List of World War I aces credited with 20 or more victories

A young male in flying uniform, with a medal around his neck.
Manfred von Richthofen, the most successful flying ace of World War I wearing the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's highest military order in this official portrait, c. 1917

The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft. When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed. The American qualification of five victories eventually became the standard, even though other air services had previously used differing figures.[1]

A white biplane fighter aircraft, with (in order of increasing size) blue, white and red concentric circles as the insignia on its wings, siting in a field of dirt
The Nieuport 17, a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-seater aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. If a two-seater aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew members were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not, and vice versa.[2] The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of air-to-air victories in military history.[3]

Loss of records by mischance and the passage of time complicates reconstructing the actual count for given aces. The scores presented in the list cannot be definitive, but are based on itemized lists that are the best available sources of information.[4] Aces are listed after verifying the date and location of combat, and the foe vanquished, for every victory accredited by an aviator's home air service using their own aerial victory standards. Those victories for which the evidence is unavailable or fragmentary have been excluded from the victory count.

AcesEdit

This list is complete. Notable aces are linked to their biographies.

  This along with the symbolic sword †, indicates that the pilot was known to be either killed in action, missing in action, died of wounds, or killed in a flying accident during World War I.

Name Country Air service(s) Victories Note
Manfred von Richthofen   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 80[5] The Red Baron
PLM plus 22 other awards
René Fonck   France Aéronautique Militaire 75[6] Top Allied and French ace
CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, BCdeG, MC, MM
Billy Bishop   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 72[7][a] Top Canadian and British Empire ace
VC, CB, DSO*, MC, DFC.
Ernst Udet   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 62[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Edward Mannock   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 61[8] Top British ace

VC, DSO**, MC*.

Raymond Collishaw   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 60[9] Top Royal Naval Air Service ace
DSO*, DSC, DFC, OSA, CdeG
James McCudden   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 57[7] VC, DSO*, MC*, MM, CdeG
Andrew Beauchamp-Proctor   South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] Top South African ace
VC, DSO, MC*, DFC
Erich Löwenhardt   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 54[5] PLM, IC
Donald MacLaren   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 54[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Georges Guynemer   France Aéronautique Militaire 53[10] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSO, OLII
William George Barker   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 50[7] VC, DSO*, MC**, MMV*(Silver), CdeG
Josef Jacobs   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, IC
Werner Voss   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 48[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Robert A. Little   Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 47[7] Top Australian ace
DSO*, DSC*, CdeG
George McElroy   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 47[11] Top Irish ace

