Sadism and masochism in fiction

The role of sadism and masochism in fiction has attracted serious scholarly attention. Anthony Storr has commented that the volume of sadomasochist pornography shows that sadomasochistic interest is widespread in Western society;[1] John Kucich has noted the importance of masochism in late-19th-century British colonial fiction.[2] This article presents appearances of sadomasochism in literature and works of fiction in the various media.[3][4][5]


Titles are sorted in chronological order.

Pre-19th centuryEdit

19th centuryEdit

Illustration from Le Magnétisme du Fouet, ou les Indiscrétions de Miss Darcy (1902) by Jean de Villiot. Note this is the French translation of The Romance of Chastisement (1866). Illustrator is unknown, though is possibly William Adolphe Lambrecht.

At Mokroe I was talking to an old man, and he told me: 'There's nothing we like so much as sentencing girls to be thrashed, and we always give the lads the job of thrashing them. And the girl he has thrashed to-day, the young man will ask in marriage to-morrow. So it quite suits the girls, too,' he said. There's a set of de Sades for you! But it's clever, anyway.[47]

  • The Mysteries of Verbena House, or, Miss Bellasis Birched for Thieving (1882) by "Etonensis" [pseud.], actually by George Augustus Sala and James Campbell Reddie (co-author of The Sins of the Cities of the Plain).
  • The Whippingham Papers (1888) with poetry ascribed to Algernon Charles Swinburne, edited by St. George H. Stock, a probable pseudonym, also credited with The Romance of Chastisement (1866). A collection of Victorian stories and verse about erotic flagellation.[48]
  • First Training (1890) also known as Clara Birch by anonymous recounts the sexual coming-of-age of a young English lady. Under the tutelage of her imperious stepmother, the voluptuous Clara learns how to make all around her cater to her every whim.
  • The Yellow Room (1891) by anonymous (generally attributed to "M. Le Comte Du Bouleau", aka Stanislas Matthew de Rhodes).[49] – Novella about an eighteen-year-old girl educated and disciplined by her stern aunt and uncle.[50] Reprinted along with the novella Letters to a Lady Friend, in Whipped into Shape: Two Classic Erotic Novellas by Renaissance E Books Inc. (2004).
  • Gynecocracy: A Narrative of the Adventures and Psychological Experiences of Julian Robinson, by "Viscount Ladywood" [pseud.] (1893),[51][52] the author recounts his punishment as a boy at the hands of the governess to whom he is sent, along with three female cousins, after having taken indecent liberties with a household maid. Forced to wear girls' clothing as his ordinary attire, Julian, now Julia, is subjected to frequent flagellations, as are his cousins, one of whom he later marries, submitting to her dominance through continued forced feminization and crossdressing.
  • The Confessions of Georgina (1893) by Julian Robinson (aka Le Compte Du Bouleau, Stanislas Matthew de Rhodès) – a tale of bondage and domination that satirizes the hypocrisy of Victorian morality. Author of The Petticoat Dominant, or Woman's Revenge – The Autobiography of a Young Nobleman (1898), an early classic of male-submissive pinafore eroticism.
  • Raped on the Railway: a True Story of a Lady who was first ravished and then flagellated on the Scotch Express (1894), anonymous,[53][54][55][56][57][58] by Charles Carrington[18] A married woman is raped by a stranger in a locked railway compartment and in a common trope in later Victorian pornography[57] is depicted as ultimately taking pleasure in the act:[59] she is then flagellated by her brother-in-law for the latter transgression.[60] The plot may have been inspired by the real-life case of Colonel Valentine Baker, who was convicted of an indecent assault on a young woman in a railway carriage in 1875.[53] An American adaptation, or plagiarism, was published in New York City under the title Raped on the Elevated Railway, a True Story of a Lady who was First Ravished and then Flagellated on the Uptown Express, illustrating the Perils of Travel in the New Machine Age[61][62] set in New York.[63]
  • A Full and True Account of the Wonderful Mission of Earl Lavender (1895) by John Davidson (London: Ward & Downey). A burlesque on the Decadent movement with private whipping clubs and other flagellatory adventures from noted poet, playwright, and humorist John Davidson.[64]
  • Tales of Fun and Flagellation (1896) by Lady Gay Spanker [pseud.].[65] A diverse collection of anecdotes and stories.[66]
  • The Torture Garden (1899) by Octave Mirbeau An allegorical examination of Western society, and of the human condition.
  • The Memoirs of Dolly Morton: The Story of A Woman's Part in the Struggle to Free the Slaves, An Account of the Whippings, Rapes, and Violences that Preceded the Civil War in America, with Curious Anthropological Observations on the Radical Diversities in the Conformation of the Female Bottom and the Way Different Women Endure Chastisement (1899) under the pseudonym Jean de Villiot, probably Hugues Rebell[67] or Charles Carrington. Edited and published in London and Paris by Charles Carrington.[68] Another edition was published in Philadelphia in 1904.[69]
  • Lashed into Lust: The Caprice of a Flagellator (1899)[70] by Anonymous. – French novel reprinted in 1908 with "James Lovebirch" as author. Reprinted in 2000 by Blue Moon Books (New York).

