La Boudeuse (painting)

La Boudeuse is the modern title[a] given to an oil on canvas painting in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, by the French Rococo painter Antoine Watteau (1684–1721). Completed in the late 1710s, La Boudeuse depicts a young couple set amidst a park in the foreground, in a rare example of the two-figure landscape composition which is considered one of the best fêtes galantes in Watteau's later work. However, the picture's authenticity was also a subject of scholarly debate, for it had been engraved by English painter Philippe Mercier, once a follower of Watteau, and was not included in Jean de Jullienne's edition of Watteau's work published in the 1730s.

La Boudeuse
Antoine Watteau 030.jpg
ArtistAntoine Watteau
YearBetween 1715 and 1718
See § Dating
CatalogueG 114; DV 303; R 101; HA 220; EC 116; F B24; RM 163; RT 44
Mediumoil on canvas
Dimensions42 cm × 34 cm (17 in × 13 in)
LocationHermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg
AccessionГЭ-4120

Since the mid-18th century, La Boudeuse was among collections formed by the British statesman Robert Walpole, and later by his son, the writer Horace Walpole; until the sale of 1842, it was located in Horace Walpole's estate, Strawberry Hill House. Following a number of sales in the middle of the 19th century, the painting came into possession of prominent Russian art collector, Count Pavel Stroganov [ru]; after the Revolution of 1917, La Boudeuse was transferred into the Hermitage Museum, where it remains.

ProvenanceEdit

The painting's known provenance, researched since the 1960s in the West and Russia respectively,[b] establishes that after Watteau's death, La Boudeuse was already in England, owned by London-based dealer Salomon Gautier, a close acquaintance of Roger de Piles; in the 1726 sale catalogue of Gautier's collection, La Boudeuse appears to be the painting under lot 34 described as "a Man and a Woman sitting, Watteau."[13] Some time later, after 1736,[14] La Boudeuse came into possession of Sir Robert Walpole, the first British Prime Minister; as part of the Walpole collection, the painting probably hung either in the home of the Prime Minister at 10 Downing Street or in the Walpoles' country estate at Houghton Hall.[15] Upon Robert Walpole's death in 1745, his collections, except those at Houghton Hall, were put on a sale in London in 1748; La Boudeuse was lot 52 on day two of the sale, when it was bought back by Sir Robert Walpole's son, the writer Horace Walpole, who paid three pounds, three shillings.[16] La Boudeuse soon entered the holdings of Horace' estate, Strawberry Hill House. In Strawberry Hill House, the painting was present in the Tribune (also called the Cabinet), notably depicted in watercolours by John Carter and Edward Edwards; it has also been mentioned in Walpole's A Description of the Villa, having the same description as in the 1726 sale catalogue.[17]

 
La Boudeuse as it appears in Room 284 of the Hermitage contemporary exhibition, the former second room of military pictures of the Winter Palace

La Boudeuse formed part of the Strawberry Hill collection until 1842, when it has been dispersed in the month-long "Great Sale"; on the 13th day of the sale, a certain Emery, who lived in London at 5 Bury Street, bought La Boudeuse for thirty nine guineas.[18] Not long after, it came into possession of Charles de Morny, the half-brother of the future Emperor Napoleon III. After a decade in the comte de Morny's collection, the painting — now known as La Conversation — was sold at auction for 1,700 francs on 24 May 1852 to the certain Henri Didier, who, in turn, didn't kept the picture for long; it then passed to Charles de Ferrol, a Parisian dealer who similarly had the painting for a brief time and sold it at auction for 2,600 francs on 22 January 1856.[19]

Some time after Ferrol's sale, La Boudeuse belonged to the comte de Morny's agent Jean-Jacques Meffre (1804–1865), from whom it has been bought for 5,000 francs in 1859 by Russian noble Pavel Stroganov [ru];[20] along with other items, La Boudeuse was first presented to the Russian public on a exhibition organised by Stroganov in 1861 at the Imperial Academy of Arts, Saint Petersburg.[21] As part of Stroganov's collection, La Boudeuse — described as Scéne champêtre in the collection inventory compiled by Meffre and Gustav Friedrich Waagen[22] — was placed in his mansion in Saint Petersburg at Sergievskaya Street, present in the Green Drawing Room, a reception room at the mansion's upper floor where the collection's most notable items were also held;[23] in an 1875 essay on Stroganov's mansion, the writer Dmitry Grigorovich — a close friend and advisor of Stroganov — refers to La Boudeuse as "a declaration of love in the garden."[24] La Boudeuse was the sole Watteau painting in Pavel Stroganov's collection, and so was in the larger Stroganov family collection.[25]