MC**, DFC*

Fritz Rumey   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 45[5] PLM, IC
Albert Ball   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 44[7][12] VC, DSO**, MC, OSG
Rudolf Berthold   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, MOSH, IC
Bruno Loerzer   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 44[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Paul Bäumer   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 43[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, WB
Tom F. Hazell   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 43[7] DSO, MC, DFC*
Charles Nungesser   France Aéronautique Militaire 43[13] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, DSC, MC, BCdeG, DSC(US)
Georges Madon   France Aéronautique Militaire 41[14] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Oswald Boelcke   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, IC
Franz Büchner   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, MOSH, HOH, IC
Philip F. Fullard   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 40[7] DSO, MC*, AFC
Lothar von Richthofen   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 40[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Roderic Dallas   Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 39[15][b] DSO, DSC*
Charles George Gass   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[16] Top observer ace
MC
John Inglis Gilmour   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSO, MC
Heinrich Gontermann   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 39[17] PLM, HOH, MOMJ, IC
William Lancelot Jordan   South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 39[7] DSC*, DFC
Carl Menckhoff   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 39[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Alfred Atkey   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 38[7] Leading 2 seater pilot of war
MC*
William Gordon Claxton   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO, DFC*
Willy Coppens   Belgium Belgian Military Aviation 37[18] Top Belgian and balloon busting ace of war
OL, OWE, OC, CdeG, BCdeG, CdeLd'H, DSO, MC
James Ira Thomas Jones   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 37[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
Karl Bolle   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Julius Buckler   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[5] PLM, MMC(P), IC, sole award of Gold WB
Joseph Stewart Temple Fall   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 36[7] DFC**, AFC
Max Ritter von Müller   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 36[19] PLM, MOMJ, IC
Maurice Boyau   France Aéronautique Militaire 35[20] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Godwin von Brumowski   Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 35[21] Top Austro-Hungarian ace
OIC, OL, MFB, MMM, IC
Gustav Dörr   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] MMC(P), IC
Otto Könnecke   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
Frederick McCall   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
Eduard Ritter von Schleich   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, IC, MOMJ
Emil Thuy   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Josef Veltjens   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 35[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Henry Winslow Woollett   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 35[7] DSO, MC*, CdeLd'h
Francesco Baracca   Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 34[22] Top Italian ace
MMV(Gold), MMV**(Silver), MC, CdeG, OC
Michel Coiffard   France Aéronautique Militaire 34[23] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), MC
Heinrich Bongartz   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[24] PLM, HOH, IC
Heinrich Kroll   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Frank Granger Quigley   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 33[7] DSO, MC*
Kurt Wolff   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 33[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Julius Arigi   Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 32[21] MFB (1 gold and 4 silver)
Geoffrey Hilton Bowman   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 32[7] DSO, MC*, DFC
Hermann Frommherz   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 32[5] MOSH, IC
Samuel Kinkead   South Africa Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 32[25] DSO, DSC*, DFC*
Theodor Osterkamp   German Empire Marinefliegerkorps 32[5] Also World War II ace
PLM, IC
Paul Billik   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 31[5] IC
Andrew Edward McKeever   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Canadian Air Force 31[7] Top two-seater ace for UK
DSO, MC*, DFC
Gotthard Sachsenberg   German Empire Marinefliegerkorps 31[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Karl Allmenröder   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Carl Degelow   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, HOH, IC
Josef Mai   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] IC
Ulrich Neckel   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[5] PLM, IC
Karl Emil Schäfer   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 30[17] PLM, HOH, IC
Samuel Frederick Henry Thompson   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 30[7] MC, DFC
Harald Auffarth   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 29[c] HOH, IC, WB
Charles Dawson Booker   United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC, CdeG
Percy Jack Clayson   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 29[7] MC, DFC
Harry Cobby   Australia Australian Flying Corps 29[7] DSO, DFC**
Leonard Henry Rochford   United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 29[7] DSC*, DFC*
Walter Blume   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[26] PLM, IC
Léon Bourjade   France Aéronautique Militaire 28[27] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Walter von Bülow-Bothkamp   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[28] PLM, MOSH, IC
Albert Desbrisay Carter   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DSO*, CdeG
Benno Fiala Ritter von Fernbrugg   Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 28[21] OIC, OL, MMC(AH), MMM, MFB, IC
Robert Ritter von Greim   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[29] PLM, IC, MOMJ
John Everard Gurdon   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] DFC
Reginald Hoidge   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC*
Dennis Latimer   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 28[7] MC, DFC
Arthur Laumann   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[30] PLM, HOH, IC
Friedrich Ritter von Röth   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 28[31] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Fritz Otto Bernert   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[32] PLM, IC
Otto Fruhner   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[33] MMC(P), IC
Hans Kirschstein   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[34] PLM, HOH, IC
Frank Linke-Crawford   Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 27[21] OIC
Clifford McEwen   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[35] MC, DFC*, MMV
Thomas Percy Middleton   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DFC
Armand Pinsard   France Aéronautique Militaire 27[36] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG, MC
Arthur Rhys Davids   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 27[7] DSO, MC*
Frank Ormond Soden   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 27[7] DFC*
Karl Thom   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[37] PLM, MMC(P), HOH, IC
Adolf Ritter von Tutschek   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[38] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Arthur Whealy   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 27[7] DSC*, DFC
