Knightscope, Inc. (also known as Knightscope) is an American security camera company that was founded in 2013 and is headquartered in Mountain View, California. The goal of Knightscope is to design, build and deploy robots called Autonomous Data Machines (ADMs) for use in monitoring people in malls, parking lots, and neighborhoods.[2][3]

Knightscope, Inc.
FoundersWilliam Santana Li (Chairman, CEO)
Stacy Stephens (Executive VP)[1]


Knightscope was co-founded in 2013 by William Santana Li and Stacy Stephens. Li was previously an executive at Ford, and Stacy Stephens was a former police officer in Dallas, Texas.[4][5]

Knightscope says they hope the ADMs will help security and law enforcement personnel detect trouble while preventing and minimizing public injuries and fatalities.[6] Knightscope robots first shipped in 2015.[citation needed]

In 2017, Knightscope raised $20 million and indicated that they were seeking a partnership with Allied Universal. As of 2018, the company has sold 36 contracts and built 62 machines.[7] The companies that have been confirmed as clients of Knightscope are Microsoft, Uber, Juniper Networks, the Sacramento Kings, LaGuardia Airport and NBC Universal.[4][8][5] Knightscope is not publicly traded.[9]

In May 2021, Knightscope announced that it had raised an additional $21.91 million through StartEngine.[10]


(left to right): K3 Indoor, K5 Outdoor, K1 Stationary and K7 Multi-Terrain Autonomous Data Machines

Knightscope has four different robot models: the K1, K3, K5 and K7. Clients are charged an hourly rate of $7 for each machine they use — a price designed to compete with the minimum wage in various states. The price structure requires the robots to operate on a 24/7 basis, and a minimum of two robots per location, costing $122,640 per annum.[11]


The K5 model is a bullet-shaped robot that stands about 5 feet tall. It has twin panels of lights about two-thirds of the way up its body. There is also a small silver-colored flag of the United States on the left side of its body.[12] The K5 patrols and charges autonomously and detects crime using a variety of sensors including a video camera, thermal imaging sensors, a laser range finder, radar, air quality sensors, and a detector for suspicious wireless signals.[13]

During its autonomous patrol, if the K5 detects abnormal noise and temperature change, or known criminals, it will alert the guards.[2][3] The software package with which a user can respond to such alerts is called the Knightscope Security Operations Center.[14]


The K5 moves at 1 to 3 miles per hour.[15][16] It uses mapping software to create a geo-fenced perimeter that makes it stay within one area.[citation needed] The K5 creates a point cloud to show a 3D image of the surroundings in the geo-fenced area. The K5 also uses an ultrasonic sensor to detect objects in surroundings and movements of its wheels.[16]

K1, K3 and K7Edit

In 2016, one year after the release of the K5, Knightscope announced a K3 robot with a focus on indoor environments.[17] K1 and K7 follow-up models were both launched in 2018. The K1 is a stationary scanner designed for entrances and exits to buildings. It won the Security Today New Product of the Year award.[14] The K7 is a larger all-terrain unit with four wheels.[18]



The possibility of a K5 being used in public places has led to concerns with privacy. The K5 can take pictures and videos of people without any notification. It can also monitor conversations which has caused concern that social images could be damaged by the robot.[19] Some do not trust the K5's ability to recognize the actual suspects. Jeramie Scott, a national security fellow at the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) said, “Automated surveillance, facial recognition and license plate recognition in public makes us all suspects. The K5 could become like a cuter, less aggressive Terminator that kills privacy instead of people.”[20] The center's President, Marc Rotenberg stated that “Once you enter public space and collect images and sound recordings, you have entered another realm. This is the kind of pervasive surveillance that has put people on edge.”[21] Surveillance by robots has been compared to a panopticon.[22]


Some critics question the K5's ability to prevent crime. Although it can detect suspicious activities, it cannot arrest the criminals or stop an attack. Furthermore, the K5's speed is limited and it only moves on flat ground. The K7 was released to operate in multi-terrain environments.[23]


In July 2016, a Knightscope K5 which was deployed at the Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, CA collided with a 16-month-old toddler, bruising the child's leg and running over the child's foot.[24] The Stanford Shopping center responded by docking all of its K5 units, suspending any further activity by the robots until the incident could be investigated. Knightscope responded, calling the incident an "accident", and issued a formal apology to the family of the child.