In his will, Stroganov wished to pass La Boudeuse, among other pieces, to his younger brother Grigory [ru], but the latter died in 1910, before the will could be properly executed; after Pavel Stroganov's death in 1911, his collection at Sergievskaya Street was succeeded by a grandnephew, Prince Georgy Shcherbatov (1896–1976).[26] Some time later, possibly during 1917, it was relocated into the Stroganovs' main residence, the Stroganov Palace at the intersection of the Moika River and Nevsky Prospect. Following the revolution that year, the Stroganov collections were nationalised; the Stroganov Palace was reformed into a state museum, with La Boudeuse forming its part. Following theft attempts in Winter 1919–1920, a number of paintings, including La Boudeuse, have been transferred into the Hermitage Museum out of security concerns. Initially a temporary decision, the transfer turned out to be a permanent one, following the shutdown of the Stroganov Palace as museum in the late 1920s.[27] Since then, La Boudeuse forms part of the Hermitage Museum permanent exhibition; it is on view in Room 284, formerly the second room of military pictures in the Winter Palace. [28]

DatingEdit

In the 1912 album and catalogue, the German historian Ernst Heinrich Zimmermann [de] attributed La Boudeuse to ca. 1716–1718, placing it in relation to two versions of The Embarkation for Cythera.[29] In the 1950s, Jacques Mathey has dated it c. 1715, placing to the same year with The Embarrassing Proposal.[30] Nemilova dated the painting ca. 1718 on stylistic grounds; given its provenance within the Walpoles' collections, Nemilova and other, notably Russian, critics speculated that Watteau might have painted it some time before or during his English trip, usually dated ca. 1719–1720; on that ground, Yuri Zolotov [ru] preferred a c. 1720 dating.[31] In a 1968 catalogue raisonné, Ettore Camesasca [pt] places La Boudeuse to c. 1715, while not accepting Watteau's authorship;[32] later in 1980, Marianne Roland Michel attributed it to ca. 1715–1716.[33] Rosenberg has attributed the painting to c. 1717, yet found Nemilova's dating quite convincing.[34] Later authors, such as Renaud Temperini[35] and Guillaume Glorieux,[36] attribute the painting to ca. 1715–1717 and c. 1715, respectively.

Related worksEdit

Watteau's paintings and drawingEdit

There are two surviving works by Watteau which have been compared to La Boudeuse, The Feast of Love, now in the Alte Meister Gallery, Dresden, and The Pleasures of the Ball, now in the Dulwich Gallery, London. In The Feast of Love, a male figure appears to fully repeat that found on the Hermitage painting, save for his clothes' colour;[37] there is also a similar character in Entretiens amoureux, a presumably lost painting known through a print by Jean-Michel Liotard, the twin brother of prominent pastelist Jean-Étienne Liotard.[38] In The Pleasures of the Ball, a woman is shown wearing a black gown with the long slashed slevees.[39]

The only one drawing by Watteau that has been associated with La Boudeuse is a red chalk study of the man's head wearing a beret (PM 749; RP 332), dated c. 1715, and now located in the Louvre.[40] In Parker and Mathey's catalogue, the drawing was considered to be a preliminary study for both La Boudeuse and The Feast of Love,[41] but Nemilova dismissed that opinion, saying that the Louvre drawing is not related with the Hermitage painting in any way;[42] similarly, National Gallery of Art curator Margaret Grasselli questioned if the drawing could be related to the Dresden painting.[43] Rosenberg, who did not consider the drawing to be "a true preparatory study in the strict sense of the term", only related the drawing with The Feast of Love;[34] in a 1996 catalogue raisonné, he and Louis-Antoine Prat also concluded the drawing to be barely related to the painting, given the sitter's youthful appearance, different from that on the painting.[44] In A Watteau Abecedario, Eidelberg stated that the sheet was trimmed on at least three sides, and presumed that the drawing was part of a larger study which could contain other studies from the same model, so the differences between the present drawing and the painted figure — the beret and feather are at a slightly different angle in the painting, and less of the left cheek is visible — can be explained.[45]