Kurt Wüsthoff   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 27[39] PLM, HOH, IC
Oskar Freiherr von Boenigk   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] PLM, IC
Eduard Ritter von Dostler   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[40] PLM, HOH, IC, MOMJ
Ronald Malcolm Fletcher   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[41] Observer ace
DFM
William Frederick James Harvey   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] MC, DFC*
Elwyn King   Australia Australian Flying Corps 26[7] DSO, DFC
Gerald Joseph Constable Maxwell   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DFC, MC, AFC
Max Näther   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 26[31] HOH, IC
Eddie Rickenbacker   United States US Army Air Service 26[42][43] Top US ace
MOH, DSC(US), CdeLd'h, CdeG
Silvio Scaroni   Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 26[44] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver)
William Ernest Staton   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 26[7] DSO*, MC, DFC*
William McKenzie Thomson   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 26[7] MC, DFC
Olivier Freiherr von Beaulieu-Marconnay   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[45] PLM, IC
Keith Caldwell   New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 25[7] Top New Zealander ace
MC, DFC*
Robert J. O. Compston   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 25[7] DSC**, DFC
Georg von Hantelmann   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[46] HOH, IC
Fritz Pütter   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 25[31] PLM, IC
Stanley Wallace Rosevear   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 25[7] DSC*
Erwin Böhme   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 24[47] PLM, HOH, IC
Peter Carpenter   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[35] DSO, MC*, MMV
George S. L. Hayward   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[41] Observer ace
MC
Harry G. E. Luchford   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*
Georg Meyer   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 24[31] IC
Tom Cecil Noel   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[48] Observer ace
MC*
Pier Ruggero Piccio   Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 24[49] MMV**(Silver)
William Ernest Shields   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 24[7] DFC*
James Anderson Slater   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 24[7] MC*, DFC
William Melville Alexander   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 23[50] DSC
Hermann Becker   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 23[51] HOH, IC
William Charles Campbell   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, MC*
René Dorme   France Aéronautique Militaire 23[52] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Matthew Brown Frew   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] DSO, MC*, AFC, MMV
Gabriel Guerin   France Aéronautique Militaire 23[53] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Howard Percy Lale   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Alexander Pentland   Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 23[7] MC, DFC
Harold Whistler   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 23[7] DSO, DFC*
Hermann Göring   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[54] PLM, HOH, IC
Thomas Sinclair Harrison   South Africa Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Marcel Haegelen   France Aéronautique Militaire 22[55] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Louis Fleeming Jenkin   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
Cecil Frederick King   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[56] MC, DFC, CdeG
Hans Klein   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] PLM, HOH, IC
John Leacroft   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] MC*
Arthur Ernest Newland   United Kingdom Royal Air Force 22[48] Observer ace
DFM*
Hans Martin Pippart   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
Werner Preuss   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[57] HOH, IC
Pierre Marinovitch   France Aéronautique Militaire 22[58] CdeLd'h, MM(Fr), CdeG
Benjamin Roxburgh-Smith   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Karl Schlegel   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[31] IC
Joseph Leonard Maries White   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 22[7] DFC*, BCdeG
Rudolf Windisch   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 22[59] PLM, HOH, IC
Hans von Adam   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[60] HOH
Friedrich Altemeier   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[61] MMC(P), IC, WB
Flavio Baracchini   Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 21[62] MMV(Gold)
Francis Cubbon   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[63] Observer ace
MC*
Harold Leslie Edwards   Canada Royal Air Force 21[41] DFC, MM
Friedrich Friedrichs   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] PLM, HOH, IC
Alfred Heurtaux   France Aéronautique Militaire 21[64] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Charles Hickey   Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 21[7] DFC*
Fritz Höhn   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
William John Charles Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC*
Richard Maybery   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] MC
Edgar McCloughry   Australia Australian Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, DFC*
Richard Minifie   Australia Royal Naval Air Service 21[7] DSC**
Friedrich T. Noltenius   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 21[31] HOH, IC
George Edwin Thomson   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 21[7] DSO, MC, DFC
Leonard Monteagle Barlow   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC**
Douglas John Bell   South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*
Hans Bethge   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[65] HOH, IC
Kenneth Burns Conn   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[66] DFC
Albert Deullin   France Aéronautique Militaire 20[67] CdeLd'h, CdeG
Rudolf von Eschwege   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[68] HOH, IC, Bulgarian Order for Bravery in War
Wilhelm Frankl   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[69] PLM, HOH, IC
Hans von Freden   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] IC
Francis W. Gillet   United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[70] DFC*, BCdeG
Walter Göttsch   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[71] HOH, IC
Oskar Hennrich   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] MMC, IC
Edgar Johnston   Australia Australian Flying Corps 20[66] DFC
Alexander Kazakov   Russia Imperial Army Air Service 20[72] Top Russian ace
OSG, OSV, OSS, OSA, DSO, MC, DFC, CdeLd'h, CdeG
Otto Kissenberth   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[73] PLM, HOH, IC
Camille Lagesse   Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] DFC*
Ian Donald Roy McDonald   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC, DFC
Keith Park   New Zealand Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 20[7] MC*, DFC, CdeG
Wilhelm Reinhard   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[74] HOH, IC
Charles G. Ross   South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, South African Air Force 20[7] CBE, DFC*, BCdeG
Fulco Ruffo di Calabria   Italy Corpo Aeronautico Militare 20[75] MMV(Gold), MMV*(Silver), MMV***(Bronze)
Otto Schmidt   German Empire Luftstreitkräfte 20[31] HOH, IC
Walter Southey   South Africa Royal Flying Corps 20[7] DFC
Frederick Thayre   United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 20[7] MC*

