Lancia Delta S4
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The Lancia Delta S4 is a Group B rally car manufactured by the Italian car company Lancia. The Delta S4 competed in the World Rally Championship in 1985 and 1986, until Group B class was disbanded and the cars were eventually banned from competition completely by European sanctioning body FIA. The car replaced, and was an evolution of the 037. The S4 took full advantage of the Group B regulations, and featured a midship-mounted engine and all-wheel drive for superior traction on loose surfaces.
Lancia Delta HF 4WD
|Chassis||Steel tubular space frame|
|Suspension (front)||A-arms, coaxial coil springs and dampers|
|Suspension (rear)||A-arms, coil springs, double dampers|
|Length||3,990 mm (157 in)|
|Width||1,880 mm (74 in)|
|Height||1,360 mm (54 in)|
|Wheelbase||2,440 mm (96 in)|
|Engine||1,759 cc (107.3 cu in) DOHC 16v I4 supercharged, turbocharged and intercooled, longitudinally mid-mounted|
|Weight||890 kg (1,962 lb)|
|First win||1985, 34th Lombard RAC Rally|
|Last win||1986, Olympus Rally|
The car's 1,759 cc (1.8 L) Inline-four engine combined supercharging and turbocharging to reduce turbo lag at low engine speeds (rpm). The engine generated a maximum output of 490 PS (360 kW; 483 hp) but some sources even claim that the engine was capable of generating 507 PS (373 kW; 500 hp). In 1985, Lancia engineers tested an S4 engine under extreme conditions, the engine developed around 1,014 PS (746 kW; 1,000 hp) at 5 bars of boost pressure. An engine capacity multiple of 1.4 was applied to forced induction engines by the FIA and the choice of 1,759 cc (1.8 L) put the S4 in the under 2,500 cc class, which allowed for a minimum weight of 890 kg (1,962 lb). The combined super/turbocharger system (often referred to as twincharging) was a development of the 037 engine that generated 325 hp (242 kW) with a supercharger only.
Like Peugeot's earlier 205 T16, the mid-engine Lancia Delta S4 was a Delta silhouette race car (for marketing purposes), and shared virtually nothing in terms of construction with the production front-engine Delta. The chassis was a tubular space frame construction much like the 037. It featured long travel double wishbone suspension front and rear, with a single large coil over at the front along with a separate spring and twin shock absorbers at the rear. The bodywork was made of a carbon fibre composite with front and rear bodywork fully detachable for fast replacement due to accident damage, allowing ease of access during on-event servicing. The bodywork featured several aerodynamic aids including bonnet opening behind the front-mounted water radiator with Gurney flap, front splitter and winglets moulded into the front bumper panel, flexible front skirt, and rear deck lid wing that featured both a full aerofoil wind section twinned with a deflection spoiler. The door construction style was brought from the 037 with a hollow shell all-Kevlar construction that had no inner door skin, no door handle or window winder. The door was opened with a small loop and the windows were fixed perspex with small sliding panels to allow ventilation and passing of time cards.
The method of turbocharging and supercharging an engine is referred to as twincharging. The Delta S4 was the first example of this technology. Contemporary turbochargers were inefficient, as they did not produce boost pressure at low RPM. This phenomenon, known as turbo lag, negatively affects driveability, an important aspect of any car. Superchargers do not suffer from lag as they are powered directly from the engine's crankshaft, rather than by the exhaust gases. However, because of this direct mechanical connection, the supercharger presents a significant parasitic load to the engine at higher RPM. Lancia designed their twincharger system so the supercharger provides instantaneous boost in the lower RPM range, switching to the turbocharger for more efficient higher RPM engine operation.
Delta S4 "Stradale"Edit
|Lancia Delta S4 "Stradale"|
|Production||1985–1986 (200 made)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Engine||1.8 L I4 (supercharged and turbocharged petrol)|
|Length||4,005 mm (157.7 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,200 kg (2,646 lb)|
|Predecessor||Lancia Rally 037 "Stradale"|
Between October 1985 and 1986 Lancia built 200 examples of a road-going version of the Delta S4, officially named Lancia Delta S4 but widely known as "Stradale", for the purpose of homologation in Group B. In Italy, the car was priced at about 100 million Lira: five times the price of the most expensive Delta of the time, the HF Turbo.
The Stradale's chassis was a space frame, similar to its rally counterpart, built out of CrMo steel tubes and aluminium alloy for the crash structures; it was covered by epoxy and fiberglass body panels. Like the rally car, the 1.8-litre four-cylinder engine was longitudinally mid-mounted, equipped with Weber-Marelli IAW integrated electronic ignition and fuel injection, a supercharger, a turbocharger and two intercoolers. In road tune the 1.8 produced 250 PS (184 kW; 247 hp) at 6,750 rpm and 291 N⋅m (215 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,500 rpm. The "Stradale" kept a three differential four-wheel-drive system from the rally car; the centre differential sent 30% of the engine torque to the front open differential, and 70% to the rear limited slip.
Lancia claimed the car could reach a top speed of 225 km/h (140 mph) and accelerate from standstill to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 6.0 seconds. In contrast to its bare bones racing sister, the S4 Stradale featured an Alcantara-upholstered interior, sound deadening, a suede steering wheel, and was equipped with power steering, trip computer and air conditioning.
In competition, the car won its first event, the 1985 RAC Rally in the hands of Henri Toivonen and carried Markku Alén to second in the drivers' championship the following year. For two weeks after the end of the 1986 season Alen was champion until the FIA annulled the results of the Sanremo Rally due to irregular technical scrutineering. Alén had won that event and the loss of points handed the title to Peugeot's Juha Kankkunen. All told, in 1986 there were 3 wins for the Delta S4 (San Remo not included). The Monte Carlo Rally by Toivonen, Rally Argentina by Massimo Biasion and the Olympus Rally by Alén. The car also won the 1986 European Rally Championship with Italian driver Fabrizio Tabaton, whose car was run by Italian team HF GRIFONE in ESSO livery. The factory supported Jolly Club team also ran cars in TOTIP livery, one of which was for Dario Cerrato. The car competed at every rally that year except for the extremely demanding and gruelling Safari Rally in Kenya, where Lancia decided that the Delta S4 was not developed enough for that event, so they decided to use the older 037 for Alen, Biasion and 3 local drivers who were regulars in the event.
The car's legacy was tainted by the fatal crash of Toivonen and co-driver Sergio Cresto on the 1986 Tour de Corse, where the Finnish driver inexplicably missed a tight left-hand hairpin bend and plunged into a ravine. The car burst into flames immediately, killing both of the crew. The accident led directly to the abolition of Group B.
No. Event Season Driver Co-driver 1 34th Lombard RAC Rally 1985 Henri Toivonen Neil Wilson 2 54ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1986 Henri Toivonen Sergio Cresto 3 6º Marlboro Rally Argentina 1986 Miki Biasion Tiziano Siviero 4 28º Rallye Sanremo* 1986 Markku Alén Ilkka Kivimäki 5 21st Olympus Rally 1986 Markku Alén Ilkka Kivimäki * The results of the Rally of Sanremo 1986 were canceled, the points were not included in the championship.
Complete results in the World Rally ChampionshipEdit
Season Team Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Pos Points 1985 Martini Racing MON SWE POR KEN FRA GRE NZL ARG FIN ITA CIV GBR 3 70 Markku Alén 2 Henri Toivonen 1 1986 Martini Lancia MON SWE POR KEN FRA GRE NZL ARG FIN CIV ITA GBR USA 2 122 Markku Alén NF 2 NF NF NF 2 2 3 1 2 1 Henri Toivonen 1 NF NF NF Miki Biasion NF NF NF 2 3 1 3 Mikael Ericsson NF 4 5 NF Jorge Recalde 4 Kalle Grundel 6 Dario Cerrato 2 * The results of the Rally of Sanremo 1986 were canceled, the points were not included in the championship.
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (January 1985). "Sempre Più Integrali" [More and More All-Wheel Drives]. Quattroruote (in Italian). Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus. 30 (351): 182–183.
- The Lancia Delta S4 Is 550 Horsepower of Turbo- and Supercharged Fury: The Lancia Delta S4 Is 550 Horsepower of Turbo- and Supercharged Fury, accessdate: 8. July 2018
- Dragzine: Lose Power To Make Power: ProCharger Parasitic Loss Testing - Dragzine, accessdate: 8. July 2018
- Lancia Delta S4 (factory brochure). Turin: Lancia Pubblicità e Immagine. May 1986.
- Fenu, Michele (4 October 1985). "Ecco la «S4», una sportiva d'avanguardia". La Stampa. p. 17. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "1985 Lancia Delta S4 Stradale". supercars.net. Retrieved 24 July 2007.