Leopold von Sacher-Masoch
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Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (27 January 1836 – 9 March 1895) was an Austrian nobleman, writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life. The term masochism is derived from his name, invented by his contemporary, the Austrian psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Masoch did not approve of this use of his name.
Leopold von Sacher-Masoch
|Died||9 March 1895 (aged 59)|
|Venus in Furs|
During his lifetime, Sacher-Masoch was well known as a man of letters, in particular a utopian thinker who espoused socialist and humanist ideals in his fiction and non-fiction. Most of his works remain untranslated into English. Until recently, his novel Venus in Furs was his only book commonly available in English, but an English translation by William Holmes of Die Gottesmutter was released in 2015 as The Mother of God.
Von Sacher-Masoch was born in the city of Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine), the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, at the time a province of the Austrian Empire, into the Roman Catholic family of an Austrian civil servant, Leopold Johann Nepomuk Ritter von Sacher, and Charlotte von Masoch, a Ukrainian noblewoman. The father later combined his surname with his wife's 'von Masoch', at the request of her family (she was the last of the line). Von Sacher served as a Commissioner of the Imperial Police Forces in Lemberg, and he was recognised with a new title of nobility as Sacher-Masoch awarded by the Austrian Emperor.
Leopold studied law, history and mathematics at Graz University, and after graduating moved back to Lemberg where he became a professor. His early, non-fictional publications dealt mostly with Austrian history. At the same time, Masoch turned to the folklore and culture of his homeland, Galicia. Soon he abandoned lecturing and became a free man of letters. Within a decade his short stories and novels prevailed over his historical non-fiction works, though historical themes continued to imbue his fiction.
Panslavist ideas were prevalent in Masoch's literary work, and he found a particular interest in depicting picturesque types among the various ethnicities that inhabited Galicia. From the 1860s to the 1880s he published a number of volumes of Jewish Short Stories, Polish Short Stories, Galician Short Stories, German Court Stories and Russian Court Stories. His works were published in translation in Ukrainian, Polish, Russian and French.
The Legacy of CainEdit
In 1869, Sacher-Masoch conceived a grandiose series of short stories under the collective title Legacy of Cain that would represent the author's aesthetic Weltanschauung. The cycle opened with the manifesto The Wanderer that brought out misogynist themes that became peculiar to Masoch's writings. Of the six planned volumes, only the first two were ever completed. By the middle of the 1880s, Masoch abandoned the Legacy of Cain. Nevertheless, the published volumes of the series included Masoch's best-known stories, and of them, Venus in Furs (1869) is the most famous today. The short novel expressed Sacher-Masoch's fantasies and fetishes (especially for dominant women wearing fur). He did his best to live out his fantasies with his mistresses and wives.
Sacher-Masoch edited the Leipzig-based monthly literary magazine Auf der Höhe. Internationale Review (At the Pinnacle. International Review), which was published from October, 1881 to September, 1885. This was a progressive magazine aimed at tolerance and integration for Jews in Saxony, as well as for the emancipation of women with articles on women's education and suffrage.
In his later years, he worked against local antisemitism through an association for adult education called the Oberhessischer Verein für Volksbildung (OVV), founded in 1893 with his second wife, Hulda Meister, who had also been his assistant for some years.
Private life and inspiration for Venus in FursEdit
Fanny Pistor was an emerging literary writer. She met Sacher-Masoch after she contacted him, under the assumed name and fictitious title of Baroness Bogdanoff, for suggestions on improving her writing to make it suitable for publication.
On 9 December 1869, Sacher-Masoch and Pistor, who was by then his mistress, signed a contract making him her slave for a period of six months, with the stipulation that the Baroness wear furs as often as possible, especially when she was in a cruel mood. Sacher-Masoch took the alias of "Gregor", a stereotypical male servant's name, and assumed a disguise as the servant of the Baroness. The two travelled by train to Italy. As in Venus in Furs, he traveled in the third-class compartment, while she had a seat in first-class, arriving in Venice (Florence, in the novel), where they were not known, and would not arouse suspicion.
Sacher-Masoch pressured his first wife – Aurora von Rümelin, whom he married in 1873 – to live out the experience of the book, against her preferences. Sacher-Masoch found his family life to be unexciting, and eventually got a divorce and married his assistant.
In his late fifties, his mental health began to deteriorate, and he spent the last years of his life under psychiatric care. According to official reports, he died in Lindheim, Altenstadt, Hesse, in 1895. It is also claimed that he died in an asylum in Mannheim in 1905.
...I feel justified in calling this sexual anomaly "Masochism", because the author Sacher-Masoch frequently made this perversion, which up to his time was quite unknown to the scientific world as such, the substratum of his writings. I followed thereby the scientific formation of the term "Daltonism", from Dalton, the discoverer of colour-blindness.
During recent years facts have been advanced which prove that Sacher-Masoch was not only the poet of Masochism, but that he himself was afflicted with the anomaly. Although these proofs were communicated to me without restriction, I refrain from giving them to the public. I refute the accusation that "I have coupled the name of a revered author with a perversion of the sexual instinct", which has been made against me by some admirers of the author and by some critics of my book. As a man, Sacher-Masoch cannot lose anything in the estimation of his cultured fellow-beings simply because he was afflicted with an anomaly of his sexual feelings. As an author, he suffered severe injury so far as the influence and intrinsic merit of his work is concerned, for so long and whenever he eliminated his perversion from his literary efforts he was a gifted writer, and as such would have achieved real greatness had he been actuated by normally sexual feelings. In this respect he is a remarkable example of the powerful influence exercised by the vita sexualis be it in the good or evil sense over the formation and direction of man's mind.