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Speculation about Bishop's claims, particularly his 2 June 1917 mission which earned him a Victoria Cross (VC), have persisted.[76]
  2. ^ Although various claim-by-claim analyses ascribe Dallas a score of 32 aircraft shot down,[77][78] he was officially credited with 39,[79][80] and his actual tally could number in the 50s.[78]
  3. ^ Auffarth may actually 31.[81]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  2. ^ Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. p. 10.
  3. ^ How to Make War, p. 149.
  4. ^ Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. p. 7
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 241–242
  6. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 20
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp Shores, 2001. p. 89
  8. ^ Shores, Frank, Guest 1990, pp. 255–256.
  9. ^ Franks, 2004. pp. 68–69
  10. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 43–44
  11. ^ Franks, 2007. p. 41
  12. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 28–29
  13. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 56–58
  14. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 51
  15. ^ See victory list in linked article; it was compiled from Above the Lines, Australian Hawk Over the Western Front,Australian Air Aces, Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I.
  16. ^ Guttman, 2007. pp. 29–31, 87
  17. ^ a b c d Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 239
  18. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 71
  19. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 169–171
  20. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 60–61
  21. ^ a b c d Chant, 2002. p. 90
  22. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 76
  23. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 93
  24. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 81–82
  25. ^ Franks, 2003. pp. 12–13
  26. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 75
  27. ^ Guttman, 2002. pp. 65–66
  28. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 90
  29. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 119–120
  30. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 153–154
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 236
  32. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 70
  33. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 111–112
  34. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 142–143
  35. ^ a b Franks, 2003. p. 88
  36. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 61–62
  37. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 215
  38. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 219
  39. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 233–234
  40. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 101–102
  41. ^ a b c Guttman, 2007. p. 87
  42. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 74
  43. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 86
  44. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 81–82
  45. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 68
  46. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 123–124
  47. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 77–78
  48. ^ a b Guttman, 2007. p. 88
  49. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 78–79
  50. ^ Franks, 2003. p. 31
  51. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 68–69
  52. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 44–45
  53. ^ Guttman, 2002. pp. 11, 91
  54. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 117
  55. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 18
  56. ^ Franks, 2003. pp. 56–57
  57. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 182–183
  58. ^ Guttman, 2002. p. 31–32
  59. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 230–231
  60. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 59
  61. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 60–61
  62. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 76–77
  63. ^ Shores, 2001. p. 87
  64. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 45
  65. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 73
  66. ^ a b Guttman, 2007. p. 86
  67. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 46
  68. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 104
  69. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 108–109
  70. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 88
  71. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 118–119
  72. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 83–84
  73. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp.143–144
  74. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 186
  75. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 79
  76. ^ Greenhous, Brereton. "Billy Bishop – Brave Flyer, Bold Liar." Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine Canadian Military Journal Volume 3, Issue 3, Autumn 2002, pp. 61–64. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  77. ^ Shores, 1990. p. 132
  78. ^ a b Newton, 1996. pp. 32–34
  79. ^ Wixted, E. P. (1981). "Dallas, Roderic Stanley (1891–1918)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  80. ^ Garrison, A.D. (1999). Australian Fighter Aces 1914–1953 (PDF). Canberra: Air Power Development Centre. pp. 27, 51–56. ISBN 0-642-26540-2.
  81. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 63–64

BibliographyEdit

  • Dunnigan, James F. (2003). How to Make War: A Comprehensive Guide to Modern Warfare in the Twenty-first Century. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.
  • Durkota, Allen; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service: Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-0-060090-12-8.
  • Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank W.; Guest, Russell (1993). Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Oxford: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1.
  • Franks, Norman (2005). Sopwith Pup Aces of World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-841768-86-1.
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  • Newton, Dennis (1996). Australian Air Aces: Australian Fighter Pilots in Combat. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-1-875671-25-0.
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