In April 2017, a 41-year-old Mountain View man was arrested in connection with an alleged parking-lot altercation with a K5, also at the Stanford Shopping Center.[25]

In July 2017, a Knightscope K5 ADM at the Washington Harbour development in Washington D.C. slipped on a loose brick surface and fell into a water fountain.[26][27]

In December 2017, the San Francisco SPCA rented a Knightscope K5 robot to patrol the area next to their animal shelter, including the public sidewalk, to deter vandalism. The SPCA received complaints about using a robot on a public sidewalk where homeless people were encamped, and the robot was covered with a tarpaulin and smeared with barbecue sauce; the SPCA discontinued the contract.[13][28]

In October 2019 a woman attempted to report a fight in a Huntington Park, California Park using the k5's emergency alert button, only for it to reportedly tell the woman to "step out of the way."[29]


  1. ^ "About Us| Knightscope, Inc". 3 December 2020. Retrieved 2021-06-27.
  2. ^ a b Markoff, John (November 29, 2013). "A Night Watchman With Wheels?". New York Times. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "300-pound robot is new breed of crime-fighting machine". FOX News. December 1, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2013.
  4. ^ a b S. C. Stuart (2018-09-08). "Up close and personal with the K5 security robot team". PC Magazine. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  5. ^ "Knightscope team". Knightscope Team Page. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  6. ^ Honovich, John (2018-03-21). "Security Robot Sales Struggle". IPVM. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  7. ^ Robinson, Melia (2017-05-05). "The tech giants of Silicon Valley are starting to rely on crime-fighting robots for security". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  8. ^ "Knightscope Announces Series S Preferred Stock Offering Priced at $8.00 per Share up to $50,000,000". Business Wire. 2018-07-12. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  9. ^ "Knightscope Closes Second Funding Round on StartEngine, Now Responsible for Two Largest Raises in Platform's History" (Press release). Los Angeles: GlobeNewswire, Inc. InvestorBrandNetwork. 2021-05-14. Retrieved 2021-10-18.
  10. ^ Nichols, Greg (2017-09-27). "Two new security robots from maker of now-infamous K5 unit". ZDNet. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
  11. ^ Robinson, James (25 February 2014). "Knightscope's new robotic law enforcer is like staring at the demise of humanity". Pandodaily. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  12. ^ a b Shankland, Stephen (December 15, 2017). "Security robot loses its job after vandalism, threats". CNet.
  13. ^ a b "Knightscope showroom to open in NYC". Associated Press. 2018-08-29. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  14. ^ Cava, Marco. "Change Agents: William Li's robot wants to police you". USA Today. Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  15. ^ a b Brandon, John (13 August 2014). "5 Uses for the Surveillance Robot of Tomorrow". CIO. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  16. ^ "Knightscope announces K3 indoor autonomous security robot". Business Wire. 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  17. ^ "Robot security guards from Knightscope". Nanalyze. 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  18. ^ Taylor, Chris (December 12, 2013). "The K5 Robot: A Roomba for Crime". Mashable. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Williams, Martyn. "Will this robot make America safer?". PCWorld. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  20. ^ Pareek, Shabdita. "The Knightscope K5 robot could replace some security guards". MySecuritySign. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  21. ^ "RoboCop: The 180kg mobile police robot". Curious News (opinion). October 11, 2019.
  22. ^ Lasher, Ed. "Robocop Is a Crime-Fighting Roomba". FIBE.RS. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  23. ^ Wells, Georgia. "Mall Powers Down Security Robots After One Bumps into Toddler". MarketWatch. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  24. ^ Kravetz, David (25 April 2017). "Silicon Valley security robot beat up in parking lot, police say". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  25. ^ Frankel, Todd C (July 17, 2017). "A security robot fell into a water fountain at a D.C. office building. And the Internet went wild". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
  26. ^ "Robot that dived into Washington, D.C., fountain not victim of 'foul play'". Yahoo! News. Reuters. July 28, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  27. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (14 December 2017). "After backlash, animal shelter fires security robot, 'effective immediately'". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 18, 2017.
  28. ^ "Real-life RoboCop was at the scene of a crime. Then it moved on".

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