Philippe Mercier's print and attribution debateEdit

La Boudeuse was etched by English painter Philippe Mercier c. 1725.[46] Pierre-Jean Mariette, who knew the print, gives a mention of it in his manuscripts: "Une femme assise dans un jardin ayant derrière elle, un homme qui lui parle, gravé par Pierre [sic] de Mercier."[47] Like others etchings by Mercier after Watteau, La Boudeuse was not featured in the Recueil Jullienne, — though some authors claimed the contrary[48] — possibly out of commercial reasons.[49]

Mercier, whose early art has been influenced by that of Watteau following their acquaintance in the late 1710s, produced his own fêtes galantes based on Watteau's inventions. In the four-volume study of prints after Watteau's paintings published by Émile Dacier [fr] and Albert Vuaflart in the 1920s, it has been discovered that some etchings by Mercier, published as they were after Watteau, has actually been produced after Mercier's own inventions. Following this discovery, La Boudeuse, which authenticity was not previously questioned mostly due to its obscurity,[50] was attributed to Mercier by Vuaflart and Jacques Herold, who claimed that Mercier copied figures from another composition by Watteau, Les Agrémens de l’esté.[51][49]

Vuaflart and Herold's attribution, as well as poor quality of reproductions in Zimmermann's 1912 album,[52] caused a scholarly debate, with some of Watteau scholars — including Robert Rey [fr],[53] Hélène Adhémar,[54] and Ettore Camesasca[55] — having adopted it, while the most of them — including Gilbert W. Barker,[56] Hans Vollmer,[57]: 193  Charles Sterling,[58] Jacques Mathey,[59] and Inna Nemilova.[60] — stayed at the traditional attribution.[61] Though Eidelberg's analysis of the painting, along with tracing its provenance, also confirmed Watteau's authorship on stylistic grounds,[38] there were some reservations, notably from Jean Ferré, Robert Raines,[62] and Donald Posner[63] who proposed the painting to be a collaboration of Watteau and Mercier at best, with the latter responsible for the figures.[64]

