Origin and uses edit
Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America. Two gene pools of cultivated lima beans point to independent domestication events. The Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands, while the other is found in the western Andes. They were discovered in Peru and may have been the first plant that was brought up under civilization by the native farmers.
The Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC and produced a large-seeded variety (lima type), while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety (Sieva type). By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, and, in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World.
The small-seeded (Sieva) type is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina, generally below 1,600 m (5,200 ft) above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form (lima type) is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m (1,050 to 6,660 ft) above sea level.
The Moche culture (1–800 CE) cultivated lima beans heavily and often depicted them in their art.[page needed] During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, and since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such. Despite the origin of the name, when referring to the bean, the word "lima" is generally pronounced differently from the Peruvian capital.
The term "butter bean" is widely used in North and South Carolina for a large, flat and yellow/white variety of lima bean (P. lunatus var. macrocarpus, or P. limensis). In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans, also otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans, although they are the same species. In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the former being small and green, the latter large and yellow. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" (and less commonly "junior") limas.
In Spain, it is called garrofón, and constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella.
The lima bean is a domesticated species of economic and cultural importance worldwide, especially in Mexico. The species has two varieties. The wild variety is silvester and the domesticated one is lunatus.
In the U.S, it is a warm-season crop, grown mainly in Delaware and the mid-Atlantic region for processing and in the Midwest and California for dry beans. Baby lima beans are planted in early June and harvested about 10–12 weeks later. In western New York State, baby lima bean production increased greatly from 2011 to 2015.
Cultivation and cultivars edit
In Oaxaca, Mexico, the main rainy season lasts from June to August and most of the above-ground parts die during dry season. Germination or budding occurs in June or July. The first inflorescence is in October or November. The production of flowers and fruits usually ends between February and April.
Both bush and pole (vine) cultivars exist; the latter range from 1 to 5 metres (3 ft 3 in to 16 ft 5 in) in height. The bush cultivars mature earlier than the pole cultivars. The pods are up to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. The mature seeds are 1 to 3 cm (0.39 to 1.18 in) long and oval to kidney-shaped. In most cultivars, the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" cultivars, the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red, orange, and variously mottled seeds are also known. The immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans typically yield 2,900 to 5,000 kg (6,400 to 11,000 lb) of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kg (6,600 to 17,600 lb) of biomass per hectare.
The seeds of the cultivars listed below are white unless otherwise noted. Closely related or synonymous names are listed on the same line.
Bush types edit
- 'Henderson' / 'Thorogreen', 65 days (heirloom)
- 'Eastland', 68 days
- 'Jackson Wonder', 68 days (heirloom, seeds brown mottled with purple)
- 'Dixie Butterpea', 75 days (heirloom, two strains are common: red speckled and white seeded)
- 'Fordhook 242', 75 days, 1945 AAS winner
Pole types edit
- 'Carolina Sieva', 75 days (heirloom, suffered a seed crop failure in the years 2011 and 2012 causing this variety to still not be widely sourced ten years later)
- 'Christmas' / 'Chestnut' / 'Giant Speckled' / 'Speckled Calico', 78 days (heirloom, seeds white mottled with red)
- 'Big 6' / 'Big Mama', 80 days
- 'Willow Leaf', 80 days (heirloom, there are white-seeded and variously mottled strains)
- 'Mezcla', 82 days
- 'King of the Garden', 85 days (heirloom)
Phaseolus lunatus growth, time-lapse
Speckled butterbeans from Jesup, Georgia
Garrofón beans at a paella contest
Phaseolus lunatus cultivar 'Christmas'
Phytophthora phaseoli is one example of a pathogen of the lima bean. It is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes downy mildew of lima bean during cool and humid weather conditions. To combat this pathogen, developing lima bean cultivars with resistance is a relatively cost-efficient method that is also environmentally safe as compared to using pesticides.
Didymella is a foliar disease found in baby lima beans first reported in New York State. Symptoms include small necrotic tan spots with red to reddish brown irregular margins that come together to eventually cover the entire leaf. Lesions occur after around 3–4 weeks of planting and increase until there is considerable defoliation. Lesions are usually observed on the stems. Two pynidial fungi were found on leaves included Didymella sp. And Boeremia exigua var. exigua which is pathogenic on baby lima bean and plays a role in the foliar disease complex. Other fungal diseases on lima beans with similar symptoms are B. exigua var. exigua, pod blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum, and leaf spots caused by Phyllosticta sp. and Phoma subcircinata.
Spider mites pose the greatest threat to the lima bean plants as compared to other species such as the Common cutworm (Spodoptera litura) that are also known to feed on lima bean plants. They are host plants for their larvae.
One herbivore of lima bean is Spodoptera littoralis, the African cotton leafworm. An attack by this herbivore induces hydrogen peroxide in the leaves. This may be also advantageous to defend against pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, as they can easily invade herbivore-infected leaves.
