The Kirov class, Soviet designation Project 1144 Orlan (sea eagle), is a class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers of the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world. Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, and of similar size to a World War I era dreadnought battleship. The Soviet classification of the ship-type is (Russian: тяжёлый атомный ракетный крейсер, "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser"). The ships are often referred to as battlecruisers by Western defence commentators due to their size and general appearance.
Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze
|Builders:||Baltic Shipyard, Leningrad|
|Preceded by:||Kara class|
|Succeeded by:||Lider class|
|Active:||1 (1 undergoing refit)|
|Type:||Heavy guided missile cruiser/battlecruiser|
|Length:||252 m (827 ft)|
|Beam:||28.5 m (94 ft)|
|Draft:||9.1 m (30 ft)|
|Speed:||32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|2 × PK-2 Decoy dispensers (400 rockets)|
|Armour:||76 mm plating around reactor compartment, light splinter protection|
|Aircraft carried:||3 helicopters|
|Aviation facilities:||Below-deck hangar|
Originally built for the Soviet Navy, the class is named after the first of a series of four ships constructed, Admiral Ushakov, named Kirov until 1992. Original plans called for construction of five ships. The fifth vessel was planned to be named Fleet Admiral of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov, also referred as Dzerzhinsky. The name was later changed to Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya (October Revolution), and then just Kuznetsov; but on 4 October 1990, plans for construction of a fifth vessel were abandoned.
The lead ship of the class, Kirov (renamed Admiral Ushakov in 1992), was laid down in June 1973 at Leningrad's Baltiysky Naval Shipyard, launched on 27 December 1977 and commissioned on 30 December 1980. When she appeared for the first time in 1981, NATO observers called her BALCOM I (Baltic Combatant I). She is currently in reserve.
In 1983, a command and control ship, SSV-33 Ural, was launched, although the ship would not be officially commissioned until 1989. She utilized the basic hull design of the Kirov-class vessels, but with a modified superstructure, different armament, and was intended for a different role within the Soviet Navy. Ural was decommissioned and laid up in 2001, due to high operating costs, and is scheduled to be scrapped in 2017.[needs update]
Frunze, the second vessel in the class, was commissioned in 1984. She was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. In 1992, she was renamed Admiral Lazarev. The ship became inactive in 1994 and was decommissioned four years later. She is currently in reserve. On 19 September 2009, General Popovkin, Deputy MOD for Armaments, said the MOD is looking into bringing Admiral Lazarev back into service.
Kalinin, now Admiral Nakhimov, was the third ship to enter service, in 1988. She was also assigned to the Northern Fleet. Renamed Admiral Nakhimov in 1992, she was mothballed in 1999 and reactivated in 2005. She is undergoing overhaul and modernization at Severodvinsk Shipyard.
Construction of the fourth ship, Yuriy Andropov, encountered many delays; her construction was started in 1986 but was not commissioned until 1998. She was renamed Pyotr Veliky (after Peter the Great) in 1992. She currently serves as the flagship of the Russia's Northern Fleet.
On 23 March 2004, English language press reported the Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief, Fleet Admiral Vladimir Kuroedov said Pyotr Veliky's reactor was in an extremely bad condition and could explode "at any moment", a statement which may have been the result of internal politics within the Russian Navy. The ship was sent to port for a month, and the crew lost one-third of their pay.
Russia initially planned to reactivate Admiral Ushakov and Admiral Lazarev by 2020, but it was later indicated that the condition of the reactor cores of both ships was such that it would prove difficult, expensive and potentially dangerous to remove the spent nuclear fuel and repair the cores. As a consequence, it is likely that both ships will be scrapped. The modernization of Admiral Ushakov seems unlikely due to an alleged nuclear incident which may have left one of its reactors damaged with scrapping to start in 2016 or later. Other sources disagree, stating that all four ships will be modernized and returned to service. In 2014 some maintenance work was performed on Admiral Lazarev (the only cruiser located in the Pacific). Skepticism was expressed regarding the ability of Sevmash shipyard to simultaneously modernize two Kirov-class battlecruisers.