20th centuryEdit

  • "Frank" and I (1902) by Anonymous. Originally published in three volumes in England. Edwardian novel of flagellation pornography. A wealthy young man, who is "a lover of the rod", takes in "Frank", a teenage girl disguised as a boy. A 1983 film was released under alternative titles Frank and I and Lady Libertine.
  • Vanessa, The Vicar's Girl (1903) by Anonymous. Reverend Jubstone delights in bending the Markham household to his lascivious will through the vigorous application of the Scottish tawse.
  • Maud Cameron and her Guardian (1903) written anonymously, though some attribute it to the pseudonymous Charles Sackville, privately printed for subscribers only (Golden Birch House: London). Author of numerous flagellation novels published in London and Paris including: Two Lascivious Adventures of Mr. Howard – A continuation of Maud Cameron and her Guardian (1907), The Amazing Chastisements of Miss Bostock (1908), Three Chapters in the Life of Mr. Howard (1908), Whipping as a Fine Art – Being an Account of Exquisite and Refined Chastisement Inflicted by Mr. Howard on Grown-up Schoolgirls (1909), et al.
  • Woman and Her Master (1904) by Jean de Villiot, pseudonym of Georges Grassal – a novel of flagellation erotica translated into English by Charles Carrington from the original 1902 French edition, La Femme et son maître.[71]
  • Birch in the Boudoir (1905) by anonymous (attributed to Hugues Rebell, real name Georges Grassal), translated and published in Paris by Charles Carrington. Reprinted in 1989 by Blue Moon Books as Beauty in the Birch. – An exchange of racy letters about the amatory and disciplinary experiences of a new master of an English school for wayward girls and a woman living in an Arabian harem.
  • The Mistress and The Slave (1905) by George Merder – a study of female domination and sadomasochism as an upper-class businessman is enslaved and brutalized by a Parisian street-girl. Translated from the original French edition, La Maitresse et l'Esclave (Maison Mystere, ca. 1903).
  • La Flagellation Passionnelle (1906) by Don Brennus Aléra, pseudonym of Roland Brévannes. Between 1903 and 1936 he wrote and illustrated around 100 historical and contemporary novels about flagellation and crossdressing petticoat punishment.
  • Les Onze Mille Verges (The eleven thousand rods) by Guillaume Apollinaire – written in the 1906–1907 period; the publication is unsigned and undated. Picasso thought this was the finest book he had ever read.[72]
  • Sadopaideia: Being the Experiences of Cecil Prendergast Undergraduate of the University of Oxford Shewing How he was Led Through the Pleasant Paths of Masochism to the Supreme joys of Sadism. (1907) by anonymous. – Two-volume tale of a man who experiences both dominance and submission. Anthony Storr attributes it to Algernon Charles Swinburne.[73]
  • The Beautiful Flagellants of New York (1907) by Lord Drialys (The Society of British Bibliophiles [Charles Carrington]: Paris) – follows an intrepid traveller's adventures from Chicago to Boston to New York. Originally published in three volumes, one for each city.[74] Reprinted by Olympia Press as The Beautiful Flagellants of Chicago, Boston and New York.
  • Nos Belles flagellantes (1907) by Aimé Van Rod (Édition Parisienne: Paris). French author of dozens of flagellation novels including: Nouveax Contes de Fouet (1907), The Conjugal Whip (Le fouet conjugal) (1908), Le Fouet dominateur ou L'École des vierges, Les Mystéres du Fouet (both 1909), The Humiliations of Miss Madge (1912), Les Malheurs de Colette (1914), Visites fantastiques au pays du fouet (1922), Le Precepteur (1923), Memories d'une Fouettee (1924), et al.