Lima beans use extrafloral nectar (EFN) secretion when exposed to volatiles from other plants infested by herbivore species. Producing EFN can be an indirect defense since it supplies enemies of herbivores with an alternative food source. The predator of lima bean, spider mites, also have their own predators, the carnivorous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. These predatory mites use EFN as an alternative food source and thus the production of this by the lima bean can attract P. persimilis and thus deter their herbivore hosts.
The main induced defense of the lima bean is the Jasmonic acid pathway. Jasmonic acid induces production of extrafloral nectar flow or induces it when herbivory occurs such as when attacked by spider mites.
Plant behavior edit
Phaseolus lunatus has adapted to live in many different climates around the world. One of these adaptations includes a particularly effective induced herbivory defense. The lima bean is able to signal to the carnivorous natural enemy of herbivores, the carnivorous mite, mediated by HIPVs (Herbivore Induced Plant Volatiles) in an attempt to save itself from further predation.
The lima bean plant does this as an induced defense when being eaten by herbivorous predators. It is the mechanical wounding and chemical elicitors from insect oral secretions that first begin the signaling pathway to induce HIPV production. Once this pathway is induced, the plant produces HIPVs which are released in to the air and can be received by any organisms that have receptors capable of receiving HIPVs, which includes: carnivores, conspecific and heterospecific herbivores, as well as neighboring plants. It is this signaling of the carnivorous natural enemy of herbivores that is of particular interest, as they become attracted to the plant and will then come and prey upon the plant's herbivorous enemy, thereby reducing herbivory of the plant.
One particular experiment in which this was made apparent was in the understanding of the tritrophic system between the lima bean plant, two-spotted spider mite, and the carnivorous mite. Here experimenters noticed an increase in HIPVs when the lima bean plant was preyed on by the two-spotted spider mite. Then, when the carnivorous mite was introduced, it had increased prey searching efficacy and overall attraction to the lima bean plant, even once the two-spotted spider mite was removed, but the HIPVs remained high.
Like many beans, raw lima beans are toxic (containing e.g. phytohaemagglutinin) if not boiled for at least 10 minutes. However, canned beans can be eaten without having to be boiled first, as they are pre-cooked.
The lima bean can contain anti-nutrients like phytic acids, saponin, oxalate, tannin, and trypsin inhibitor. These inhibit absorption of nutrients in animals and can cause damage to some organs. In addition to boiling, methods of roasting, pressure cooking, soaking, and germination can also reduce the antinutrients significantly.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||482 kJ (115 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||7 g|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
The most abundant mineral in the raw lima bean is potassium, followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and iron. When lima beans germinate, there is increased bioavailability of calcium and phosphorus. Additionally, it is a good source of vitamin B6.
Lima beans, like many other legumes, are a good source of dietary fiber, and a virtually fat-free source of high-quality protein.
Lima beans contain both soluble fiber, which helps regulate blood sugar levels and lowers cholesterol, and insoluble fiber, which aids in the prevention of constipation, digestive disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulitis.
Blood Sugar Level edit
The high fiber content in lima beans prevents blood sugar levels from rising too rapidly after eating them due to the presence of those large amounts of absorption-slowing compounds in the beans, and the high soluble fiber content. Soluble fiber absorbs water in the stomach, forming a gel that slows down the absorption of the bean's carbohydrates. They can therefore help balance blood sugar levels while providing steady, slow-burning energy, which makes them a good choice for people with diabetes suffering with insulin resistance.[unreliable source?]
- "Phaseolus lunatus L. — The Plant List". theplantlist.org.
- BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Phaseolus lunatus". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Double Beans". IndiaMART.
- Splendour Seeds Butter beans,double beans,lima beans vegetable seeds. ASIN B078MDLFC4.[full citation needed]
- Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Andueza-Noh, Rubén H.; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Debouck, Daniel G.; Chacón S, María I. (July 2012). "Evolution and Domestication of Lima Bean in Mexico: Evidence from Ribosomal DNA". Crop Science. 52 (4): 1698–1712. doi:10.2135/cropsci2011.12.0642.
- "Cookbook:Lima Bean - Wikibooks, open books for an open world".
- Leonard, Jonathan Norton (1970). Recipes, Latin American cooking. Time-Life International (Nederlands). p. 21. ISBN 9780809400638.
- Motta-Aldana, Jenny R.; Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Hernández-Torres, Jorge; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis; Debouck, Daniel G.; Chacóns, Maria I. (September 2010). "Multiple Origins of Lima Bean Landraces in the Americas: Evidence from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Polymorphisms". Crop Science. 50 (5): 1773–1787. doi:10.2135/cropsci2009.12.0706.
- Larco Hoyle, Rafael. Los Mochicas. Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. Lima 2001. ISBN 9972-9341-0-1.
- Lima Bean, Cambridge Dictionary
- Allison Keene, Dietribes: Lima Beans, Mental Floss
- Oxford English Dictionary, 45th Edition, various quotations
- Kunjeti, S. G.; Donofrio, N. M.; Marsh, A. G.; Meyers, B. C.; Evans, T. A. (2010). "Phytophthora phaseoli, destroyer of lima bean production". Phytopathology. 100 (6): 1.
