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Kusaila (Amazigh: ⴰⴾⵙⵉⵍ, Aksil or Aksel, Latin: Caecilius, Arabic: Kusaila[1]) was a 7th-century Amazigh Christian king of the kingdom of Altava and leader of the Awraba tribe of the Imazighen and possibly Christian king of the Sanhaja. He is known for prosecuting an effective Amazigh military resistance against the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the 680s. His name means "leopard" in the Amazigh language. Kusaila died in the year 690 fighting the Muslims.

Kusaila
Kusaila / Aksel
Aksel.jpg
King of Altava
ReignEarly 7th century
PredecessorSekerdid
SuccessorDihya
Died690 AD
Valley of Mamma, east of Timgad in the Aurès Mountains
Burial
ReligionChristian

Contents

Historical importanceEdit

Initially the Amazigh States were able to defeat the Umayyad invaders at the Battle of Vescera (modern Biskra in Algeria), that was fought in 682 AD between the Imazighen of King Caecilius and their Byzantine allies from the Exarchate of Africa against an Umayyad army under Uqba ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan.[2]

Uqba ibn Nafi had led his men in an invasion across North Africa, eventually reaching the Atlantic Ocean and marching as far south as the Draa and Sous rivers. On his return, he was met by the Amazigh-Byzantine coalition at Tahuda south of Vescera, his army was crushed and he himself was killed. As a result of this crushing defeat, the Arabs were expelled from the area of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria for more than a decade.[3]

BiographyEdit

His homeland was Tlemcen, now in Algeria, according to Ibn Khaldun. However, this account dates from the 14th century, some 700 years later. Indeed, Caecilius, according to historian Noe Villaverde,[4] was probably a king of Altava. Other sources closer to Caecilius's time (ninth century is the earliest available) associate him only with the Aurès Mountains.[1] Caecilius grew up in Amazigh tribal territory during the time of the Byzantine exarchate.

Caecilius is speculated to be a Christian based on his Roman-sounding name. According to historian Camps, his name was a possible translation in Amazigh of the Latin name "Caecilius", showing that he was from a noble Amazigh family.[5] His name even intrigued Orientalists; unlike other Moorish kings, like his predecessors Masuna, Masties, Mastigas and Garmul, Arab chroniclers likely transmitted us a name of another language: Latin Caecilius, a common name found in the graves of Volubilis.

However Caecilius had suffered much at the hands of the Muslims. He was captured by Uqba, put in chains and paraded throughout North Africa. But in AD 683 he succeeded in escaping and raised against his tormentors a large force of Christian Amazigh and Byzantine soldiers. And attacked Up his return and killed him near Biskra. After Uqba's death, his armies retreated from Kairouan. Which Caecilius took as his capital and for a while he seems to have been, in name at least, the master of all North Africa. But the respite was to be short-lived. Five years later Caecilius was killed in battle against fresh Arab forces led by a Muslim general from Damascus. This soldier was himself ambushed and put to death by Byzantine sea-raiders shortly afterwards. For a while confusion reigned, but the Awraba recognized the weakness of their position and eventually capitulated to the newly re-organized and reinforced Arab army. With the death of Caecilius, the torch of resistance passed to a tribe known as the Jerawa, who had their home in the Aurès.

According to late Muslim accounts (11th century through to ibn Khaldun in the 14th century) the amir of the Muslim invaders, who was then a freed slave called Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, surprisingly invited Caecilius to meet with him in his camp. Abu al-Muhajir Dinar convinced him to accept Islam and join his army with a promise of full equality with the Arabs (678). Abu al-Muhajir was a master in diplomacy and thoroughly impressed Caecilius with not only his piety but with his high sense of respect and etiquette. Caecilius incorporated the Awraba-Sanhaja into the conquering Arab force and participated in their uniformly successful campaigns under Abu al-Muhajir.

This amir was then forcibly replaced by Uqba ibn Nafi, who treated Caecilius and his men with contempt. Eventually Uqba's disrespect enraged Caecilius and provoked a plot of revenge. On the army's return from Morocco, Uqba allowed his troops to break up and go home. The remainder, about 300, were vulnerable and exhausted. On the return march to Kairouan, Caecilius joined with the Byzantine forces and organised an ambush. The Christian-Amazigh force, about 5000 strong, defeated the Arabs and felled Uqba at Tahudha near Biskra in 683. Caecilius now held undisputed mastery over North Africa and marched to Kairouan in triumph.[3]

The above account is disputed by some historians, who prefer the earlier 9th-century sources.[1][6] According to these, Abu al-Muhajir had no connection with Caecilius, nor did Uqba ibn Nafi until he was ambushed at Tahudha. These earlier sources also describe Caecilius as a Christian, not a Muslim convert. They do agree, however, that he led a Amazigh force when he defeated Uqba.

In 688 AD Arab reinforcements arrived under Zuhayr ibn Qays. Caecilius met them in 690 AD at the Battle of Mamma. Vastly outnumbered, the Awraba were defeated and Caecilius was killed. In 693, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan sent an army of 40,000 men commanded by Hassan ibn al-Nu'man to Cyrenaica and Tripolitania in order to remove the Byzantine threat to the Umayyads in North Africa. They met no rival groups until they reached Tunisia where they captured Carthage and defeated the Byzantines and Imazighen around Bizerte.[7] However, it was not the last instance of Amazigh resistance, since Dihya succeeded Kusaila as the war leader of the Berber tribes in the 680s.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Modéran, Y. (2005). "Kusayla, l'Afrique et les Arabes". Identités et Cultures dans l'Algérie Antique. University of Rouen. ISBN 2-87775-391-3.
  2. ^ McKenna, Amy (2011). The History of Northern Africa. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 1615303189.
  3. ^ a b Conant, Jonathan (2012). Staying Roman : conquest and identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–281. ISBN 0521196973.
  4. ^ Noé Villaverde, Vega. El Reino mauretoromano de Altava, siglo VI [The Mauro-Roman kingdom of Altava]. p. 355.
  5. ^ Camps, Gabriel (1984). "Rex gentium Maurorum et Romanorum. Recherches sur les royaumes de Maurétanie des VIe et VIIe siècles". Antiquités africaines (in French). 20 (1): 183–218. doi:10.3406/antaf.1984.1105.
  6. ^ Benabbès, A. (2005). "Les premiers raids arabes en Numidie Byzantine: questions toponymiques". Identités et Cultures dans l'Algérie Antique. University of Rouen. ISBN 2-87775-391-3.
  7. ^ Islamic books by ibn Taymiyyah, Maqdisi and Abdullah Azzam. Ibn Taymiyyah and Sayyid Qutb. 2015.

Further readingEdit

  • Hrbek, I. (ed.). General History of Africa III: Africa From the Seventh to the Eleventh Century.