Exhibition historyEdit

List of exhibitions featuring the work
Year Title Location Cat. no.
1861 Выставка картин и редких произведений художества, принадлежащих членам императорской фамилии и частным лицам Imperial Academy of Arts, Saint Petersburg 119[21]
1922–1925 Temporary exhibition of new acqusition from French painting of the 17th and 18th centuries Hermitage Museum, Petrograd (later Leningrad) *[65]
1955 An Exhibition of French Art of the 15th-20th Centuries Pushkin Museum, Moscow *[66]
1956 An Exhibition of French Art of the 12th-20th Centuries Hermitage Museum, Leningrad *[67]
1964 La femme et l’artiste Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 98
1969 French Art from the Hermitage Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 25
1972 Watteau and His Time Hermitage Museum, Leningrad 8[68]: 734 
Meisterwerke aus der Ermitage Leningrad und aus dem Puschkin-Museum, Moskau Albertinum, Dresden 48
1979 Old Master Paintings from the USSR National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne; Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney 39
1984 Антуан Ватто. 300 лет со дня рождения Hermitage Museum, Leningrad *[69]
1984–1985 Watteau 1684–1721 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin P. 46[70]
1988 French Paintings from the USSR National Gallery, London 1[11]
2000 Stroganoff: The Palace and Collections of a Russian Noble Family Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon; Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas 133[71]
2003–2004 The Stroganoffs: Patrons and Collectors Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg 153[72]
2004 Watteau et la fête galante Musée des Beaux-Arts de Valenciennes, Valenciennes 43[73]
2006–2007 The Triumph of Eros: Art and Seduction in 18th-Century France Hermitage Rooms, Somerset House, London 88[74]
2010 Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, Connecticut 192[75]
2013 Antoine Watteau (1684-1721): La leçon de musique Centre for Fine Arts, Brussels 9[76]
2019 A Forgotten Russian Patron: The Collection of Count Pavel Sergeevich Stroganov Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg 68[77]
General references: Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 355, Nemilova 1985, p. 456, Eidelberg 2016.
"*" denotes an unnumbered entry.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ As common case within Watteau's body of work, the painting has no author title, and so has not Philippe Mercier's etching. The traditional French title, La Boudeuse, was first applied to Mercier's etching in Gilbert Paignon-Dijonval's [fr] collection inventory, compiled by Pieri Benard in 1810;[1] however, this name was not used in 19th-century sources in relation to either the painting or the etching,[2] until it came into general use following the publication of Edmond de Goncourt's 1875 catalogue raisonné.[3][4] The contemporary Russian title, Капризница, came into use as far as the 1930s;[5] it has been said to be an 18th-century Russian translation of the original French term.[6] In English sources, the painting has been variously referred to as The Pouting Girl,[7]: 186 The Sulking Woman,[8] The Capricious Girl,[9] The Capricious Woman,[10] and Woman Sulking.[11]
  2. ^ Relation of La Boudeuse to the Walpoles' collections in England was discovered by Soviet art historian Vladimir Levinson-Lessing [ru].[12] In the West, an extensive account on the painting's provenance was given in American scholar Martin Eidelberg's 1969 article published in The Burlington Magazine.[8] Further research on the painting's history within the Stroganov family collection was undertaken in the 1990s and 2000s.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Benard, Pieri (1810). Cabinet de M. Paignon Dijonval. Paris: De l'imprimerie de Madame Huzard. p. 282 – via Gallica: "8090. […] Bergers conduisant leurs troupeaux , et la boudeuse : 2 pièces en h. Ravenet et P. M. sc."{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  2. ^ Cellier, Louis (1867). Antoine Watteau, son enfance, ses contemporains. Valenciennes: L. Henry. p. 88. OCLC 921714440.
  3. ^ Goncourt 1875, pp. 107–108.
  4. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 276 n. 17; Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 355; Raymond 2013, p. 63; Hermitage Museum 2019, p. 142.
  5. ^ Volskaya 1933, p. 27.
  6. ^ Belova 2008, p. 27; Belova 2010, p. 145; Hermitage Museum 2019, p. 142.
  7. ^ Wescher, Paul (Autumn 1951). "Philippe Mercier and the French Artists in London". Art Quarterly. 14: 179–194 – via the Internet Archive.
  8. ^ a b Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 354
  9. ^ Levinson-Lessing, V. F.; et al. (1966). The Hermitage, Leningrad: Baroque & Rococo Masters. London: Paul Hamlyn. note no. 69 – via the Internet Archive.
  10. ^ Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 354; Zolotov 1985, p. 110