  • The Way of a Man with a Maid (ca. 1908) by Anonymous. First published in France, exact date and author unknown. Three-volume Edwardian novel of abduction, sex and sadism. Often reprinted as a single volume under the shorter title A Man with a Maid. Adapted to film in 1975 called What the Swedish Butler Saw.
  • La Comtesse au fouet (1908), by Pierre Dumarchey (Pierre Mac Orlan)[75] – the story of a cruel dominatrix who turns the male hero into a "dog-man". Under the pen-name Miss Sadie Blackeyes, he wrote popular flagellation novels such as Baby douce fille (1910), Miss: The memoirs of a young lady of quality containing recollections of boarding school discipline and intimate details of her chastisement (1912), and Petite Dactylo et autres textes de flagellation (1913). And as "Anonymous" wrote Masochists in America (Le Masochisme en Amérique: Recueil des récits et impressions personnelles d'une victime du féminisme) (1905).
  • Éducation Anglaise (1908) by Lord Kidrodstock (Édition Parisienne: Paris) – early and unusual text featuring forced cross-dressing and flagellation. Boys and girls in an English boarding school are dressed alike in girls' clothes. They receive training by means of the discipline of tight corsets, narrow high-heeled boots, etc., reinforced by frequent application of the whip or the birch. Illustrated with ten drawings by Del Giglio.
  • Coups de Fouet (1908) by Lord Birchisgood [pseud.] (Édition Parisienne, Roberts & Dardailons Éditeurs: Paris).[76] Author of Le Tour d'Europe d'un flagellant (1909),[77] et al.
  • Les Cinq fessées de Suzette (Five Smackings of Suzette) (1910) by James Lovebirch [pseud.], published in Paris. Author of many popular flagellation novels such as L'Avatar de Lucette (The Misadventures of Lucette), Peggy Briggs, Au Bon Vieux Temps (all from 1913), and The Flagellations of Suzette (1915), Paris: Library Aristique.[78]
  • Qui Aime Bien (1912) by Jacques d'Icy, pseudonym of author and artist Louis Malteste[79] (Jean Fort: Paris), illustrated by Malteste. Writer of many books of spanking/whipping erotica such as: Chatie Bien (1913), Monsieur Paulette et Ses Epouses (1921), Paulette Trahie (1922), Brassée de faits (1925), Les Mains Chéries (1927), et al.
  • Le règne de la cravache et de la bottine (The Reign of the Riding Crop and the Boot) (1913) by Roland Brévannes, pseudonym of Bernard Valonnes (Select Bibliothèque: Paris) – humiliating animal roleplay, female-dominated men are forced to crawl about in bear suits. A theme explored in several of his books; in Les Esclaves-montures (Slave Mountings) (1920) and Le Club des Monteurs Humaines (1924), men are turned into obedient cart ponies.
  • Fred: The True History of a Boy Raised as a Girl (1913) by Don Brennus Alera, pseudonym of Roland Brévannes – classic story of humiliating petticoat punishment (Pinafore eroticism). Followed by the sequels Frederique (1921), Frida (1924), Fridoline (1926), and Lina Frido (1927).
  • Récits Piquants, chaudes aventures: scènes de féminisme. (1914) by Gilbert Natès, illustrated by G. Topfer. French compilation of various episodes of whipping. The punishers are all women, the victims boys and girls, young men and women. In several cases the male victims are forced to wear female clothing.
  • Ulysses (1918–1920; 1922) by James Joyce employs themes of masochism,[78] especially in the "Circe" section which has multiple allusions to Venus in Furs.[80]
  • Two Flappers in Paris (1920) by "A. Cantab" [pseud.] – two young women visiting Paris are lured into a flagellatory brothel.[81]
  • Esclaves Modernes (Modern Slaves) (1922) by Jean de Virgans, illustrated by Gaston Smit – unusual tale of power exchange (BDSM) with white European women whipped and abused by African natives. Virgans also wrote Flagellees in 1909.
  • The Metamorphosis of Lisette Joyaux (1924) by Anonymous; a tale of the education of young Lisette indoctrinated into the pleasures of lesbianism and chastisement by five Sapphists who employ rope, cane, and birch. Written and published in English, the novel is set in France, and often printed alongside The Story of Monique (1924) again anonymously written, which explores an underground society's clandestine rituals and scandalous encounters that reveals the sexual rituals that beckon the ripe and willing Monique.
  • Histoire de l'oeil (Story of the Eye) (1928) by Georges Bataille – A short novel.
  • Le Dressage de la Maid-Esclave (1930) by Bernard Valonnes, pseudonym of Roland Brévannes (Select Bibliothèque: Paris) – two-volume story of women trained as cart-pulling ponygirl slaves.
  • The Discipline of Odette (1930) by Jean Martinet [pseud.] (Éditions Prima); English translation of the French whipping/spanking novel Matée par le fouet.
  • The Erotic Picture of Dorian Gray (1929) 2 volumes by Anonymous; translation by Alfred Richard Allinson of the German novel Das Bildnis des Dorian Gray
  • Bagne de femmes (Jail for Girls) (1931) by Alan Mac Clyde [pseud.], Librairie Générale: Paris. One of the earliest of dozens of sadomasochistic novels by this unknown author. Followed by Dressage (1931), La Cité de l'horreur (1933), Servitude (1934), Dolly, Esclave (1936), et al.
  • Dresseuses d'hommes (1931) by Florence Fulbert (Jean Fort: Paris), illustrated by Jim Black [Luc Lafnet].[82] Story of men dominated and punished by women.
  • Sous la tutelle (Under Supervision) (1932) by René-Michel Desergy (Jean Fort: Paris), illustrated by Luc Lafnet – story of spanking, whipping and enema punishment. Author of numerous spanking and flagellation novels such as Trente Ans (1928), Severe Education (1931), Diana Gantee (1932), and Chambrieres De Haute Ecole (1934).
  • Memoirs of a Dominatrice (1933) by Jean Claqueret (Jean Fort: Paris). French author of many whipping/spanking novels: Clotilde et Quelques Autres (1935), Humiliations chéries (1936), Pantalons sans défense (1938), et al.
  • La Volupté du Fouet (The Pleasure of the Whip) (1938) by Armand du Loup, illustrated by famous French artist Étienne Le Rallic under the alias R. Fanny.
  • Story of O (1954) by Pauline Réage – To prove her love, the protagonist submits to being kept in a château and abused by a group of men, one her official lover. Later, she resumes her normal life, while secretly becoming the property of a friend of her lover's.[83] It was made into a film in 1975.
  • The Whip Angels (1955) by XXX or Selena Warfield, pseudonyms of Diane Bataille, second wife of French writer Georges Bataille (The Olympia Press: Paris)[84] – a pastiche of a Victorian erotic novel.
  • L'Image (1956) by Jean de Berg (pseudonym of Catherine Robbe-Grillet). In 1975, it was made into a film, The Image, also titled as The Punishment of Anne.
  • The Passionate Lash or The Revenge of Sir Hilary Garner (c. 1957) by Alan McClyde [pseud.] (Pall Mall Press: Paris) – Alan Mac Clyde was a popular house name used for erotic books from the 1920s to the 1970s.
  • The Ordeal of the Rod (1958) by Bernard R. Burns [pseud]. (Ophelia Press: Paris).[85]
  • The English Governess (Ophelia Press, 1960), revised as Harriet Marwood, Governess (1967) by John Glassco[86] under the pseudonym, "Miles Underwood".[87]
  • Gordon (1966) by Edith Templeton – once-banned novel about a woman in postwar London who falls into an intense submissive relationship with a psychiatrist.
  • The Master Spanker (1966) by Edward Landon (Unique Books), Venus In Bondage (1969) by Lurene Jones (N. P. Inc.), and Margo Lee: Diary of a Teenage Sado-Masochist (1969) by Red Young (Classic Publications: Los Angeles) are representative examples of the hundreds of S&M pulp novels produced in the U.S. in the 1960s by Corinth Publications, Taurus Press, Black Cat Books, Gargoyle Press, et al.
  • Tarnsman of Gor (1967) by John Norman – first in a series of 27 erotic science fiction novels set on the planet Gor. The novels describe an elaborate culture of sexual master/slave relationships which have spawned a BDSM lifestyle subculture of followers who call themselves Goreans.
  • Je... Ils... (1969) by Arthur Adamov – With stories like Fin Août. About Masochism, regarded as an "immunisation against death", but does not aim at erotic arousal.
  • Hogg (1969) by Samuel Delany.
  • The Marquesa de Sade: Erotic Mistress of Exquisite Evil (1970) by Joseph LeBaron [pseud.] (Hanover House: North Hollywood) – adapted from the film produced by Jaybird Enterprises.
  • Gravity's Rainbow (1973) by Thomas Pynchon.
  • Memoirs of a Slave (1976) by Rene Michel Desergy (Janus Publications: London) – a typical example of the many books and magazines fetish publisher Janus produced in the 1970s.
  • Pagan Sex Orgy (1976) by Randy Palmer (Eros Publishing Co., Inc.: Wilmington, Delaware) – reflects the 1970s revival of occultism in books and film. Cover and illustrations by Bill Ward.[citation needed]
  • 9½ Weeks (1978) an erotic memoir by Elizabeth McNeill, later made into the film 9½ Weeks starring Kim Basinger and Mickey Rourke in 1986.
  • Spanking the Maid (1982) by Robert Coover
  • The Correct Sadist (1983) by Terence Sellers (Grove Press: New York City) – reverses the dominant-submissive roles of The Story of O to create a post-feminist American myth about power.[88][89]
  • Die Klavierspielerin (Reinbeck, 1983) by Elfriede Jelinek, made into the film The Piano Teacher by director Michael Haneke.
  • Anne Rice's sadomasochistic writing includes: Exit to Eden (1985), Belinda (1986), and The Claiming of Sleeping Beauty (1983) and its sequels, Beauty's Punishment (1984) and Beauty's Release (1985). The Sleeping Beauty books she wrote as A.N. Roquelaure.
  • The Hellbound Heart (1986), by popular horror writer Clive Barker, is a gruesome study of sadomasochism featuring brutal rituals by demonic entities.[90]
  • Ironwood (1988) by Don Winslow is the first in a series (Blue Moon Books, New York). A modern pastiche of Victorian novels such as Birch in the Boudoir about a young man who becomes master of a strict English school for girls. Followed by Images of Ironwood, Ironwood Revisited, Master of Ironwood, The Many Pleasures of Ironwood, et al.
  • Macho Sluts (1988) by Pat Califia[91]
  • Something Leather (1990) by Alasdair Gray has as its framing story an initiation into sadomasochistic activities by the female operators of a leather clothing shop in Glasgow.
  • American Psycho (Vintage, 1991) by Bret Easton Ellis.
  • The Wet Forever (1991) by David Aaron Clark, about the sadomasochistic relationship between a grifter named Janus and a dominatrix named Madchen.[92]
  • The Ties that Bind (Le Lien) (1993) by Vanessa Duriès.
  • Matriarchy: Freedom in Bondage, 1997 by Malcolm McKesson[93] (An Outsider artist) – A boy undergraduate student in Harvard college is dominated by his mistress, and forced to dress as a woman.
  • Killing Me Softly (1999) by Nicci French. Made into a film of the same name in 2002 starring Heather Graham

