nd Class NoraKuro のらくろ二等兵 Norakuro Nitouhei Short Film 1935[88] Extant
Propagate PROPAGATE(開花) Propagate, Kaika Short Film 1935[55] Extant
Rhythm RHYTHM(リズム) Rhythm, Rizumu Short Film 1935[55] Extant
Ta-chan's Underwater Adventure ターチャンの海底旅行 Tāchan no kaitei ryoko Short Film 1935[80] Extant
Taro's Monster Hunt 古寺のおばけ騒動 Furudera no Obake-soudou Short Film 1935[89] Extant
The Hare in Inaba いなばの国の兎さん Inabanokuni no usagisan Short Film 1935[34] Extant
Tiny Chibisuke's Big Adventure 一寸法師〜ちび助物語 Issunboushi: Chibisuke Monogatari Short Film 1935[80] Extant
Why is the Sea Water Salty? 海の水はなぜからい Umi no Mizu Hanaze Karai Short Film 1935[80] Extant
A Night at the Bar 居酒屋の一夜 Izakaya no Ichiya Short Film 1936[37][80] Extant
Chinkoroheibei and the Treasure Box ちんころ平平玉手箱 Chinkoroheibei to tamatebako Short Film 1936[90] Extant
Mabo's Big Race マー坊の大競争 Mabo no Daikyoso Short Film 1936[89][91] Extant
Mabo's Tokyo Olympics マー坊の東京オリンピック大会 Mabo no Tokyo Olympic Taikai Short Film 1936[91] Unknown
Mt. Kachikachi 新説カチカチ山 Shinsetsu Kachi Kachi Yama Short Film 1936[92] Extant
My Big Emergency おいらの非常時 Oirano hijoji Short Film 1936[41] Extant
Saturn 土星 Dosei Short Film 1936[93] Unknown
Taro's Early Training Days 日の丸太郎~武者修行の巻 Hinomaru Tarou: Musha Shugyou no Maki Short Film 1936[89] Extant
Taro's Training Days 日の丸太郎 武者修行 Hinomaru Tarou: Shashi Short Film 1936[94] Unknown
The Monkey Fleet お猿の艦隊 Osaru no Kantai Short Film 1936[80] Extant
The Sparrows' Lodge 雀のお宿 Suzume no Oyado Short Film 1936[80] Extant
The Sun and the Frogs お日様と蛙 Ohi-sama to Kaeru Short Film 1936[80] Extant
Mabo's Boy Aviation Squadron マー坊の少年航空兵 Mabo no Shonen Kokutai Short Film 1937[95][91] Extant
The Making of a Color Animation 色彩漫画の出來る迄 Shikisaimanga no dekirumade Short Film 1937[54] Extant
The Missing Dumpling だんごの行方 Dango no yukue Short Film 1937[96] Unknown
Eagles Arawashi Short Film 1938[97] Unknown
Mabo as Tokichiro Kinoshita マー坊の木下藤吉郎 Mabo no Kinoshita Toukichiro Short Film 1938[89] Extant
NoraKuro's Tiger Hunt のらくろ虎退治 Norakuro tora taiji Short Film 1938[98] Extant
Sky Eagles 空の荒鷲 Sora no arawashi Short Film 1938[91] Unknown
Taro Overseas 海國太郎 新日本島萬歳 Kaikoku Taro Shin Nihon-jima Banzai Short Film 1938[37] Extant
Tekusuke Monogatari テク助物語 Tekusuke Monogatari Short Film 1938[99] Extant
The Aerial Battle over Shanghai - Sora no Shanghai Sensen Short Film 1938[97] Unknown

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

A.^ "The Whale" was recreated by Noburō Ōfuji in 1952 using cutouts of transparent coloured cellophane.[100] It is unclear what happened to the original black and white production.
B.^ Possibly a remake of the 1917 lost film of the same name.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Litten, Frederick. "Some remarks on the first Japanese animation films in 1917" (PDF). Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "Two Nine-Decade-Old Anime Films Discovered (Updated)". Anime News Network. 
  3. ^ a b Jean Ann Wright (January 24, 2005). Animation Writing and Development: From Script Development to Pitch. Focal Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-2408-0549-8. Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  4. ^ "日本アニメ史:新説、「最古」は下川凹天の別作品". 2013-07-08. Archived from the original on July 12, 2013. Retrieved 2016-01-09. 
  5. ^ "The Dull Sword [the longest, digitally restored version]". animation.filmarchives.jp. Retrieved May 19, 2017. 
  6. ^ "夢の自動車" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  7. ^ "花咲爺". Nikkatsu. Retrieved 2016-01-10. 
  8. ^ "一寸法師" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2016-01-12. 
  9. ^ "金太郎" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2016-01-12. 
  10. ^ "雪達磨". Japanese Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Sharp, Jasper (23 September 2004). "Pioneers of Japanese Animation". Midnight Eye: The Latest and Best in Japanese Cinema. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  12. ^ "蟻と鳩". Japanese Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
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