Kinh Dương Vương

Kinh Dương Vương (2919–2792 BC; Hán tự: 涇陽王; "King of Kinh Dương") is a legendary ancient Vietnamese figure, mentioned in the 15th-century work Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư by having unified all the tribes within his territory into one state, and as the founder of the Hồng Bàng dynasty. He is considered the first king of the Vietnamese people, and was the father of Lạc Long Quân.[1] He is reported to have lived 260 years.[citation needed]

Lộc Tục
Leader of Xích Quỷ
Reign2879–2792 BC
PredecessorĐế Minh
SuccessorHồng Bàng Dynasty started
Hồng Bàng Thị
Reign2879–2794 BC
PredecessorFounder of Hồng Bàng Thị
SuccessorLạc Long Quân
BornAugust 15, 2919 BC
Hunan, China
DiedJanuary 18, 2792 BC (aged 127)
Thuận Thành, Bắc Ninh Province
SpouseThần Long
IssueSùng Lãm
Lộc Tục (祿續)
HouseHồng Bàng
FatherĐế Minh
MotherVụ Tiên Nu

Kinh Dương Vương's personal name was Lộc Tục (Hán tự: 祿續). According to the 15th-century Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, he ruled over Xích Quỷ (赤鬼, later renamed Văn Lang) starting in 2879 BC. Kinh Dương Vương's father was Đế Minh (帝明, "Emperor Ming" of Chinese and Vietnamese mythology), the descendant of Shennong.[2] His mother was Vụ Tiên Nữ (婺僊女, lit. "Beautiful Immortal Lady, Beautiful Goddess"). Kinh Dương Vương married Shenlong, who was the daughter of Động Đình Quân (Lord of Dongting) and mother of Kinh Dương Vương's successor Lạc Long Quân.[1]

Today Kinh Dương Vương features with other legendary figures such as Thánh Gióng, Âu Cơ, Sơn Tinh and Thủy Tinh, in elementary school texts.[3] A popular shrine, and presumed tomb of Kinh Dương Vương, is located in the village of An Lữ, Thuận Thành District, Bắc Ninh Province .


According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, a book written in a Confucian perspective, Kinh Duong Vuong originates from China: Emperor Ming, the great-great-grandson of the mythological Chinese ruler Shennong, went on a tour of inspection south of the Nanling Mountains, settled down and married a certain Beautiful Immortal Lady (鶩僊女 Vụ Tiên Nữ), who then gave birth to a naturally intelligent son named Lộc Tục (祿續).

After Emperor Ming passed the throne to his eldest son, Emperor Li(釐) to be king of the North, and Loc Tuc was appointed to be king of the South, his title Kinh Duong Vuong (涇陽王). Kinh Duong Vuong was king and ruled from about 2879 BC onwards.[4] The territory of the country under Kinh Duong Vuong was claimed to be large, reaching Dongting Lake in the north, the Husunxing (胡猻精; SV: Hồ Tôn Tinh) country (i.e. Champa) in the south, the East Sea (東海, part of the Pacific Ocean) in the east and Ba Shu (巴蜀; now in today Sichuan, China) in the west. Lĩnh Nam chích quái recorded the legend that the king vigorously expelled a murderous god named Xuong Cuong. He married the daughter of the King of Dong Dinh (洞庭) Lake, named Thần Long (神龍 "Divine Dragon"), who gave birth to a son named Sung Lam (崇纜). Sung Lam would later succeed Kinh Duong Vuong as ruler, titled Dragon Lord of Lac (貉龍君; SV: Lạc Long Quân).


Worshiping Kinh Duong Vuong in Vietnam is not as popular as worshiping Shen nong , the god who is Hung Vuong 's ancestor and a very worshiped god in Vietnam's agricultural beliefs ; Đàn Xã Tắc(壇社稷) was established annually by feudal dynasties to worship .

Thuong Lang communal house in Minh Hoa commune, Hung Ha district, Thai Binh province is the oldest relic worshiping Kinh Duong Vuong; Legend has it since the Dinh dynasty .

The Kinh Duong Vuong Mausoleum and Temple(locally called Lăng và Đền thờ) in Bac Ninh have long been classified by the Vietnamese feudal dynasties as shrines to worship the emperors, each time the National Ceremony will bring to the army to worship and worship people solemnly. In 2013 , