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The Nieuport 17 C.1 (or Nieuport XVII C.1 in contemporary sources) was a French sesquiplane fighter designed and manufactured by the Nieuport company during World War I. An improvement over the Nieuport 11, it was a little larger than earlier Nieuports and better adapted to the more powerful engine than the interim Nieuport 16. Aside from early examples, it had the new Alkan-Hamy synchronization gear, permitting the use of a fuselage-mounted synchronised Vickers gun firing through the propeller disc.

Nieuport 17
Nieuport 23 C.1.jpg
Role Fighter
Manufacturer Nieuport
First flight January 1916
Introduction March 1916
Status Retired
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
Imperial Russian Air Service
Royal Flying Corps
Number built c. 3,600
Developed from Nieuport 11
Variants Nieuport 17bis

At the time of its introduction in March 1916, the type's outstanding manoeuvrability and excellent rate of climb gave it a significant advantage over fighters on both sides and was described as "the best pursuit plane of the day".[1][2] It was used by many operators and entered service with every Allied power; copies were operated by the Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Service). Mass-produced by several French firms, the Nieuport 17 and its derivatives were built under licence in Italy by Nieuport-Macchi and in Russia by Dux. Unlicenced copies, notably the Siemens-Schuckert D.I and the Euler D.I, were produced in Germany.

The Nieuport 21 and 23 represented relatively minor alterations; aerodynamic refinement led to the Clerget-powered 17bis. More powerful versions of the Le Rhône rotary engines with detail improvements resulted in the Nieuport 24, 24bis and 27.

DevelopmentEdit

OriginsEdit

When Gustave Delage was appointed as the chief designer of Nieuport, in January 1914, a series of sesquiplane designs followed. Nieuport had been famous for wire-braced monoplanes and these had reached the limit of their development. The sesquiplane configuration was adopted by Delage as a compromise between the low drag of a monoplane and the greater strength of a biplane. The first of Delage's sesquiplanes was the two-seat Nieuport 10 of 1914, which was followed the next year by the smaller Nieuport 11 single-seater, which in turn was supplemented by the Nieuport 16. The larger engine of the Nieuport 16 made it nose heavy and increased the wing loading, especially when armed with a synchronised Vickers gun.

Developed in parallel with the conservative Nieuport 16, the Nieuport 17 was slightly larger with longer wings and fuselage, improved aerodynamic form and better balance.[3] It was fitted with the 110 hp (82 kW) Le Rhône 9J engine and later examples used 120 hp (89 kW) motors.[4]

DesignEdit

 
The Alkan-Hamy synchronization gear installed in a Nieuport 17
 
Early Nieuport 17 in July 1916 with a cône de penetration

The Nieuport 17 had a narrow, single-spar, lower wing that was considerably smaller than the upper wing. This arrangement improved the pilot's downward view and there were aerodynamic gains from the reduction in area of the lower wing, which on a biplane produces far less lift than the upper wing yet causes considerable drag. Reducing its chord diminished induced drag and weight while providing a more efficient wing with a thick section and a high aspect ratio. The heaviest components of the fighter, the rotary engine, gun, petrol and oil tanks were concentrated forward contributing to the 17's manoeuvrability. The fuselage of the 17 was built around four ash longerons which tapered from the rectangular sheet steel engine mounting to the rudder post, with the upper longerons bowed around the cockpit, giving most of the fuselage a trapezoid cross section. This was braced with spruce struts held with diagonal bracing wires and steel plate joints.[5] The sides and top of the forward fuselage were covered in light molded plywood panels while the rear fuselage sides were covered in fabric. Behind the pilot was a headrest, molded into the plywood top decking, which was supported by longitudinal stringers.[5] The cowling was made of aluminium, had strengthening ribs and a pair of inset holes to provide ventilation and egress of the engine exhaust underneath. It was faired with the forward fuselage via molded side pieces.[5] A cône de penetration (casserole de helice), resembling a spinner that didn't spin, was bolted to the front of the stationary engine crankshaft on some early examples but was generally dispensed with on later machines[6]

 
Early camouflaged Nieuport 17 fitted with over-wing gun and Le Prieur rocket tubes

The upper wings of the 17 used a typical structure for the period, with widely spaced spars connected with full chord ribs and compression ribs, cross-braced internally with wire and by riblets on the leading edge. The lower wing's spar was directly below the rear spar of the upper wing and was braced with a characteristic Vee strut.[5] The ribs, composed of ash flanges and limewood webs, featured cut-outs to lighten them.[5] Ailerons were fitted on the top wing only and had increased chord towards the wingtips for improved stall response and were actuated by a pair of push-pull rods that connected torque tubes running to the ailerons to the control column in the cockpit.[7] The Elevator and rudder were built up from welded steel tube and controls for these were provided via conventional cables and pulleys.[7] The angle of incidence on the wings could be adjusted by ground crew via a single pivot joint arrangement, which was originally intended to allow the lower wing to be rotated for low speed flight but was never used. No adjustment was provided for the tailplane.

The single-spar lower wing helped give the type its impressive climb rate, at very high speeds (at what would now be termed its VNE) it was also prone to flutter.[note 1] British Nieuports were modified at No 2 Aeroplane Supply Depot to alleviate this problem.[8] Late in French service, some N.17s had their lower wings replaced with spares taken from newer Nieuport 24s, although this may have had more to do with availability.

Production of the new Alkan-Hamy synchronization gear permitted the wing-mounted Lewis gun on the earliest examples to be replaced with a synchronised Vickers gun mounted on the fuselage to fire through the propeller arc.[4] T standard Royal Flying Corps synchroniser, the Vickers-Challenger gear, was not available and in British service the over-wing Lewis gun was retained. The Lewis gun was fitted to the new Foster mounting, a curved metal rail which allowed the pilot to slide the gun back to change ammunition drums and to clear jams. Pilots could also aim the gun upwards to shoot into the underside of aircraft above which was used to good effect by several ace pilots.[9]

DerivativesEdit

 
Russian Nieuport 21 armed with a Hotchkiss M1909 machine gun

Beginning in May 1916 but not named until September, the Nieuport 21 differed from the 17 primarily in the adoption of the lower powered 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhône 9C or 90 hp (67 kW) Le Rhône 9Ga engine.[10] This increased endurance and reduced wing loading and was useful for a high-altitude bomber escort but it was rarely used in the role.[11] In French and especially Russian service, the 21 was commonly used with the Nieuport 17 in the same role.[12] The 21 has commonly been mistaken for the earlier Nieuport 11, as both lacked headrests and used the same cowling and engines, particularly when some Nieuport 11s were also fitted with molded fuselage sides. Like the 17, the 21 is larger and can be identified by the flying wires, which restrain the upper wings.[13] On the 11 the flying wires merged to a single point, while on the 21 they ran parallel to different points on the lower fuselage.

The Nieuport 23 was largely the same as the definitive 17, differing mainly in the use of a different machine gun synchronizer. The gun was offset to starboard and the fuel and oil tank arrangement and the center section rigging were changed to suit; rear spar packing pieces were also redesigned. Nieuport 23s were operated by both French and British squadrons alongside Nieuport 17s until their replacement by Nieuport 24s.[14]

 
Nieuport 17 triplane undergoing evaluation

The more powerful 130 hp (97 kW) Clerget 9B nine-cylinder rotary engine was used by the Nieuport 17bis, which first appeared late in 1916.[15] The N.17bis had stringers fairing out the fuselage sides compared to the flat sides on the 17. The major user was the British Royal Naval Air Service, which ordered 32 from Nieuport, 50 more being license-built by the Nieuport & General Aircraft Company. Heavier than the preferred Le Rhône, output from the Clerget rotaries quickly fell below their rated power and the performance of the 17bis suffered accordingly. Armament often included a synchronised Vickers gun with the standard over-wing Lewis.[16]

Related to the 17bis, the Nieuport 23bis combined the aerodynamic improvements of the 17bis but reverted to the Le Rhône; few were built and the Royal Naval Air Service may have been the sole operator.[17]

A pair of triplanes based on the Nieuport 17 were constructed for testing purposes, one for the French and the other for the British. The narrow chord wings were staggered in an unusual manner, placing the middle wing furthest forward and the top wing furthest aft.[18] No subsequent orders came as a result of these tests; Nieuport later trialled the same layout on the Nieuport 17bis, which was tested by the British as well, however this venture also remained a prototype.[18] During flight testing, both types had demonstrated favourable climbing characteristics, but were also found to be relatively tail-heavy.[19]

Several of the experimental Berliner Helicopters, named after their German-American inventor Emile Berliner, were manufactured around Nieuport 23 fuselages, including the 1922 and 1923 versions.

Operational historyEdit

 
Nieuport 17 flown by René Dorme while with escadrille N.3 during the battle of the Somme, late 1916
 
RFC Nieuport 23 in 1917

During March 1916, the new Nieuport 17 reached the front and began to replace the earlier Nieuport 11 and 16 fighters that had been instrumental in ending the Fokker Scourge of 1915. On 2 May 1916, Escadrille N.57 became the first unit entirely equipped with the new model. During the late 1916 and into 1917, the Nieuport 17 equipped every fighter squadron of the Aéronautique Militaire.[1] Almost all of the top French aces flew the nimble Nieuport during their flying careers, including Georges Guynemer, Charles Nungesser, Maurice Boyau, Armand Pinsard and René Dorme.[20]

American volunteers of the Escadrille Lafayette, converted to the Nieuport 17 from Nieuport 11s and 16s, although only one achieved ace status, Raoul Lufberry.[21]

The Nieuport 17 was ordered by the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service as it was markedly superior to British fighters.[22] RFC squadrons that used Nieuport 17s and 23s as their main equipment included 1, 11, 29, 40 and 60 squadrons; 1, 3 and 4 Wings of the Royal Naval Air Service operated the 17 and the less satisfactory 17bis.[23][24] Additional units in both services also had small numbers on strength.

 
Lineup of Italian Nieuport-Macchi 17s
 
Nieuport 23 trainers at Issoudun Aerodrome, France

Many British Empire air aces flew Nieuport fighters, including the top Canadian ace Billy Bishop, V.C. while flying it and Albert Ball, V.C. who often hunted alone in his Nieuport.[25] Mick Mannock V.C. flew Nieuports early in his career with 40 Squadron. His VC award reflected his combat career – including his time on Nieuports. The top-scoring Nieuport ace was Captain Phillip Fletcher Fullard of No. 1 Squadron RFC, who scored 40 kills between May and October 1917, before breaking his leg in a football match.

Italian aces, such as Francesco Baracca, Silvio Scaroni and Pier Piccio, achieved victories while flying Nieuport fighters. In Belgium, the 1st and 5th Belgian escadrilles were equipped with the Nieuport 17 and 23. Belgian aces flying the type included Andre de Meulemeester, Edmond Thieffry and Jan Olieslagers.[26]

The Imperial Russian Air Service operated large numbers of Nieuports of all types, including the 17, 21 and 23.[26] Being largely reliant on aircraft procured directly from France, there was pressure within Russia to establish the domestic manufacture of such fighters and efforts were made to produce the type under licence; the venture struggled due to inexperience and the limited availability of experts to assist.[26] Many of these were operated on the Eastern Front and during the Russian Civil Wars. Russian Nieuport aces include Alexander Kazakov, who flew the type against the Germans and later against the Bolsheviks.[26]

By mid-1917, the Nieuport fighters were outclassed by new German types such as the Albatros D.III and the 150 hp (110 kW) SPAD S.VII had begun to replace the Nieuport fighters in French front line squadrons. The British continued to operate Nieuports until early 1918, when enough replacements like the Royal Aircraft Factory S.E.5s were available.[27]

 
The French aviso Bapaume was fitted with a 20 m hangar deck and used for flying-off tests

Later in its service life, the 17 was operated in large numbers as an advanced trainer. The American Expeditionary Forces purchased 75 Nieuport 17s for training and the French operated a fleet of trainers. The French Aviation Maritime operated one Nieuport 21 for carrier training during 1920 and 1921 aboard Bapaume, a converted French Arras-class aviso, pending the delivery of carrier aircraft such as the Nieuport-Delage NiD.32RH.[28]

Following its retirement from the European theatre, many examples were exported in small numbers for new Air Forces being formed around the world, to be used through the 1920s.

CopiesEdit

So impressive were the Nieuport fighters in early 1916 that Idflieg (the German Inspectorate of flying troops) requested their aircraft manufacturers to produce a copy. Retrieved aircraft, detailed drawings and sketches were provided and the Siemens-Schuckert D.I was produced.[29] The copy differed primarily in minor details, was deemed to be satisfactory and went into production, although the SSW D.I was obsolete by the time it went into service and was used mainly as an advanced trainer. Another clone of the Nieuport 17 was the Euler D.I, although development work did not proceed beyond a few prototypes.

Other manufacturers, notably Albatros and Pfalz, explored a sesquiplane configuration in their own fighter designs. The Albatros D.II led to the Albatros D.III and D.V - commonly called 'V-strutters' by the RFC to distinguish them from the earlier Albatros fighters. As well as the advantages of this layout these types also exacerbated the flutter problem,[note 1] which was never satisfactorily contained, in spite of strengthening. The Pfalz D.III was also a sesquiplane version of a previous biplane fighter, although it featured a more substantial lower wing with two spars that avoided the flutter problems encountered by single-spar sesquiplanes.[30]

VariantsEdit

15 meter Nieuport
A colloquial description of the type based on nominal wing area.
Nieuport 17
The standard single-seat fighter biplane model.
Nieuport 17bis
Re-engined variant, powered by a 130 hp (97 kW) Clerget 9B engine and fitted with fuselage stringers.
Nieuport 21
A dedicated high altitude escort fighter/trainer variant; equipped with an 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhône rotary engine, horseshoe cowling and lacking a pilot's headrest.
Nieuport 23
Similar to the 17, featuring various structural changes that resulted in the Vickers machine gun being offset when installed. Only other visible difference was alterations to cabane rigging.
Nieuport 23bis
Similar to the 17bis, but powered by a Le Rhône and using 24 fuselage with 23 flying surfaces.
Siemens-Schuckert D.I
While differing in some details, the D.I was largely a copy of the Nieuport 17.
B.Kh1 (Fighter type 1)
The Siamese designation for Nieuport 17 and 21.

Survivors and replicasEdit

 
Nieuport 23 survivor in Belgian museum

A single original example has survived, this being Nieuport 23 "5024", which has been preserved and following a recent restoration, was placed on static display in the Belgian Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels. The Nieuport 17 has also become a popular aircraft for replica builders. Dedicated kits for the type have been produced, including both 7/8ths scale and full size, and groups of builders have reproduced entire squadrons of aircraft in this manner. Contemporary drawings, sourced from both the original factory and a German technical report on the fighter, have facilitated the construction of various replicas, such as the example on display in the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario, which was built to the original specifications, while many others have used more modern construction, often using metal tubes to replace much of the wooden structure used on authentic aircraft.

OperatorsEdit

  Belgium
  Brazil
  Chile
  Colombia
  Czechoslovakia
  Estonia
  Finland
  France
  Guatemala
  Hungarian Soviet Republic
  Kingdom of Italy
  Netherlands
 
Polish Nieuport 23s
  Poland
Siły Powietrzne (Air Forces) – operated at least five Nieuport 17s[31] and three Nieuport 21s[32]
  Portugal
Serviço Aeronáutico Militar - operated 8 Nieuport Ni.21 E.1 trainers from 1919.[41]
  Romania
  Russian Empire
 
Replica Imperial Russian Air Service Nieuport 17
  Russia White movement
  • White Army – operated an unknown number of ex-Tsarist Nieuport 17s[24]
   Switzerland
  Siam
  Soviet Union
  • Glavvozduhflot – operated a large number of ex-Imperial Russian Air Service Nieuports[24]
    • 1st Red Air Force Fighter Squadron[24]
    • 2nd Aviaotryady[24]
    • 3rd Aviaotryady[24]
    • 4th Aviaotryady[24]
    • 8th Aviaotryady[32]
    • 9th Aviaotryady[32]
    • 10th Aviaotryady[32]
    • 12th Aviaotryady[32]
    • 14th Aviaotryady[24]
    • 1st Naval Istrootryady[24]
    • 2nd Naval Istrootryady[24]
    • Eskadra No 2[24]
    • and flying schools.[32]
  Turkey
  West Ukrainian People's Republic
  Ukrainian People's Republic
  United Kingdom
 
