Limnonectes

Limnonectes is a genus of fork-tongued frogs of about 75 known species, but new ones are still being described occasionally.[1][2] They are collectively known as fanged frogs because they tend to have unusually large teeth, which are small or absent in other frogs.

Limnonectes
Limnon macrod 050303 062 pncw.jpg
Fanged river frog (Limnonectes macrodon)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Dicroglossidae
Subfamily: Dicroglossinae
Genus: Limnonectes
Fitzinger, 1843
Species

More than 74, see text

Synonyms

Taylorana Dubois, 1986

HabitatEdit

These frogs are found throughout East and Southeast Asia, most commonly near forest streams. Multiple species of Limnonectes may occupy the same area in harmony.[3] Large-bodied species cluster around fast rivers, while smaller ones live among leaf-litter or on stream banks. The Indonesian island of Sulawesi is home to at least 15 species of this frog, only four of which have been formally described.[4]

LifecycleEdit

Tadpoles of this genus have adapted to a variety of conditions. Most species (e.g. Blyth's river frog L. blythii or the fanged river frog L. macrodon) develop normally, with free-swimming tadpoles that eat food.[5] The tadpoles of the corrugated frog (L. laticeps) are free-swimming but endotrophic, meaning they do not eat but live on stored yolk until metamorphosis into frogs.[5] Before, L. limborgi was assumed to have direct development (eggs hatching as tiny, full-formed frogs), but more careful observations have showed it has free-swimming but endotrophic larvae; this probably applies to the closely related L. hascheanus, too.[6] L. larvaepartus is the only known species of frog that gives live birth to tadpoles.[4] Parental care is performed by males.[3]

SpeciesEdit

PhylogenyEdit

Pyron & Wiens (2011)Edit

The following phylogeny of Limnonectes is from Pyron & Wiens (2011).[7] 35 species are included. Limnonectes is a sister group of Nanorana.[7]

Limnonectes 

Limnonectes microdiscus

Limnonectes kadarsani

Limnonectes laticeps

Limnonectes limborgi

Limnonectes hascheanus

Limnonectes dabanus

Limnonectes gyldenstolpei

Limnonectes asperatus

Limnonectes fragilis

Limnonectes fujianensis

Limnonectes bannaensis

Limnonectes kuhlii

Limnonectes leytensis

Limnonectes acanthi

Limnonectes microtympanum

Limnonectes arathooni

Limnonectes magnus

Limnonectes heinrichi

Limnonectes modestus

Limnonectes woodworthi

Limnonectes macrocephalus

Limnonectes visayanus

Limnonectes leporinus

Limnonectes parvus

Limnonectes palavanensis

Limnonectes ibanorum

Limnonectes grunniens

Limnonectes blythii

Limnonectes poilani

Limnonectes paramacrodon

Limnonectes macrodon

Limnonectes shompenorum

Limnonectes malesianus

Limnonectes ingeri

Limnonectes finchi

Aowphol, et al. (2015)Edit

The following Limnonectes phylogeny is from Aowphol, et al. (2015).[8] 20 species are included.

Limnonectes 

Limnonectes fragilis

Limnonectes leporinus

Limnonectes leytensis

Limnonectes woodworthi

Limnonectes malesianus

Limnonectes poilani

Limnonectes khasianus

Limnonectes kadarsani

Limnonectes microdiscus

Limnonectes bannaensis

Limnonectes fujianensis

Limnonectes lauhachindai

Limnonectes dabanus

Limnonectes gyldenstolpei

Limnonectes kohchangae

Limnonectes plicatellus

Limnonectes doriae

Limnonectes macrognathus

Limnonectes hascheanus

Limnonectes limborgi

McLeod, et al. (2015)Edit

Below is a phylogeny of species within the L. kuhlii species complex (McLeod, et al. 2015).[9] Limnonectes longchuanensis, Limnonectes hikidai, and Limnonectes cintalubang[10] are also part of the L. kuhlii species complex.

Limnonectes kuhlii (Java)

Limnonectes sisikdagu

Limnonectes fragilis

Limnonectes bannaensis

Limnonectes namiyei

Limnonectes fujianensis

Limnonectes jarujini

Limnonectes nguyenorum

Limnonectes isanensis

Limnonectes taylori

Limnonectes megastomias

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Limnonectes Fitzinger, 1843". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  2. ^ Stuart, Bryan L.; Schoen, Sara N.; Nelson, Emma E.M.; Maher, Heather; Neang, Thy; Rowley, Jodi J.L.; Mcleod, David S. (2020-12-10). "A new fanged frog in the Limnonectes kuhlii complex (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Cambodia". Zootaxa. 4894 (3): 451–473. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4894.3.11. ISSN 1175-5334.
  3. ^ a b McLeod, D.S.; S.J. Horner; C. Husted; A. Barley & D.T. Iskandar (2011). "Same-same, but different: An unusual new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii Complex from West Sumatra (Anura: Dicroglossidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2883: 52–64. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2883.1.4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-03.
  4. ^ a b Iskandar, D. T.; Evans, B. J.; McGuire, J. A. (2014). "A Novel Reproductive Mode in Frogs: A New Species of Fanged Frog with Internal Fertilization and Birth of Tadpoles". PLOS ONE. 9 (12): e115884. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k5884I. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115884. PMC 4281041. PMID 25551466.
  5. ^ a b Ming, Leong Tzi (2004). "Larval descriptions of some poorly known tadpoles from Peninsular Malaysia (Amphibia: Anura)" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 52 (2): 609–620. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-17.
  6. ^ Rowley, J. J. L.; Altig, R. (2012). "Nidicolous development in Limnonectes limborgi (Anura, Dicroglossidae)". Amphibia-Reptilia. 33: 145–149. doi:10.1163/156853812X626179.
  7. ^ a b R. Alexander Pyron; John J. Wiens (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 543–583. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. PMID 21723399.
  8. ^ Aowphol, Rujirawan, Taksintum, Chuaynkern, and Stuart, 2015, Zootaxa, 3956: 259. Holotype: NCSM 80222, by original designation. Type locality: "Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Sirindhorn District, Kham Khuen Kaew Subdistrict, 15°17’47.6”N 105°28’22.0”E, 131 m elev." zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:270500F3-C33E-434B-B5F1-1FDB7A856AD9
  9. ^ McLeod, Kurlbaum & Hoang, 2015 : More of the same: a diminutive new species of the Limnonectes kuhlii complex from northern Vietnam (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zootaxa, No. 3947, p. 201–214.
  10. ^ Matsui, Nishikawa, and Eto, 2014, Raffles Bull. Zool., Singapore, 62: 681. Holotype: KUHE 47859, by original designation. Type locality: "Ranchan, Serian, Samarahan Division, Sarawak, East Malaysia (01° 08′ 30″ N, 110° 34′ 57″ E, 64 m asl)". http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9C21B7C4-27AD-4103-89C0-513D2E80106C