List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska

The National Historic Landmarks in Alaska represent Alaska's history from its Russian heritage to its statehood. There are 50 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in the state.[1] The United States National Historic Landmark program is operated under the auspices of the National Park Service, and recognizes structures, districts, objects, and similar resources according to a list of criteria of national significance.[2] Major themes include Alaska's ancient cultures, Russian heritage, and role in World War II, but other stories are represented as well. In addition, two sites in Alaska were designated National Historic Landmarks, but the designation was later withdrawn. These sites appear in a separate table further below.

The National Historic Landmark Program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process.[2] The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation.[3] Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means.[2] Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.[3]

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NHLs in AlaskaEdit

The table below lists all of the National Historic Landmark sites, along with added detail and description.

[4] Landmark name Image Date designated[5] Location County Description
1 Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base February 27, 1987
Adak Station
51°52′19″N 176°38′10″W / 51.872°N 176.636°W / 51.872; -176.636 (Adak Army Base and Adak Naval Operating Base)
Aleutians West Established in 1942 as part of World War II, this military base was the launching pad for the American attack on the Japanese-held Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu.
2 Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall June 2, 1978
235 Katlian Street, Sitka
57°03′03″N 135°20′28″W / 57.0507°N 135.34099°W / 57.0507; -135.34099 (Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall)
Sitka This 1914 meeting hall and headquarters building served the original chapter of Alaska Native Brotherhood, founded by Tlingits in the early 1900s to fight discrimination and represent interests of natives.
3 Amalik Bay Archeological District April 5, 2005
Address restricted[6], Katmai National Park and Preserve
Kodiak Island An archeological site located in Kodiak Island Borough
4 American Flag Raising Site June 13, 1962
On Castle Hill, Sitka
57°02′55″N 135°20′16″W / 57.0487°N 135.33783°W / 57.0487; -135.33783 (American Flag Raising Site)
Sitka In 1867, site of Russian flag lowering and American flag raising marking the transfer of Alaska to the U.S.; in 1959, after Alaska admitted as 49th state, site of first official raising of 49-star U.S. flag; also known as Castle Hill and Baranof Castle.
5 Anangula Site June 2, 1978
53°00′02″N 168°54′40″W / 53.00056°N 168.91111°W / 53.00056; -168.91111 (Anangula Site)
Aleutians West Site of earliest signs of human occupation in the Aleutian Islands.
6 Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu February 4, 1985
Attu Island
52°54′02″N 172°54′34″E / 52.9005°N 172.9094°E / 52.9005; 172.9094 (Attu Battlefield and U.S. Army and Navy Airfields on Attu)
Aleutians West Site of bloody battle in which only 29 of 2,500 Japanese survived, only land battle on U.S. soil during World War II.
7 Bering Expedition Landing Site June 2, 1978
On Kayak Island
59°53′40″N 144°29′08″W / 59.89444°N 144.48556°W / 59.89444; -144.48556 (Bering Expedition Landing Site)
Valdez-Cordova Site of first recorded contacts between natives and Europeans
8 Birnirk Site December 29, 1962
Address restricted[6], Barrow
North Slope Sixteen prehistoric mounds of the Birnirk and Thule cultures.
9 Brooks River Archeological District April 19, 1993
Address restricted[6], Katmai National Park and Preserve
Lake and Peninsula An archaeological site located along an ancient beach and modern river. There are twenty separate well preserved sites which have provided a large number of Arctic Small Tool Tradition artifacts.
10 Cape Krusenstern Archeological District November 7, 1973
Address restricted[6], Kotzebue
Northwest Arctic The archeological district comprises 114 ancient beach ridges which formed nearly 60 years apart. They provide a rare sequential look at over 5000 years of inhabitation.
11 Cape Nome Mining District Discovery Sites June 2, 1978
64°33′49″N 165°22′17″W / 64.56361°N 165.37139°W / 64.56361; -165.37139 (Cape Nome Mining District Discovery Sites)
Nome Significant for role in the history of gold mining in Alaska
12 Chaluka Site December 29, 1962
Address restricted[6], Nikolski
Aleutians West Includes a large mound; yields information about origins of Aleuts
13 Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site June 16, 1978
59°35′14″N 135°19′56″W / 59.58719°N 135.33234°W / 59.58719; -135.33234 (Chilkoot Trail and Dyea Site)
Skagway Major access route from the coast to Yukon goldfields in the late 1890s.
14 Church of the Holy Ascension April 15, 1970
53°52′33″N 166°32′11″W / 53.8758°N 166.5363°W / 53.8758; -166.5363 (Church of the Holy Ascension)
Aleutians West Built in 1826 by the Russian American Fur Company to help acclimate indigenous population in Russian Alaska.
15 Dry Creek Archeological Site June 2, 1978
Address restricted[6], near Healy, Alaska
Denali This archeological site has provided evidence which supports the Bering land bridge theory
16 Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. Army February 4, 1985
53°53′16″N 166°32′23″W / 53.8878°N 166.5397°W / 53.8878; -166.5397 (Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. Army)
Aleutians West Only U.S. fortifications in the Aleutian Islands prior to bombing of Pearl Harbor, attacked by the Japanese Navy during the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1942.
17 Eagle Historic District June 2, 1978
64°47′10″N 141°12′00″W / 64.7861°N 141.2°W / 64.7861; -141.2 (Eagle Historic District)
Southeast Fairbanks Historic district with over 100 well-preserved buildings from the Gold Rush years on the Yukon River. Roald Amundsen announced his successful traverse of the Northwest Passage from here in 1905
18 Fort Durham Site June 2, 1978
Address restricted[6], near Taku Harbor in Juneau City and Borough, Alaska
Juneau One of three Hudson's Bay Company posts set up in Alaska
19 Fort Glenn May 28, 1987
Fort Glenn
53°22′39″N 167°53′24″W / 53.37750°N 167.89000°W / 53.37750; -167.89000 (Fort Glenn)
Aleutians West Well preserved World War II defense base.
20 Fort William H. Seward June 2, 1978
59°13′36″N 135°26′41″W / 59.2267°N 135.4446°W / 59.2267; -135.4446 (Fort William H. Seward)
Haines Last of a series of 11 military posts established in Alaska during the gold rush era
21 Gallagher Flint Station Archeological Site June 2, 1978
Address restricted[6], Sagwon
North Slope Discovered in 1970 during the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, it was at the time the earliest dated archaeological site in northern Alaska.
22 Holy Assumption Orthodox Church April 15, 1970
60°33′11″N 151°16′03″W / 60.55295°N 151.2675°W / 60.55295; -151.2675 (Holy Assumption Orthodox Church)
Kenai Peninsula Russian Orthodox church in Kenai, Alaska.
23 Ipiutak Site January 20, 1961
Address restricted[6], Point Hope Peninsula
North Slope The type site for the Ipiutak culture
24 Iyatayet Site January 20, 1961
Address restricted[6], Cape Denbigh Peninsula
Nome Shows evidence of several separate cultures, dating back as far as 6000 BC.
25 Kake Cannery December 9, 1997
About 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Kake
56°57′53″N 133°55′32″W / 56.96471°N 133.9255°W / 56.96471; -133.9255 (Kake Cannery)
Prince of Wales-Hyder Built 1912-1940; significant for role in history of salmon canning in Alaska
26 Kennecott Mines June 23, 1986
East of Kennicott Glacier, about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) north of McCarthy
61°31′09″N 142°50′29″W / 61.51909°N 142.84149°W / 61.51909; -142.84149 (Kennecott Mines)
Valdez-Cordova Site of discovery of copper in 1900 and subsequent mining activities
27 Kijik Archeological District October 12, 1994
Address restricted[6], Lake Clark National Park and Preserve
Lake and Peninsula Related to the history of the Dena'ina Athabaskan Indians
28 Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska Island February 4, 1985
Kiska Island
51°58′02″N 177°29′31″E / 51.9672°N 177.4919°E / 51.9672; 177.4919 (Japanese Occupation Site, Kiska Island)
Aleutians West Site of the Japanese occupation of Kiska which along with nearby Attu were the only US land occupied by the Japanese during World War II
29 Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and Abercrombie February 4, 1985
57°44′19″N 152°30′17″W / 57.73861°N 152.50472°W / 57.73861; -152.50472 (Kodiak Naval Operating Base and Forts Greely and Abercrombie)
Kodiak Island World War II-related facilities
30 Ladd Field February 4, 1985
64°50′15″N 147°36′52″W / 64.8375°N 147.6144°W / 64.8375; -147.6144 (Ladd Field)
Fairbanks North Star Primary role during WWII was major stopping point for the Lend-Lease program.
31 Leffingwell Camp Site June 2, 1978
On Flaxman Island, about 58 miles (93 km) west of Kaktovik
70°11′07″N 146°03′10″W / 70.1852°N 146.05287°W / 70.1852; -146.05287 (Leffingwell Camp Site)
North Slope Campsite of geologist and polar explorer Ernest de Koven Leffingwell on Arctic coast of Alaska.
32 Nenana (river steamboat) May 5, 1989
Pioneer Park, Fairbanks
64°50′19″N 147°46′20″W / 64.8386°N 147.77236°W / 64.8386; -147.77236 (Nenana (river steamboat))
Fairbanks North Star River steamboat; only surviving wooden one of this type.
33 New Russia Site June 2, 1978
South of Kardy Lake, about 3.5 miles (5.6 km) southwest of Yakutat
59°31′37″N 139°49′36″W / 59.52694°N 139.82662°W / 59.52694; -139.82662 (New Russia Site)
Yakutat Site of Russian trading post attacked and destroyed by Tlingit natives.
34 Old Sitka June 13, 1962
Mile 6.9 of Halibut Point Road, about 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Sitka
57°07′46″N 135°22′24″W / 57.12955°N 135.37342°W / 57.12955; -135.37342 (Old Sitka)
Sitka Also known as the Redoubt St. Archangel Michael Site, this was the site of a Russian-American Company settlement, established in 1799 and destroyed by Tlingit attack in 1802.
35 Onion Portage Archeological District June 2, 1978
Address restricted[6], Kiana
Northwest Arctic Perhaps most important archaeological site in Alaska; caribou river crossing; human presence for millennia.
36 Palugvik Site December 29, 1962
Address restricted[6], Hawkins Island
Valdez-Cordova Includes a large midden yielding information about Eskimo culture in the area.
37 Russian-American Building No. 29 May 28, 1987
202-206 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°02′59″N 135°20′11″W / 57.04965°N 135.33629°W / 57.04965; -135.33629 (Russian-American Building No. 29)
Sitka Siding covered log building; dates back to the years after the 1867 purchase of Alaska.
38 Russian-American Magazin June 13, 1962
101 East Marine Way, Kodiak
57°47′16″N 152°24′12″W / 57.78765°N 152.40338°W / 57.78765; -152.40338 (Russian-American Magazin)
Kodiak Island Storehouse building associated with the Russian and then the American trading companies active in Alaska.
39 Russian Bishop's House June 13, 1962
501 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′05″N 135°19′52″W / 57.05147°N 135.33101°W / 57.05147; -135.33101 (Russian Bishop's House)
Sitka One of four surviving examples of Russian Colonial Style architecture in the Western Hemisphere.
40 St. Michael's Cathedral June 13, 1962
240 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′00″N 135°20′06″W / 57.05008°N 135.33512°W / 57.05008; -135.33512 (St. Michael's Cathedral)
Sitka Primary evidence of Russian influence in North America.
41 Seal Island Historic District June 13, 1962
Pribilof Islands
57°N 170°W / 57°N 170°W / 57; -170 (Seal Island Historic District)
Aleutians West Historic buildings related to northern fur seal hunting in the Pribilof Islands and its restriction in 1911 and 1966.
42 Sheldon Jackson School August 7, 2001
801 Lincoln Street, Sitka
57°03′03″N 135°19′25″W / 57.0509°N 135.32357°W / 57.0509; -135.32357 (Sheldon Jackson School)
Sitka Oldest institution of higher learning in Alaska
43 Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses August 11, 1986
Japonski Island, Makhnati Island and the causeway connecting them, near Sitka
57°02′58″N 135°21′35″W / 57.04941°N 135.35963°W / 57.04941; -135.35963 (Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses)
Sitka Commissioned as Sitka Naval Air Station in October 1939, it was redesignated the Naval Operating Base, July 1942. Protected the North Pacific during World War II.[7]
44 Sitka Spruce Plantation June 2, 1978
53°53′12″N 166°32′23″W / 53.8866°N 166.5397°W / 53.8866; -166.5397 (Sitka Spruce Plantation)
Aleutians West First recorded afforestation project in North America; Russian settlers began in 1805; attempt to make Unalaska self-sufficient in timber.
45 Skagway Historic District and White Pass June 13, 1962
Skagway and White Pass
59°27′30″N 135°18′50″W / 59.4583°N 135.3139°W / 59.4583; -135.3139 (Skagway Historic District and White Pass)
Skagway Historic frontier Gold Rush town and trail leading to White Pass on the border of Canada. Over 100 buildings from the era survive, though they are threatened by continued development. Mentioned in The Call of the Wild by Jack London.
46 George C. Thomas Memorial Library June 2, 1978
64°50′41″N 147°43′40″W / 64.844735°N 147.727652°W / 64.844735; -147.727652 (George C. Thomas Memorial Library)
Fairbanks North Star The public library for Fairbanks from its construction in 1909 until the opening of the Noel Wien Public Library in 1977. Site of 1915 meeting between U.S. officials and native Alaskans to settle land claims.
47 Three Saints Bay Site June 2, 1978
Address restricted[6], Old Harbor
Kodiak Island Site of the first Russian settlement in Alaska in 1784.
48 Wales Site December 29, 1962
Address restricted[6], Wales
Nome Site of first discovery of how the Thule culture followed the Birnirk culture in precontact whaling populations of the Alaskan shoreline.
49 Walrus Islands Archeological District December 23, 2016
mouth of Bristol Bay
58°36′42″N 159°59′27″W / 58.611633°N 159.990909°W / 58.611633; -159.990909 (Walrus Islands Archeological District)
Dillingham Census Area, Alaska Island group with deeply stratified sites covering 6,000 years of human occupation.
50 Yukon Island Main Site December 29, 1962
Address restricted[6], Yukon Island
Kenai Peninsula Related to the Kachemak Bay Culture.

Historic areas of the NPS in AlaskaEdit

National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, some National Monuments, and certain other areas listed in the National Park System are historic landmarks of national importance that are highly protected already, often before the inauguration of the NHL program in 1960, and are then often not also named NHLs per se. There are three of these in Alaska. The National Park Service lists these three together with the NHLs in the state,[8]

Cape Krusenstern National Monument is also an NHL and is listed above. The other two are:

Landmark name
Image Date established[9] Location County Description
1 Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park   Skagway Skagway Park of Klondike Gold Rush, an NHL shared with Seattle, Washington.
2 Sitka National Historical Park   Sitka Sitka

Former NHLs in AlaskaEdit

Landmark name[10] Image Date
Date withdrawn[10] Locality[10][11] Borough or
Census Area[10]
1 Gambell Sites[12]   1962[12] 1989[12] Gambell[12]
63°46′34″N 171°42′3″W / 63.77611°N 171.70083°W / 63.77611; -171.70083 (Gambell Sites)
Nome[12] These five archeological sites established a chronology of human habitation on St. Lawrence Island, with evidence of four cultural phases of the Thule tradition, beginning about 2000 years before the present. Over the 20th century, the archeological value of the sites was largely destroyed due to ivory mining, and landmark designation was withdrawn.[12]
2 Sourdough Lodge[12]   1978[12] 1994[12] Gakona[12]
62°18′07″N 145°18′07″W / 62.301940°N 145.30194°W / 62.301940; -145.30194 (Sourdough Lodge)
Valdez-Cordova[12] Built of logs in 1903-05, this was one of a number of roadhouses built along the Valdez Trail. It was destroyed by fire in 1992, leading to withdrawal of its landmark status. By the time of its destruction, it was one of the oldest continuously-operating roadhouses in Alaska.[12]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ While the form 72000193 contains 2001 NHLD designation for the entire Sheldon Jackson School, the asset detail page references the original Sheldon Jackson Museum 1972 single-property enlistment.


  1. ^ NPS Alaska NHL List
  2. ^ a b c "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions & Answers". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
  3. ^ a b "Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65". US Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  4. ^ Numbers represent an alphabetical ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate National Historic Landmarks and historic districts from other NRHP buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  5. ^ The eight-digit number below each date is the number assigned to each location in the National Register Information System database, which can be viewed by clicking the number.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Federal and state laws and practices restrict general public access to information regarding the specific location of this resource. In some cases, this is to protect archeological sites from vandalism, while in other cases it is restricted at the request of the owner. See: Knoerl, John; Miller, Diane; Shrimpton, Rebecca H. (1990), Guidelines for Restricting Information about Historic and Prehistoric Resources, National Register Bulletin, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, OCLC 20706997.
  7. ^ "Sitka Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Coastal Defenses". National Historic Landmarks Quioklinks. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 14 December 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  8. ^ These are listed on p.110 of "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State", November 2007 version.
  9. ^ Date of listing as National Historic Site or similar designation, from various sources in articles indexed.
  10. ^ a b c d e National Park Service (June 2011). "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of NHLs by State" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  11. ^ a b National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: NHL Database". Archived from the original on 2004-06-06. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l National Park Service. "National Historic Landmark Program: Withdrawal of NHL Designation". Retrieved 2007-10-04.

External linksEdit