List of Marshals of the First French Empire

Marshal of the Empire was a civil dignity in the First French Empire between 1804 and 1815. The successor of the dignity, the Marshal of France, is a five-star rank with a NATO code of OF-10, equivalent to an Admiral of France in the French Navy. The distinction was used sporadically and was vacant during parts of its history.[1] A Marshal was a grand officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the court and to the presidency of an electoral college.[2] In total, 26 men were awarded a Marshal's baton.[3] The most recent promotions to marshal came in 1815, two years after a break on routine promotions to the rank, when Napoleon promoted Emmanuel de Grouchy, one of his Generals, to the dignity.[4]

Marshal of the Empire
Napoleonic Marshal baton.svg
The baton of a Marshal; although often treated as such, Marshal was not a rank, rather, a reward
Country First French Empire
Formation1804
Abolished1815
Napoleon and several of his Marshals at Borodino
Napoleon and several of his Marshals

Unlike many positions, the Marshal of the Empire distinction was not a rank, rather a reward, given out by Napoleon. Almost all officers to hold the rank of Marshal were professional soldiers in the French Army. Some, including Józef Poniatowski, served in foreign armies. Of all 26, 5 were killed in action, or by accident.[5] One Marshal was present at the Battle of Vitoria, fought in 1813, where the Duke of Wellington earned the British equivalent of the distinction.[6] Most had defected to the royalists before the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's subsequent defeat, with only four others (most notably Marshals Emmanuel de Grouchy and Michel Ney) serving under Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.[1][7]

Auguste de Marmont, born in 1774, was the youngest officer to earn the distinction of Marshal.[8] Francois Kellerman was the oldest, born in 1735.[9] The majority of Marshals were given the title in 1804 (18 out of 26), while Grouchy received the distinction at the latest time, in 1815, shortly before the Battle of Waterloo.[4]

List of MarshalsEdit

 — Indicates that the Marshal was either killed in action or killed by accident

List of Marshals of the First French Empire
Name Image Born Died Date of Promotion
Louis-Alexandre Berthier   November 20, 1753[10] June 1, 1815[10] May 19, 1804[10]
Joachim Murat   March 25, 1767[11][12] October 13, 1815[12][13] May 19, 1804[12][14]
Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey   July 31, 1754[15] April 20, 1842[15] May 19, 1804[15]
Jean-Baptiste Jourdan   April 29, 1762[16] November 23, 1833[16] May 19, 1804[16][17]
André Masséna   May 6, 1756[18] April 4, 1817[18] May 19, 1804[18]
Charles Pierre Francois Augereau   October 21, 1757[19] June 12, 1816[19] May 19, 1804[19]
Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte   January 26, 1763[20] March 8, 1844[20] May 19, 1804[20]
Jean-de-Dieu Soult   March 29, 1769[21] November 26, 1851[21] May 19, 1804[21]
Guillaume Marie Anne Brune   May 13, 1763[22] August 2, 1815[22] May 19, 1804[22]
Jean Lannes   April 11, 1769[23] May 31, 1809[23] May 19, 1804[23]
Edouard Mortier   February 13, 1768[24] July 28, 1835[24] May 19, 1804[24]
Michel Ney   January 10, 1769[25] December 7, 1815[25] May 19, 1804[25]
Louis-Nicolas Davout   May 10, 1770[26] June 1, 1823[26] May 19, 1804[26]
Jean-Baptiste Bessieres   August 6, 1768[27] May 1, 1813[27] May 19, 1804[27]
François Christophe de Kellermann   May 28, 1735[9] September 13, 1820[9] May 19, 1804[9]
François Joseph Lefebvre   October 15, 1755[28] September 14, 1820[28] May 19, 1804[28]
Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon   May 31, 1754[29] December 25, 1818[29] May 19, 1804[29]
Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier   December 8, 1742[30] December 21, 1819[30] May 19, 1804[30]
Claude Victor Perrin   December 7, 1764[31] March 1, 1841[31] July 13, 1807[31]
Jacques Etienne Joseph Alexandre Macdonald   November 17, 1765[32] March 1, 1841[32] July 12, 1809[32]
Nicolas Charles Oudinot   April 25, 1767[33] September 13, 1847[33] July 12, 1809[33]
Auguste Frederic de Marmont   July 20, 1774[8] July 23, 1852[8] July 12, 1809[8]
Louis-Gabriel Suchet   March 2, 1770[34] July 8, 1811[34] July 8, 1811[34]
Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr   April 13, 1764[35] March 17, 1830[35] August 27, 1812[35]
Joseph Poniatowski   May 7, 1762[36] October 19, 1813[36] October 17, 1813[36]
Emmanuel de Grouchy   October 23, 1766[4] May 29, 1847[4] April 17, 1815[4]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Pattison 2010, p. xii.
  2. ^ Pattison 2010, p. 10.
  3. ^ Pattison 2010, p. xi.
  4. ^ a b c d e Pattison 2010, pp. 305–315.
  5. ^ Pattison 2010, p. xviii.
  6. ^ Heathcote 1999, p. 2.
  7. ^ Delderfield 2002, pp. 208–210.
  8. ^ a b c d Pattison 2010, pp. 200–218.
  9. ^ a b c d Pattison 2010, pp. 316–321.
  10. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 1–22.
  11. ^ Atteridge 1911, Chapter I.
  12. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 23–48.
  13. ^ Atteridge 1911, Chapter XVII.
  14. ^ Atteridge 1911, Chapter VII.
  15. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 245–250.
  16. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 251–258.
  17. ^ Delderfield 2002, p. 208.
  18. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 49–71.
  19. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 259–267.
  20. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 72–92.
  21. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 93–116.
  22. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 268–277.
  23. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 117–140.
  24. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 278–285.
  25. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 141–161.
  26. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 162–182.
  27. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 286–295.
  28. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 322–332.
  29. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 344–348.
  30. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 349–353.
  31. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 296–304.
  32. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 183–199.
  33. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 333–343.
  34. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 219–230.
  35. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 231–244.
  36. ^ a b c Pattison 2010, pp. 354–358.

ReferencesEdit

  • Atteridge, Andrew H. (1911). Joachim Murat, marshal of France and king of Naples. Methuen Publishing. ISBN 1-908692-62-6.
  • Delderfield, Ronald F. (2002). Napoleon's Marshals. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-1-4616-6119-1.
  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 978-0-85052-696-7.
  • Pattison, Richard D. (2010). Napoleon's Marshals. Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3-86741-429-6.