Klute is a 1971 American neo-noir crime thriller film directed and produced by Alan J. Pakula, written by Andy and Dave Lewis, and starring Jane Fonda, Donald Sutherland, Charles Cioffi, and Roy Scheider. The film follows a high-priced call girl who assists a detective in solving a missing persons case. It is the first installment of what has informally come to be known as Pakula's "paranoia trilogy". The other two films are The Parallax View (1974) and All the President's Men (1976).
|Directed by||Alan J. Pakula|
|Written by||Andy Lewis |
|Produced by||Alan J. Pakula|
|Edited by||Carl Lerner|
|Music by||Michael Small|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Box office||$12.7 million|
Klute was theatrically released in the United States on June 25, 1971, by Warner Bros, to critical and commercial success. Reviewers praised the film's direction, screenplay and most notably Fonda's performance, while the film grossed over $12 million against a $2.5 million budget. It received two nominations at the 44th Academy Awards; Best Original Screenplay, with Fonda winning Best Actress.
A Pennsylvania chemical company executive, Tom Gruneman, disappears. The police find an obscene letter in Gruneman's office addressed to a New York City prostitute named Bree Daniels, who had received several such letters. After six months of fruitless police work, Peter Cable, a fellow executive at Gruneman's company, hires family friend and detective John Klute to investigate Gruneman's disappearance.
Klute rents an apartment in the basement of Bree's building, taps her phone, and follows her as she turns tricks. Bree appears to enjoy the freedom of freelancing as a call girl while auditioning for acting and modeling jobs, but she reveals the emptiness of her life to her psychiatrist. Bree refuses to answer Klute's questions at first. After learning that he has been watching her, Bree says she does not recognize Gruneman. She acknowledges being beaten by a john two years earlier, but cannot identify Gruneman from a photo. Bree takes Klute to meet her former pimp, Frank Ligourin, who managed Jane McKenna, a prostitute who referred the abusive client to Bree. McKenna has apparently committed suicide and their other colleague Arlyn Page has since become a drug addict and disappeared.
Klute and Bree develop a romance, although she tells her psychiatrist that she wishes she could go back to "just feeling numb" turning tricks. She tells Klute she is paranoid that she is being watched. They find Page, who tells them that the photo of Gruneman is not the client, who was an older man instead. Page's body is later found in the river. Klute connects the "suicides" of the two prostitutes, surmising that the client was using Gruneman's name. He also thinks the client killed Gruneman and might kill Bree next. Klute revisits Gruneman's acquaintances. By typographic comparison, the obscene letters are traced to Cable, to whom Klute has been reporting during his investigation. Klute asks Cable for money to buy the "black book" of McKenna's clients to learn the identity of the abusive client. He leaves enough bread crumbs to see whether Cable reveals his own complicity in the murders.
Cable follows Bree to a client's office and reveals that he sent her the letters. After Gruneman accidentally found him physically abusing McKenna, Cable was worried Gruneman would use the incident to sabotage his career. Cable tried to frame Gruneman by planting the letter in his office. After playing an audiotape he made as he murdered Page, he attacks Bree. When he sees Klute rush in, Cable abruptly lurches backward to get away, crashing through a window to his death.
Bree moves out of her apartment with Klute's help. A voiceover conversation with her psychiatrist reveals her hesitancy to give up her life of autonomy to be in a traditional relationship with Klute, saying she'd "go out of [her] mind" if she turned to a domestic lifestyle. She admits that although she will miss Klute, she is unable to tell him, and jokes that the doctor will likely see her again the next week. As they leave the apartment, Bree gets a telephone call from a client; she tells him she is leaving New York and does not expect to return. She and Klute leave the apartment together.
- Jane Fonda as Bree Daniels
- Donald Sutherland as John Klute
- Charles Cioffi as Peter Cable
- Roy Scheider as Frank Ligourin
- Dorothy Tristan as Arlyn Page
- Rita Gam as Trina
- Nathan George as Trask
- Vivian Nathan as Psychiatrist
- Morris Strassberg as Mr. Goldfarb
- Barry Snider as Berger
- Betty Murray as Holly Gruneman
- Jane White as Janie Dale
- Shirley Stoler as Momma Reese
- Robert Milli as Tom Gruneman
- Anthony Holland as Actor's Agent
- Fred Burrell as Man in Hotel
- Richard Shull as Sugarman
- Mary Louise Wilson as Producer in Adv. Agency
- Marc Marvin as Asst. in Adv. Agency
- Jean Stapleton as Goldfarb's Secretary
- Jan Fielding as Psychiatrist's Secretary
- Antonia Ray as Mrs. Vasek
- Robert Ronan as Director in Little Theatre
- Richard Ramos as Asst. Dir. in Little Theatre
- Rosalind Cash as Pat
- Lee Wallace as Nate Goldfarb (uncredited)
- Veronica Hamel as Model (uncredited)
- Kevin Dobson as Man at Bar (uncredited)
- Candy Darling as Club Patron (uncredited)
- Richard Jordan as Man in Bar kissing Bree Daniels (uncredited)
- Sylvester Stallone as Club Patron (uncredited)
To prepare for her role as Bree, Jane Fonda spent a week in New York City observing high-class call girls and madams; she also accompanied them on their outings to after hours clubs to pick up men. Fonda was disturbed that none of the men showed interest in her, which she believed was because they could see that she was really just an "upper-class, privileged pretender".