Sacher-Masoch was not pleased with Krafft-Ebing's assertions. Nevertheless, details of Masoch's private life were obscure until Aurora von Rümelin's memoirs, Meine Lebensbeichte (My Life Confession;1906), were published in Berlin under the pseudonym Wanda v. Dunajew. The following year, a French translation, Confession de Ma Vie (1907) by "Wanda von Sacher-Masoch", was printed in Paris by Mercure de France. An English translation of the French edition was published as The Confessions of Wanda von Sacher-Masoch (1991) by RE/Search Publications.
- 1858 A Galician Story 1846
- 1865 Kaunitz
- 1866 Don Juan of Kolomiya
- 1867 The Last King of Hungary
- 1870 The Divorcee
- 1870 Legacy of Cain. Vol. 1: Love (includes his most famous novella Venus in Furs)
- 1872 Faux Ermine
- 1873 Female Sultan
- 1873 The Messalinas of Vienna
- 1873–74 Russian Court Stories: 4 Vols.
- 1873–77 Viennese Court Stories: 2 Vols.
- 1874/76 Liebesgeschichten aus verschiedenen Jahrhunderten (Love Stories from Several Centuries), 3 volumes, includes Die Bluthochzeit zu Kiew (Bloody Wedding in Kyiv), Ariella
- 1875 The Ideals of Our Time
- 1875 Galician Stories
- 1877 The Man Without Prejudice
- 1877 Legacy of Cain. Vol. 2: Property
- 1878 The New Hiob
- 1878 Jewish Stories
- 1878 The Republic of Women's Enemies
- 1879 Silhouettes
- 1881 New Jewish Stories
- 1883 Die Gottesmutter (The Mother of God)
- 1886 Eternal Youth
- 1886 Stories from Polish Ghetto
- 1886 Little Mysteries of World History
- 1886 Bloody Wedding in Kyiv''
- 1887 Polish Stories
- 1890 The Serpent in Paradise
- 1891 The Lonesome
- 1894 Love Stories
- 1898 Entre nous
- 1900 Catherina II
- 1901 Afrikas Semiramis
- 1907 Fierce Women
- Regarding personal names: Ritter was a title before 1919, but now is regarded as part of the surname. It is translated as Knight. Before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a legal class, titles preceded the full name when given (Graf Helmuth James von Moltke). Since 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix (von, zu, etc.), can be used, but are regarded as a dependent part of the surname, and thus come after any given names (Helmuth James Graf von Moltke). Titles and all dependent parts of surnames are ignored in alphabetical sorting. There is no equivalent feminine form.
- Alison M. Moore, Sexual Myths of Modernity: sadism, masochism and historical teleology (Lexington, 2016)
- "City in Ukraine Tied to Masochism Finds Link Painful, Sure, but Some Like It" by Andrew Higgins, The New York Times, 14 November 2014
- The cultural legacy of Sacher-Masoch Nataliya Kosmolinska and Yury Okhrimenko
- Hyams, Barbara (2000). "Causal Connections: The Case of Sacher-Masoch". In Michael C. Finke; Carl Niekerk (eds.). One Hundred Years of Masochism: Literary Texts, Social and Cultural Contexts. Rodopi. pp. 139–154. ISBN 90-420-0657-9. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Weinberg, Thomas S. (1992). "Sacher-Masoch, Leopold Ritter von". In Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (eds.). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-7972-8.
- "Marianne keeps the Faith – In concert: Marianne Faithfull". The Vancouver Province. 29 May 2007. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- Von Krafft-Ebing, Richard (1939). Psychopathia Sexualis: A Medico-Forensic Study. Elsevier Science. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-4831-9410-3. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- "The beauteous, the ferocious, the great – Olha, Kniahynia of Kyivan Rus" (Bloody Wedding in Kyiv, Sydney: Sova Books, 2016)
- Bach, Ulrich E, "Sacher-Masoch's Utopian Peripheries." In: The German Quarterly 80.2 (2007): 201–219.
- Biale, David, "Masochism and Philosemitism: The Strange Case of Leopold Von Sacher-Masoch", Journal of Contemporary History 17 (1982), 305–323.
- Deleuze, Gilles, "Coldness and Cruelty," in Masochism, New York: Zone Books (1991).
- John K. Noyes, The Mastery of Submission. Inventions of Masochism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press 1997.
- Carlo Di Mascio, Masoch sovversivo. Cinque studi su Venus im Pelz, Firenze, Phasar Edizioni, 2018. ISBN 978-88-6358-488-2
- Alison Moore, Recovering Difference in the Deleuzian Dichotomy of Masochism-without-Sadism. Angelaki 14 (3), November 2009, 27-43.
- Alison M. Moore, Sexual Myths of Modernity: Sadism, Masochism and Historical Teleology. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2016. ISBN 978-0-7391-3077-3
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- Works by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Leopold von Sacher-Masoch at Internet Archive
- Works by Leopold von Sacher-Masoch at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- The Letawitza
- The Independent Saturday, 23 July 1994
- Stanislav Tsalyk: Don Juan of Lviv