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Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызыл, romanizedKızıl) is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia. The name of the city means "red" or "crimson" in Tuvan (as well as in many other Turkic languages). Population: 109,918 (2010 Census);[3] 104,105 (2002 Census);[8] 84,641 (1989 Census).[9]

Kyzyl

Кызы́л
Other transcription(s)
 • TuvanКызыл
The "Center of Asia" monument in Kyzyl
The "Center of Asia" monument in Kyzyl
Flag of Kyzyl
Flag
Coat of arms of Kyzyl
Coat of arms
Location of Kyzyl
Kyzyl is located in Russia
Kyzyl
Kyzyl
Location of Kyzyl
Kyzyl is located in Tuva Republic
Kyzyl
Kyzyl
Kyzyl (Tuva Republic)
Coordinates: 51°43′N 94°27′E / 51.717°N 94.450°E / 51.717; 94.450Coordinates: 51°43′N 94°27′E / 51.717°N 94.450°E / 51.717; 94.450
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTuva[1]
Founded1914
City status since1914
Government
 • MayorDina Oyun[2]
Area
 • Total97.41 km2 (37.61 sq mi)
Elevation
631 m (2,070 ft)
Population
 • Total109,918
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
116,983 (+6.4%)
 • Rank146th in 2010
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug) of Kyzyl[1]
 • Capital ofTuva Republic[1]
 • Capital ofcity under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug) of Kyzyl[1]
 • Urban okrugKyzyl Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofKyzyl Urban Okrug[5]
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
667000–667005, 667007–667012, 667700, 667899, 667961, 667965, 667966, 667970, 667999
Dialing code(s)+7 39422
OKTMO ID93701000001
Twin townsHonolulu County, KrasnoyarskEdit this on Wikidata
Websitemkyzyl.ru

It was previously known as Belotsarsk (until 1918), Khem-Beldyr (until 1926).

HistoryEdit

It was founded in 1914 as Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск, lit. White Tsar's town).[10] In 1918, it was renamed Khem-Beldir (Хем-Белдир), and in 1926 it was given its present name.[citation needed] In September 2014, Kyzyl celebrated its 100th anniversary as a city.

GeographyEdit

 
Renowned obelisk "The Center of Asia" (2014)

Kyzyl claims to be located exactly in the geographical center of Asia. Whether these coordinates are in fact the center of Asia is disputed (e.g., Ürümqi in China makes a similar claim). However, there is a monument labelled "Center of Asia" in English, Russian, and Tuvan which asserts this claim. Tos-Bulak is the area of open fields and mineral springs which lies immediately south of Kyzyl.

Kyzyl stands at the point where the Yenisei River meets the Maly Yenisey River to form the Verkhny Yenisey [ru][11] (Улуг-Хем). Most development takes place south of the river and follows the curves of the river, with the highest development centered where the two headstreams of the Yenisei, the Bii-Khem (Russian: Большой Енисей), and the Kaa-Khem (Russian: Малый Енисей, romanizedMaly Yenisei), meet. A monument was built in 1964 on the river bank to mark this[clarification needed].

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Kyzyl is the capital of the republic.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug) of Kyzyl—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts (kozhuuns).[1] As a municipal division, the city under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug) of Kyzyl is incorporated as Kyzyl Urban Okrug.[5]

IndustryEdit

Manufacturing plants include brickyards, sawmills, furniture manufacturing, and food-processing plants.[12]

TransportationEdit

The city is served by the Kyzyl Airport.

There is a project of the Tuvan Railway with a railway terminal in Kyzyl. The construction must be finished in 2020.[citation needed]

ArchitectureEdit

Buildings of cultural and political importance in Kyzyl include the Tuvan Parliament building, the National Theater, and a Khoomei center (officially, the International Scientific Center "Khoomei") dedicated to studying and teaching khoomei, Tuvan throatsinging.

EducationEdit

ClimateEdit

The climate of Kyzyl is an extreme continental semi-arid variety (Köppen climate classification BSk), with average highs around 25 °C or 77 °F in the summer and −20 °C or −4 °F in the winter and only 218 millimetres or 8.58 inches of precipitation annually. Located far from any moderating bodies of water and at a relatively high latitude, temperatures can be extreme, though less so than the Sakha Republic. Nevertheless, the temperature has never risen above freezing from 22 November to 3 March, inclusive. Temperature swings can be rapid. The transitional seasons of spring and autumn are short: only April and October average close to the annual mean of −1.2 °C (29.8 °F).