Currently, only Pyotr Velikiy remains operational. Modernization of Admiral Nakhimov is ongoing (trials to start in 2020), with the modernization of Pyotr Velikiy to immediately follow and last for about three years.
The Kirov class's main weapons are 20 P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) missiles mounted in deck, designed to engage large surface targets. Air defense is provided by twelve octuple S-300F launchers with 96 missiles and a pair of Osa-MA batteries with 20 missiles each. Pyotr Velikiy carries some S-300FM missiles and is the only ship in the Russian Navy capable of ballistic missile defence. The ships had some differences in sensor and weapons suites: Kirov came with SS-N-14 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missiles, while on subsequent ships these were replaced with 3K95 Kinzhal (Russian: Кинжал – dagger) surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. The Kinzhal installation is in fact mounted further forward of the old SS-N-14 mounting, in the structure directly behind the blast shield for the bow mounted RBU ASW rocket launcher. Kirov and Frunze had eight 30 mm (1.18 in) AK-630 close-in weapon systems, which were supplanted with the Kortik air-defence system on later ships.
Other weapons are the automatic 130 mm (5 in) AK-130 gun system (except in Kirov which had two single 100 mm (4 in) guns instead), 10 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo/missile tubes (capable of firing SS-N-15 ASW missiles on later ships) and Udav-1 with 40 anti-submarine rockets and two sextuple RBU-1000 launchers.
Russia is developing a new anti-ship missile to equip Kirovs called the 3M22 Tsirkon, which is capable of traveling at hypersonic speeds out to at least 620 mi (540 nmi; 1,000 km). If the missile passes developmental tests, it could enter service in 2020, being deployed first aboard Admiral Nakhimov and later in Pyotr Veliky when it finishes upgrades in 2022. Depending on the choice of types of missiles will amount to 40 - 80.
|Kirov / Admiral Ushakov||Frunze / Admiral Lazarev||Kalinin / Admiral Nakhimov||Yuri Andropov / Pyotr Velikiy|
|Anti-ship missiles||20 x SS-N-19 Shipwreck|
|Anti-submarine missiles||1 x twin SS-N-14 Silex|
|SS-N-15 Starfish (via 533mm torpedo tube)|
|Surface-to-air missiles||12 x 8 SA-N-6 Grumble||6 x 8 SA-N-6 Grumble|
|6 x 8 SA-N-20 Gargoyle|
|2 x 20 SA-N-4 Gecko|
|16 x 8 SA-N-9 Gauntlet|
|Guns||2 x 1 AK-100 100 mm||1 x 2 AK-130 130 mm|
|CIWS||8 x AK-630||6 x CADS-N-1|
|Antisubmarine rockets||2 x RBU-1000|
|2 x RBU-12000|
|Torpedo tubes||10 x 533mm torpedo tubes for Type 53|
- 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control radar (the forward Top Dome is replaced with Tomb Stone (Passive electronically scanned array) in Pyotr Veliky)
- 4 × Bass Tilt for AK-360 CIWS System fire control (not in Admiral Nakhimov or Pyotr Veliky)
- 2 × Eye Bowl for SA-N-4 fire control (also for SS-N-14 in Admiral Ushakov)
- 2 × Hot Flash/Hot Spot for SA-N-11 Grisom (CADS-N-1 units only)
- 1 × Kite Screech for AK-100 or AK-130
- 2 × Cross Sword for SA-N-9 (Gauntlet-equipped units only)
|Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov||Baltiysky Zavod, Leningrad||27 March 1974||26 December 1977||30 December 1980||Laid up, to be scrapped in 2021.|
|Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev||27 July 1978||26 May 1981||31 October 1984||Laid up, to be scrapped in 2021.|
|Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov||17 May 1983||25 April 1986||30 December 1988||Undergoing refit|
|Peter the Great||11 March 1986||29 April 1989||9 April 1998||In service with the Northern Fleet|
|Admiral Flota Sovetskogo
(ex-Dzerzhinsky, ex-Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya)
|Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov||N/A||Cancelled 4 October 1990|
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