Replica of Billy Bishop's Nieuport 23.
  United States

Specifications (Nieuport 17 C.1)Edit

 
Nieuport 17 C.1 drawing

Data from Those Classic Nieuports,[50] The Nieuport 17[26]

General characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Length: 5.80 m (19 ft 0 in) (Without optional cône de penetration)
  • Wingspan: 8.16 m (26 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 2.40 m (7 ft 10 in) (Without overwing gun and mounting)
  • Wing area: 14.75 m2 (158.8 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: Type N[51]
     
    Nieuport 17 Type N airfoil drawings
  • Empty weight: 375 kg (827 lb)
  • Gross weight: 560 kg (1,235 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Le Rhône 9Ja 9-cylinder rotary engine, 82 kW (110 hp) (nominal rated power, not measured power)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch wood Eclair 4 or Levasseur 484 propellers[51], 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) diameter [52]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 170 km/h (110 mph, 92 kn) [24]
  • Endurance: 1.75 hours
  • Service ceiling: 5,300 m (17,400 ft)
  • Time to altitude: 11.5 min to 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
  • Wing loading: 37.9 kg/m2 (7.8 lb/sq ft)
  • Power/mass: 0.15 kW/kg (0.091 hp/lb)

Armament

Avionics

  • 26 cm camera (some aircraft only)[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b The single-spar of the lower wing was behind the centre of lift, which at high speeds could cause the lower wing to twist, increasing the angle of attack until the wing stalled, at which point it would return to its normal position, repeating until the wing snapped or the pilot slowed the aircraft. The Nieuport's exceptional climb rate meant power-on dives were rarely the best option during a dog fight and so pilot training was deemed adequate to prevent incidents; not so with the Albatros V-strutters, whose heavier weight and lower climb rate meant they were more likely to be put into a high speed power dive, an aerodynamic phenomenon not fully understood at the time.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Davilla 1997, p.383
  2. ^ Christienne, 1986, p.99
  3. ^ Chassard, 2018, p.1
  4. ^ a b c Davilla, 1997, p.379
  5. ^ a b c d e Sanger, 2002, p.46
  6. ^ Sanger, 2002, pp.46-47
  7. ^ a b Sanger, 2002, p.47
  8. ^ "Nieuport 17". Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  9. ^ Sanger, 2002, p.48
  10. ^ Bruce, 1993, pp. 9-10
  11. ^ Bruce, 1993, p.10
  12. ^ Davilla 1997, p.388
  13. ^ Bruce, 1988, p.36
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Davilla 1997, p.390
  15. ^ Bruce, 1988, p.33
  16. ^ Bruce 1976, pp.149–153
  17. ^ Knight, 2007 p.148
  18. ^ a b Davilla 1997, p.370
  19. ^ Sanger 2002, pp.52–54
  20. ^ Franks, 2000, pp.43-64
  21. ^ Franks, 2000, pp.64-67
  22. ^ Andrews 1966, p.8
  23. ^ Davilla 1997, pp.385-386
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Davilla 1997, p.385
  25. ^ Andrews 1966, pp.9-10
  26. ^ a b c d e Andrews 1966, p.12
  27. ^ Andrews 1966, p.9
  28. ^ Davilla 1997, pp.388–389
  29. ^ Andrews 1966, pp.3, 7
  30. ^ Andrews 1966, pp.7-8
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Davilla 1997, p.384
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Davilla 1997, p.391
  33. ^ Davilla 1997, p.389
  34. ^ "World Air Forces - Historical Listings Chile (CHL)". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  35. ^ "World Air Forces - Historical Listings Estonia (EST)". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  36. ^ a b c d Davilla 1997, p.380
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Davilla 1997, p.381
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Davilla 1997, p.382
  39. ^ Morareau, 2002, p.67
  40. ^ url=https://kw.jonkerweb.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=592:nieuport-21-and-23-uk&catid=93&lang=en&Itemid=555&showall=1&limitstart=
  41. ^ Niccoli 1998, p.20
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Durkota 1995, p.9
  43. ^ Durkota 1995, p.45
  44. ^ Davilla 1997, p.392
  45. ^ Nicolle, 1998, p.6-10
  46. ^ Bruce 1982, p.333
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Davilla 1997, p.386
  48. ^ Franks, 2000, p.31
  49. ^ Bruce, 1988, p.37
  50. ^ Bruce 1976, p.152
  51. ^ a b Pommier, 2002, p.175
  52. ^ Spooner, 1917, p.889

BibliographyEdit

  • Andrews, C. F. (1966). The Nieuport 17. Aircraft in Profile no. 49. Leatherhead, Surrey: Profile Publications. No ISBN.
  • Apostolo, Giorgio (1991). Aermacchi – from Nieuports to AMX (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Giorgio Apostolo Editore (GAE). OCLC 471517421.
  • Bruce, J. M. (1976). "Those Classic Nieuports". Air Enthusiast Quarterly. Bromley, UK: Pilot Press. 1 (2): 137–153. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Bruce, J. M. (1982). The Aeroplanes of the Royal Flying Corps (Military Wing). London: Putnam. ISBN 978-0-370-30084-9.
  • Bruce, J. M. (1988). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One – Vintage Warbirds No 10. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-934-2.
  • Bruce, J. M. (1990). Nieuport 17 (and its near relatives) – Windsock Datafile 20. Herts, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-0-948414-24-4.
  • Bruce, J. M. (1994). Nieuport Fighters – A Windsock Datafile Special. I & II. Herts, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-0-948414-54-1.
  • Čejka, Zdenek (1998). Československé Nieuporty (Czechoslovakian Nieuports). Prague: Historick Sesity. OCLC 435534127.
  • Chassard, Marc (2018). Nieuport 17 Analyse détaillée des premières séries (in French). France: FAREWO (French Aviation Research Work). No ISBN
  • Christienne, Charles; Lissarrague, Pierre; Kianka, Frances (1986). A History of French Military Aviation. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-87474-310-4.
  • Cooksley, Peter (1997). Nieuport Fighters In Action. In Action Aircraft Number 167. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 978-0-89747-377-4.
  • Davilla, Dr. James J.; Soltan, Arthur (1997). French Aircraft of the First World War. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-1-891268-09-0.
  • Durkota, Alan; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service: Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 0-9637110-2-4.
  • Franks, Norman (2000). Nieuport Aces of World War 1. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces 33. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-961-1.
  • Knight, Brian (2011). Nieuports in RNAS, RFC and RAF Service. London, UK: Cross & Cockade International. ISBN 978-0-9555734-3-9.
  • Longoni, Maurizio (1976). Nieuport Macchi 11 & 17 (in Italian). Milan: Intergest. OCLC 799825412.
  • Morareau, Lucien (2002). Les Aeronefs de l'Aviation Maritime (in French). Paris, France: ARDHAN (Association pour la Recherche de Documentation sur l'Histoire de l'Aeronautique Navale. ISBN 2-913344-04-6.
  • Nicolli, Riccardo (Jan–Feb 1998). "Atlantic Sentinels: The Portuguese Air Force Since 1912". Air Enthusiast. No. 73. pp. 20–35. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Nicolle, David (Jul–Aug 1998). "Young Turks - Ottoman Turkish Fighters 1915–1918 part three". Air Enthusiast. No. 76. pp. 6–11. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Pommier, Gerard (2002). Nieuport 1875–1911: A biography of Edouard Nieuport. Atglen, PA: Schiffer. ISBN 978-0-7643-1624-1.
  • Rosenthal, Léonard; Marchand, Alain; Borget, Michel; Bénichou, Michel (1997). Nieuport 1909–1950 Collection Docavia (in French). 38. Clichy Cedex, France: Editions Lariviere. ISBN 978-2-84890-071-1.
  • Sanger, Ray (2002). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One. Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-447-3.
  • Stanley Spooner, ed. (3 Aug 1917). "Some Nieuport Milestones" (PDF). Flight. Royal Aero Club. IX (35/453): 889. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 22 October 2019.

External linksEdit