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Coordinates: 44°51′N 65°31′E / 44.850°N 65.517°E / 44.850; 65.517

Kyzylorda (Kazakh: Қызылорда, romanized: Qyzylorda, قىزىلوردا), formerly known as Kzyl-Orda (Russian: Кзыл-Орда), Ak-Mechet (Ак-Мечеть), Perovsk (Перовск), and Fort-Perovsky (Форт-Перовский), is a city in south-central Kazakhstan, capital of Kyzylorda Region and former capital of the Kazak ASSR from 1925 to 1929.

Kyzylorda

Қызылорда
Qyzylorda
Official seal of Kyzylorda
Seal
Kyzylorda is located in Kazakhstan
Kyzylorda
Kyzylorda
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 44°51′0″N 65°31′0″E / 44.85000°N 65.51667°E / 44.85000; 65.51667
Country Kazakhstan
RegionKyzylorda Region
Founded1820
City status1867
Government
 • Akim (mayor)Nurlybek Nalibayev
Area
 • Total2,400 km2 (900 sq mi)
Elevation
128 m (420 ft)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total295,800
 • Density120/km2 (320/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5
Postal code
120001 - 120018
Area code(s)+7 7242
Vehicle registrationN or 11
Websitewww.kyzylorda.gov.kz

The city has a population of 157,400 (1999 Census). It historically developed around the Syr Darya River and the site of a Kokand fortress. Population: 188,682 (2009 Census results);[1] 157,364 (1999 Census results).[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Seljuk, the founder of the Seljuk dynasty, got his start near here. The city had its beginnings in 1817[2] as the site of a Kokand fortress known as Ak-Mechet, or white mosque.[3] The later-famous Yaqub Beg was once the fort's commander, but he was apparently not in command during the final battle. In 1853, during the Russian conquest of Turkestan, the fort was taken by Russian troops under General Vasily Perovsky.[3] The Russians established a new fort and called it Fort-Perovsky (Форт-Перо́вский), after the general.

The town of Perovsk (Перо́вск) in Russian Turkestan later developed around the fort.[3] In 1925, the city was renamed Kzyl-Orda (Кзыл-Орда)[3] and was designated as the capital of the Kazak ASSR. The name literally means a red city, from the Turkic "кзыл" (red; used here in the common Soviet ideological connotation) and the Turkic Mongolian "орда" (city).[3] In 1929 the capital was relocated to the southeastern region and Almaty.

"Kyzylorda", the Kazakh-based romanized spelling, has been used since the late 20th century after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Kazakhstan's independence in 1991.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

Kyzylorda has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low throughout the year, particularly in the summer months. Snow is common, though light, in winter. The lowest temperature on record is −33.9 °C (−29.0 °F), recorded in February 1969, and the highest temperature is 46.0 °C (114.8 °F), recorded in July 1975.[4]

Climate data for Kyzylorda
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
21.8
(71.2)
31.3
(88.3)
39.3
(102.7)
41.4
(106.5)
44.6
(112.3)
46.0
(114.8)
44.7
(112.5)
42.0
(107.6)
35.7
(96.3)
26.0
(78.8)
17.2
(63.0)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
0.2
(32.4)
8.8
(47.8)
20.3
(68.5)
27.2
(81.0)
32.9
(91.2)
34.3
(93.7)
32.6
(90.7)
26.1
(79.0)
17.4
(63.3)
7.2
(45.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−5.0
(23.0)
2.7
(36.9)
13.3
(55.9)
20.3
(68.5)
26.1
(79.0)
27.8
(82.0)
25.7
(78.3)
18.6
(65.5)
10.2
(50.4)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
10.8
(51.4)
Average low °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−9.2
(15.4)
−2.2
(28.0)
6.9
(44.4)
13.2
(55.8)
18.8
(65.8)
20.8
(69.4)
18.6
(65.5)
11.7
(53.1)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.4
(27.7)
−8.2
(17.2)
5.1
(41.2)
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−8.0
(17.6)
−0.8
(30.6)
7.2
(45.0)
10.9
(51.6)
6.0
(42.8)
−1.0
(30.2)
−12.6
(9.3)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−33.9
(−29.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.7)
15
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
16
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
6
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
4
(0.2)
10
(0.4)
17
(0.7)
17
(0.7)
151
(5.9)
Average rainy days 4 4 6 6 6 4 3 2 2 5 6 5 53
Average snowy days 12 9 4 0.2 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.4 3 9 38
Average relative humidity (%) 78 74 65 49 41 35 34 34 40 52 70 77 54
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[4]

AgricultureEdit

Kyzylorda is known for its rice production. Many hundreds of hectares are devoted to rice production. Two rice mills operate in the city.[5]

EducationEdit

Kyzylorda State University (KSU) after Korkyt ata[6] is the leading center of education, a science and culture center in the Aral region of the Republic Kazakhstan. Established in 1950, the university trains highly skilled specialists in 54 specialties at 11 faculties.

TransportationEdit

 
The Syr Darya River flows through the city

Kyzylorda has one airport. It has developed as the supply center of the important oilfields in the nearby Turgay Basin.

TourismEdit

Points of interest for tourists in the Kyzylorda region include the vanished Aral Sea and the Baikonur cosmodrome, archaeological excavations in Sauran and Shyganak, the memorial complex of Korkyt Ata, and several ancient mausoleums.[7]

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Население Республики Казахстан" (in Russian). Департамент социальной и демографической статистики. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
  2. ^ Valikhanof et al, The Russians in Central Asia, 1865, page 315, says " according to Kirgiz accounts, about the year 1817." Kirgiz meant Kazakh at that time.
  3. ^ a b c d e Pospelov, p. 24
  4. ^ a b "Weather and Climate - Kyzylorda" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on November 25, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
  5. ^ Staff US Rice Producers Association
  6. ^ korkyt.kz
  7. ^ "Kyzylorda travel guide | Caravanistan". Caravanistan. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  8. ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved July 27, 2013.

SourcesEdit

  • Е. М. Поспелов (Ye. M. Pospelov). "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня (1917–1992). Топонимический словарь." (City Names: Yesterday and Today (1917–1992). Toponymic Dictionary." Москва, "Русские словари", 1993.

External linksEdit