Fonda had doubts about whether she could portray the role and asked Alan Pakula to release her from her contract and hire Faye Dunaway instead, but Pakula refused. One of Fonda's first concerns was that she, as a nascent feminist, should not even be playing a prostitute. Fonda confided this concern to a more longstanding feminist who disabused her of this notion. To get past the sense that she just wasn't hooker material, Fonda turned to her memories of several call girls she had known while living in France, all of whom worked for the famed Madame Claude. She remembered that all of them had been sexually abused as children, and Fonda used this as an "entry" to her own character, and as a way to understand Bree's motivations in becoming a prostitute.
The film earned US$8 million (equivalent to $51,122,432 in 2020) in theatrical rentals at the North American box office.
Klute was praised for its screenplay and Fonda's performance. On Rotten Tomatoes, Klute holds an approval rating of 93% based on 40 reviews, with an average rating of 8.19/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Donald Sutherland is coolly commanding and Jane Fonda a force of nature in Klute, a cuttingly intelligent thriller that generates its most agonizing tension from its stars' repartee." On Metacritic, which assigns a rating to reviews, the film has a weighted average score of 81 out of 100, based on 47 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".
Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave Klute 3.5 stars out of a possible 4, writing that while the thriller elements were poorly executed, the performances of Sutherland and especially Fonda carried the film. He suggested that the film should have been titled Bree after her character, who is the soul of the movie and avoids the hooker with a heart of gold stereotype:
"What is it about Jane Fonda that makes her such a fascinating actress to watch? She has a sort of nervous intensity that keeps her so firmly locked into a film character that the character actually seems distracted by things that come up in the movie."
Fonda's performance received widespread praise. The Rotten Tomatoes consensus declared: "Fonda makes all the right choices, from the mechanics of her walk and her voice inflection to the penetration of the girl's raging psyche. It is a rare performance."
|Academy Awards||Best Actress||Jane Fonda||Won|
|Best Original Screenplay||Andy Lewis and Dave Lewis||Nominated|
|British Academy Film Awards||Best Actress in a Leading Role||Jane Fonda||Nominated|
|Edgar Allan Poe Awards||Best Motion Picture Screenplay||Andy Lewis and Dave Lewis||Nominated|
|Fotogramas de Plata||Best Foreign Movie Performer||Jane Fonda||Won|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama||Won|
|Best Screenplay – Motion Picture||Andy Lewis and Dave Lewis||Nominated|
|Gotham Independent Film Awards||Classic Film Tribute Award||Won|
|Kansas City Film Critics Circle Awards||Best Actress||Jane Fonda||Won|
|NAACP Image Awards||Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture||Donald Sutherland||Won|
|Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture||Jane Fonda||Won|
|National Society of Film Critics Awards||Best Actress||Won|
|New York Film Critics Circle Awards||Best Actress||Won|
|Writers Guild of America Awards||Best Drama – Written Directly for the Screen||Andy Lewis and Dave Lewis||Nominated|
- "Movie Klute – Box Office Data". The Numbers. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Silver, Alain; Ward, Elizabeth; eds. (1992). Film Noir: An Encyclopedic Reference to the American Style (3rd ed.). Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-479-5
- Susan Lacy (2018). Jane Fonda in Five Acts. HBO Films.
- BFI (November 16, 2018). In conversation with...Jane Fonda BFI Comedy Genius. YouTube.com. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- Klute Blu-ray. Blu-ray.com.
- "All-Time Film Rental Champs", Variety, January 7, 1976, pg 44.
- "Klute". Metacritic. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1971). "Klute Movie Review & Film Summary (1971) | Roger Ebert". www.rogerebert.com.
- Movie Reviews for Klute. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on December 16, 2013 from https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/klute/.
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