21st centuryEdit

Mainstream filmsEdit

The following films feature BDSM as a major plot point.[97]





  • Full Exposure: The Sex Tapes Scandal (1989), made-for-TV film. Police investigate underground S&M clubs looking for a serial killer. Vanessa Williams plays a hooker/dominatrix who videotapes her clients.
  • Mercy (film) (2000) HBO cable-television movie starring Ellen Barkin and Peta Wilson. Murder mystery leads to a secret S&M society.
  • Jack of All Trades is a comedy-adventure series set in the 19th century starring Bruce Campbell. In the episode "X Marquis the Spot" (2000), Jack visits the island resort of the Marquis de Sade and competes in an S&M-themed obstacle course race that parodies Survivor.
  • Doc Martin, British television comedy-drama series starring Martin Clunes. In the episode "Old Dogs" (2005), the title character is consulted by a man who seems to have a habit of inexplicably injuring himself; it is later revealed that the man and his wife engage in BDSM, with the husband as the submissive.
  • Secret Diary of a Call Girl (2007); in the fourth episode, "Belle" (Billie Piper) takes BDSM lessons from a professional dominatrix as a favor for her accountant who is a closet submissive.
  • Dollhouse (2009); the beginning of the 9th episode shows Echo (Eliza Dushku), returning from an assignment as a leather-clad whip-wielding dominatrix.
  • On the Alias (2003) 2nd-season episode "Second Double", Agent Bristow (Jennifer Garner) goes undercover as a German dominatrix in a Berlin leather bar.
  • The FOX series The Inside episode "Old Wounds" dealt exclusively with S&M, and was criticized by the Parents Television Council as a result.[99]
  • The television series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation has featured Melinda Clarke as professional dominatrix Lady Heather in six episodes, most notably in the 90-minute special episode "Lady Heather's Box".[100]
  • Season 4 of HBO series Six Feet Under features a character (Joe) who wants to adopt a submissive sexual role in his relationship with Brenda.[citation needed]
  • A Family Guy gag (from the episode "Let's Go to the Hop") depicts main characters Lois and Peter suiting up for a sadomasochistic session while having a mundane conversation about how wholesome their children are, and why they can be trusted. Toys have been made of this scene.[101] In the audio commentary for that episode it is noted that such a practice seemed normal to them.
  • Season 1 of the FOX medical drama House, episode "Love Hurts" a patient is deeply involved in a BDSM relationship.
  • Rex Van de Kamp of Desperate Housewives was unveiled as a lover of S&M, much to the disgust of his wife, Bree.[102] In Come Back to Me, Sharon Lawrence plays Maisy Gibbons, a dominatrix who walks across Rex's back in stiletto heels.
  • Season 2 of NBC's Friday night drama Homicide: Life on the Street, in the episode "A Many Splendored Thing".[103] Detectives Bayliss and Pembleton investigate a murder in the S&M club scene. Bayliss expresses his disgust at the 'perversion', but the episode ends with his return to a leather shop, where he purchases a studded and belted leather jacket. This episode is the beginning of the character's sexual awakening, as he becomes comfortable with his bisexual feelings.
  • ER – a professional dominatrix with broken fingers and her male slave, who was injured in a fall during a bondage/suspension session, are admitted to the emergency room.
  • Private Practice – in the 2nd season, cast member KaDee Strickland is seen roleplaying as a German dominatrix with a latex outfit, studded collar, and a whip.
  • Season 5 of FX's Nip/Tuck has Sean crossing paths with a Hollywood agent (Craig Bierko) with horrific wounds on his chest and the dominatrix (Tia Carrere) who inflicted them on him in the episode "Carly Summers".
  • Rescue Me (2009) – In "Initiation" (Season 5, episode 15), Callie Thorne's character seduces Tommy (Denis Leary) dressed as a cheerleader, Playboy bunny and latex-clad dominatrix. They are briefly seen paddling each other in a fast-motion sequence.
  • Castle, "The Mistress Always Spanks Twice" (ABC, season 2, episode 16, 2010): a murder investigation leads to the underground world of the professional dominatrix.
  • HBO's series, The Sopranos, features multiple characters who engage in sadomasochism.
  • In the anime and manga Gin Tama, characters Sogo Okita and Sarutobi Ayame often practice sadism and masochism respectively.
  • In the manga Nana to Kaoru by Amazume Ryuta, the protagonista Nana and Kaoru are shown to be in an SM relationship to help Nana with her "breathers". It also depicts different cultural practices related to SM. The manga has been adapted to into OVAs and live-action television movies.
  • American Horror Story: Asylum – FX network series about an insane asylum in 1964 run by a sadistic nun, Sister Jude (Jessica Lange). In "Welcome to Briarcliff" (episode 2:1, 2012) and "Tricks and Treats" (2:2) she canes a male patient. In "Unholy Night" (2:8), a deranged male patient gets revenge for being beaten (seen in brief flashback) by caning Sister Jude.
  • Holby City episode 356 (#41 of Series 9, (2007)) involves a man being admitted to hospital with a stiletto heel in his chest. His Dominatrix, who accompanies him to hospital, has been trampling him, and penetrated his ribs.







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See alsoEdit

External linksEdit