Climate data for Kyzyl
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−0.1
(31.8)
19.6
(67.3)
30.6
(87.1)
35.6
(96.1)
39.1
(102.4)
40.7
(105.3)
38.3
(100.9)
33.0
(91.4)
23.0
(73.4)
13.0
(55.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) −23.5
(−10.3)
−16.1
(3.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
12.4
(54.3)
20.9
(69.6)
25.8
(78.4)
27.6
(81.7)
24.9
(76.8)
18.0
(64.4)
8.3
(46.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
−20.5
(−4.9)
5.6
(42.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −28.7
(−19.7)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−10.2
(13.6)
4.7
(40.5)
12.8
(55.0)
18.2
(64.8)
20.5
(68.9)
17.6
(63.7)
10.4
(50.7)
1.2
(34.2)
−12.9
(8.8)
−24.9
(−12.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
Average low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
5.1
(41.2)
11.2
(52.2)
14.2
(57.6)
11.3
(52.3)
4.2
(39.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
−17.2
(1.0)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−7.1
(19.2)
Record low °C (°F) −52.6
(−62.7)
−54.0
(−65.2)
−45.2
(−49.4)
−27.3
(−17.1)
−10.7
(12.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.7
(30.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−46.1
(−51.0)
−52.6
(−62.7)
−54.0
(−65.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.7
(0.34)
4.5
(0.18)
3.1
(0.12)
5.1
(0.20)
13.4
(0.53)
34.6
(1.36)
48.5
(1.91)
43.5
(1.71)
24.7
(0.97)
8.8
(0.35)
11.6
(0.46)
11.4
(0.45)
217.9
(8.58)
Average rainy days 0 0 0 6 11 15 16 15 12 6 1 0 82
Average snowy days 21 17 9 3 1 0 0 0 0.2 4 16 23 94
Average relative humidity (%) 79 78 74 48 43 50 58 62 63 67 81 81 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 81.8 127.8 213.1 247.8 288.2 295.9 287.5 274.7 228.1 167.4 83.9 57.3 2,353.4
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[14]
Source #2: Weatherbase (precipitation and sun data)[15]
Kyzyl
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
9
 
 
−24
−33
 
 
4
 
 
−16
−30
 
 
3
 
 
−3
−17
 
 
5
 
 
10
−2
 
 
14
 
 
21
5
 
 
45
 
 
26
11
 
 
47
 
 
28
14
 
 
44
 
 
25
11
 
 
22
 
 
18
4
 
 
8
 
 
8
−4
 
 
10
 
 
−8
−17
 
 
12
 
 
−21
−29
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization

In popular cultureEdit

In the late 1980s, Kyzyl was visited by Ralph Leighton, who had made it a quest to reach Tuva with his friend, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman. Though Feynman died before they reached Tuva, the journey is chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust!

The film Genghis Blues chronicles the pilgrimage of a blind blues performer, Paul Pena, who learned Tuvan throat singing by listening to his shortwave radio, to compete in the Tuvan throat singing competition.

Kyzyl is featured as a cultural city-state in the strategy game Civilization V.

Sister citiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Resolution #1648 ZP-1
  2. ^ 667001, ИА Тува-Онлайн; Россия; Кызыл, город; Калинина, улица; 10, Д.; http://www.tuvaonline.ru, к 66 Интернет-порталы +7350-45-77. "Mayor of Kyzyl Dina Oyun took part in the World Summit of Local and Regional Leaders in Bogota". Tuva-Online. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Law #268 VKh-1
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  10. ^ "Kyzyl city, Russia info, features, photos". russiatrek.org. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  11. ^ "Kyzyl". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  12. ^ "Kyzyl". Bartleby.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
  13. ^ Первой школе Кызыла - 95 лет
  14. ^ "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Kyzyl" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  15. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Kyzyl, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  16. ^ [1][permanent dead link]

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательная палата Великого Хурала Республики Тыва. Постановление №1648 ЗП-1 от 21 декабря 2005 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориального деления Республики Тыва», в ред. Постановления №455 ЗП-2 от 21 ноября 2007 г «О внесении изменения в реестр административно-территориального деления Республики Тыва». Вступил в силу 21 декабря 2005 г. Опубликован: "Тувинская правда", №2, 12 января 2006 г. (Legislative Chamber of the Great Khural of the Tyva Republic. Resolution #1648 ZP-1 of December 21, 2005 On Establishing the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Division of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Resolution #455 ZP-2 of November 21, 2007 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Division of the Tyva Republic. Effective as of December 21, 2005.).
  • Великий Хурал (парламент) Республики Тыва. Закон №268 ВХ-1 от 24 декабря 2010 г. «О статусе муниципальных образований Республики Тыва», в ред. Закона №837 ВХ-1 от 10 октября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Тыва "О статусе муниципальных образований Республики Тыва"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тувинская правда", №178 (без приложений), 31 декабря 2010 г. (Great Khural (Parliament) of the Tyva Republic. Law #268 VKh-1 of December 24, 2010 On the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Law #837 VKh-1 of October 10, 2011 On Amending the Law of the Tyva Republic "On the Status of the Municipal Formations of the Tyva Republic". Effective as of the official publication date.).