  11. ^ a b Deryabina, E. V. (1988). "Antoine Watteau (1684–1721), La Boudeuse (Woman Sulking)". In Babin, A. A.; Suslov, V. A. (eds.). French Paintings from the USSR: Watteau to Matisse. Catalogue translated by Irene Gore and Catherine Matthews. London: The Gallery. pp. 32–33, cat. no. 1. ISBN 0947645551. OCLC 1035139931 – via the Internet Archive.
  12. ^ Nemilova 1964, p. 29, and Zolotov 1973, p. 25, translated into English as Zolotov 1985, p. 25, report that Levinson-Lessing had found a print depicting the Tribune of Horace Walpole's estate, effectively confirming the painting's provenance from the Walpole collection.
  13. ^ A catalogue of a very curious collection of valuable pictures by the most eminent Italian, French, and other masters : and likewise all the remainder and most valuable part of that fine collection of paintings, drawings, and prints of Mr. Solomon Gautier, lately deseas'd. London. 1726. p. 3, cat. no. 34 – via the Internet Archive.
  14. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 277, points out that the inventory of Robert Walpole's collection, compliled by Horace Walpole in 1736, does not mention La Boudeuse, so it was possibly a later acquisition.
  15. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 277; Eidelberg 2019.
  16. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 277; Dukelskaya & Moore 2002, p. 456: "A small Conversation Watteaux (Hor. Walpole) 3–3–."
  17. ^ Walpole 1784, p. 69: "Pictures and bronzes on the side where the altar is: A man and a woman sitting; by Watteau: from sir Robert Walpole's collection.* …*All the pictures that were not at Houghton were sold after his death."; Eidelberg 1969, pp. 277–278; Snodin 2009, p. 322.
  18. ^ Robins, George (1842). A catalogue of the classic contents of Strawberry Hill collected by Horace Walpole. London: Smith and Robins. p. 134, lot no. 36. OCLC 1040244450.
  19. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 278.
  20. ^ Hunter-Stiebel 2000, p. 223.
  21. ^ a b Imperial Academy of Arts, Saint Petersburg (1861). Указатель собранию картин и редких произведений художества, принадлежащих членам императорского дома и частным лицам Петербурга (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Gogenfelden and Co. p. 26, cat. no. 119 – via Google Books.
  22. ^ Hermitage Museum 2019, p. 224.
  23. ^ Hunter-Stiebel 2000, p. 218; Hermitage Museum 2003, p. 263; Hermitage Museum 2019, p. 160.
  24. ^ Grigorovich 1875, p. 51; Hermitage Museum 2019, p. 51.
  25. ^ Hunter-Stiebel 2000, p. 223; Althaus 2006, p. 127.
  26. ^ Hunter-Stiebel 2000, p. 86.
  27. ^ Kuznetsov 2007, pp. 155–156.
  28. ^ Dobrovolsky, Vladimir (2018) [first published in Russian in 2009]. The Hermitage (guidebook). Foreword by Mikhail Piotrovsky; translated from the Russian by Valery Fateyev. Saint Petersburg: Alfa Colour. p. 77. ISBN 978-5-9778-0050-1.
  29. ^ Zimmermann 1912, pp. 84, 189.
  30. ^ Mathey 1959, p. 68.
  31. ^ Nemilova 1964, p. 188; Zolotov 1985, pp. 25, 110.
  32. ^ Montagni 1968, p. 106, translated as Camesasca 1971, p. 107.
  33. ^ Roland Michel 1980, p. 60: "163. Die Mürrische. 1715/16. Öl auf Leinwand. 42 × 34 cm. Leningrad, Eremitage. Stich von Mercier und ihm zuweilen zugeschrieben. Aber es stammt von Watteau."
  34. ^ a b Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 355.
  35. ^ Temperini 2002, p. 142, cat. no. 44.
  36. ^ Glorieux 2002, p. 233.
  37. ^ Glorieux 2011, p. 195.
  38. ^ a b Eidelberg 1969, p. 276.
  39. ^ Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 355; Raymond 2013, p. 63.
  40. ^ "Tête de jeune homme coiffé d'un béret à plume - WATTEAU Antoine". Les collections du département des arts graphiques (in French). Musée du Louvre.
  41. ^ Parker & Mathey 1957–1958, p. 342, cat. no. 749.
  42. ^ Nemilova 1964, p. 188; Nemilova 1985b, p. 455.
  43. ^ Grasselli, Margaret Morgan (1987). The Drawings of Antoine Watteau: Stylistic Development and Problems of Chronology (Thesis (Ph.D.)). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. p. 350 n. 43. OCLC 1110196330.
  44. ^ Rosenberg & Prat 1996, p. 532, vol. 1, cat. no. 332: "Il est vrai que dans les deux cas, le visage, plus empâté, semble appartenir à un homme plus âge et la position du béret est différente."
  45. ^ Eidelberg 2016.
  46. ^ Portalis & Béraldi 1882, p. 82, cited in Nemilova 1982, p. 143 and Nemilova 1985b, p. 456; Ingamells & Raines 1976–1978, p. 66, cat. no. 289.
  47. ^ Dacier & Vuaflart 1922, p. 127; Eidelberg 2016.
  48. ^ Adhémar 1950, p. 48, translated as Hyughe 1970, p. 114, says, "…but for La Boudeuse we have Jullienne's guarantee;" Nemilova 1964, p. 188, and subsequent reiterations (Zolotov 1973, p. 145; Nemilova 1982, p. 142; Zolotov 1985, p. 110) also claim the presence of Mercier's print in the Recueil Jullienne.
  49. ^ a b Roland Michel 1986, pp. 52–53.
  50. ^ According to Eidelberg 1969, p. 275, and Eidelberg 2016, La Boudeuse remained hidden from sight when in the Walpoles' collections in England; also it was not cited in the Watteau literature until Zimmermann's 1912 album and catalogue.