- Heil, Martin (June 2004). "Induction of two indirect defences benefits Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, Fabaceae) in nature". Journal of Ecology. 92 (3): 527–536. Bibcode:2004JEcol..92..527H. doi:10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00890.x.
- "Improving Heirloom varieties". Mother Earth News. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- "Beans, Willow-Leaf Lima—Phaseolus lunatus forma salicis Van Esel". University of Florida. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
- Gorny, Adrienne M.; Kikkert, Julie R.; Shivas, Roger G.; Pethybridge, Sarah J. (2 July 2016). "First report of Didymella americana on baby lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)". Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 38 (3): 389–394. doi:10.1080/07060661.2016.1195877. S2CID 88592578.
- Choh, Yasuyuki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji (March 2013). "Do plants use airborne cues to recognize herbivores on their neighbours?". Experimental and Applied Acarology. 59 (3): 263–273. doi:10.1007/s10493-012-9616-z. PMID 23011105. S2CID 18086635.
- Choh, Yasuyuki; Takabayashi, Junji (16 February 2007). "Predator avoidance in phytophagous mites: response to present danger depends on alternative host quality". Oecologia. 151 (2): 262–267. Bibcode:2007Oecol.151..262C. doi:10.1007/s00442-006-0590-1. PMID 17102994. S2CID 26065975.
- Maffei, Massimo E.; Mithöfer, Axel; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Bossi, Simone; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Cucuzza, Laura Starvaggi; Novero, Mara; Volpe, Veronica; Quadro, Stefano; Boland, Wilhelm (March 2006). "Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves. III. Membrane Depolarization and Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide". Plant Physiology. 140 (3): 1022–1035. doi:10.1104/pp.105.071993. PMC 1400574. PMID 16443697.
- Kost, Christian; Heil, Martin (June 2005). "Increased availability of extrafloral nectar reduces herbivory in Lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus, Fabaceae)". Basic and Applied Ecology. 6 (3): 237–248. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2004.11.002.
- Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D. (8 May 2009). "Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature". PLOS ONE. 4 (5): e5450. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5450B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005450. PMC 2675055. PMID 19424497.
- Maffei, Massimo E and Boland, Wilhelm. "The Silent Scream of the Lima Bean." Congress Report, Chemical Ecology, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265947933_The_Silent_Scream_of_the_Lima_Bean
- Arimura, G.-I.; Matsui, K.; Takabayashi, J. (1 May 2009). "Chemical and Molecular Ecology of Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles: Proximate Factors and Their Ultimate Functions". Plant and Cell Physiology. 50 (5): 911–923. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcp030. PMID 19246460.
- Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Taiti, Cosimo; Caldarelli, Guido; Mancuso, Stefano (8 September 2017). "The network of plants volatile organic compounds". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 11050. arXiv:1704.08062. Bibcode:2017NatSR...711050V. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10975-x. PMC 5591229. PMID 28887468.
- Hettenhausen, Christian; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Huifu; Sun, Huanhuan; Xu, Yuxing; Qi, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jingxiong; Lei, Yunting; Qin, Yan; Sun, Guiling; Wang, Lei; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang (8 August 2017). "Stem parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) transfers herbivory-induced signals among plants". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (32): E6703–E6709. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114E6703H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704536114. PMC 5559024. PMID 28739895.
- Adeparusi, E. O. (2001). "Effect of processing on the nutrients and anti-nutrients of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) flour". Food/Nahrung. 45 (2): 94–96. doi:10.1002/1521-3803(20010401)45:2<94::AID-FOOD94>3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 11379294.
- Jayalaxmi, Baddi; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Usha, Ravindra; Revanna, M. L.; Chandru, R.; Gowda, P. H. Ramanjini (21 December 2015). "Effect of different processing methods on proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) seeds". Legume Research (OF). doi:10.18805/lr.v0iOF.7108.
- Ekanayake, Athula; Nelson, Philip E. (January 1990). "Effect of Thermal Processing on Lima Bean Vitamin B-6 Availability". Journal of Food Science. 55 (1): 154–157. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06040.x.
- Allen, Chelsey (1 November 2015). "How to Regulate Your Blood Sugar—Naturally". Alive.
- Chandalia, Manisha; Garg, Abhimanyu; Lutjohann, Dieter; von Bergmann, Klaus; Grundy, Scott M.; Brinkley, Linda J. (11 May 2000). "Beneficial Effects of High Dietary Fiber Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". New England Journal of Medicine. 342 (19): 1392–1398. doi:10.1056/NEJM200005113421903. PMID 10805824.
- Plants For A Future: Database Search Results
- Illustrated Legume Genetic Resources Database
- Sorting Phaseolus Names
- Recording of a song called "Butter Beans" from the Florida Folklife Collection (made available for public use from the State Archives of Florida)
- USDA National Agricultural Library Lima Bean Digital Exhibit