  51. ^ Herold & Vuaflart 1929, pp. 102103: "La gravure de Mercier à laquelle on à donné le titre La Boudeuse, № 303, reproduit les principaux de la composition de Watteau, Les Agréments de l'ete, № 132. La peinture, signalée dans la collection du comte Stroganoff à Pétrograd, représentant cette Boudeuse, semble être l'oeuvre de Mercier." According to Eidelberg 1969, p. 276 n. 14, it was actually L’Amant repoussé, another pastiche by Mercier, that Herold and Vuaflart were to associate with Les Agrémens de l’esté.
  52. ^ Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 354: "The fact that it was not included in the Recueil Jullienne and that it was engraved by Philippe Mercier encouraged some scholars (Herold and Vuaflart [DV, I], Rey, Adhemar) who had not seen it, except in Zimmermann's mediocre reproduction (1912), to attribute it to Mercier, although the print clearly states 'Watteau pinxit.'"
  53. ^ Rey 1931, pp. 89–90.
  54. ^ Adhémar 1950, p. 233, classifies La Boudeuse as a work by Mercier based on Watteau's drawing. Nemilova 1964, pp. 187–188, and subsequent iterations (Zolotov 1973, p. 145, translated into English as Zolotov 1985, p. 110; Nemilova 1982, p. 142; Nemilova 1985, p. 455) criticise Adhémar's attribution as unfounded and speculate that on grounds related to these preservations, the painting was omitted from the original French edition of Charles Sterling's 1957 book on the Hermitage and Pushkin Museum's 1955–1956 exhibitions of French painting. Sterling 1958, p. 212, cited in Eidelberg 1969, p. 276, nonetheless lists La Boudeuse as a work by Watteau.
  55. ^ Montagni 1968, p. 106, translated as Camesasca 1971, p. 107, says that "[La Boudeuse] does not look like a Watteau."
  56. ^ Barker 1939, p. 146.
  57. ^ Vollmer, Hans (1942). "Watteau". In Thieme, Ulrich; Becker, Felix (eds.). Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol. 35. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. pp. 190–196.
  58. ^ Sterling 1958, p. 212.
  59. ^ Mathey 1959, p. 17.
  60. ^ Nemilova 1964, pp. 187–188.
  61. ^ Eidelberg 1969, p. 276; Ingamells & Raines 1976–1978, p. 66.
  62. ^ Raines 1977, pp. 59, 63.
  63. ^ Posner 1984, p. 283 n. 72: "The picture was attributed to Mercier by Adhémar (1950, p. 233, no. 220). The painting of the figures is weak and one cannot exclude collaboration in this area. But the landscape is masterful, and the picture can be traced back to 1726, when it was given to Watteau himself […]"
  64. ^ Grasselli, Rosenberg & Parmantier 1984, p. 354: "But since Eidelberg (1969) reestablished its provenance and retraced its origins to 1725, most the experts have accepted the attribution to Watteau. Only Ferré (1972) and Posner (1984) have expressed reservations, but they have not excluded the possibility that Watteau had a collaborator for the figures, which seem wonderful to us even if the heroine has been skinned and has suffered noticeably from restorations;" Eidelberg 2016: "Although I published the painting’s notable provenance in 1969, and demonstrated Watteau’s authorship, some critics have remained dubious. These include Ingamells (1977), Saint-Paulien (as recorded by Ferré), and Posner, who proposed that it was a collaboration between Watteau and Mercier, with the latter artist responsible for the landscape. Nonetheless, the painting has been accepted by the majority of modern critics."
  65. ^ Miller 1923, p. 59; Ernst 1928, p. 172.
  66. ^ Pushkin Museum, Moscow (1955). Выставка французского искусства XV-XX вв. Каталог (exhibition catalogue) (in Russian). Moscow: Iskusstvo. p. 24.
  67. ^ Hermitage Museum, Leningrad (1956). Выставка французского искусства XII-XX вв. (1956; Ленинград). Каталог (exhibition catalogue) (in Russian). Moscow: Iskusstvo. p. 12.
  68. ^ Cailleux, Jean (October 1972). "'Watteau and his times' at the Hermitage". The Burlington Magazine. 114 (835): 733–734. JSTOR 877114.
  69. ^ Deryabina, E. V. (1987). "Антуан Ватто. 300 лет со дня рождения". Сообщения Государственного Эрмитажа (in Russian). 52: 75. ISSN 0132-1501.
  70. ^ Opperman 1988, p. 359: "Few of Watteau's actual panels are extant; tied to an ephemeral ornamental style, they quickly fell from fashion. Parts do survive, for the central scenes were sometimes cut out and saved (and repainted around the figures) when the ornamental surrounds were destroyed. I would propose that the following works are in fact such fragments, hitherto unrecognized: "The Singing Lesson" (no. 43), "The Timid Lover" (no. 44), "The Sulking Woman" (no. 46); and "Faux-pas" (no. 57). They all are of similar size and have figures of about the same proportion."
  71. ^ Hunter-Stiebel 2000, pp. 127, 223.
  72. ^ Hermitage Museum 2003, pp. 90, 102, 256–257, 263.
  73. ^ Ramade & Eidelberg 2004, pp. 168–170.
  74. ^ Althaus 2006, p. 127.
  75. ^ Snodin 2009, pp. 52, 233.
  76. ^ Raymond 2013, p. 63.
  77. ^ Hermitage Museum 2019, pp. 142–143.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit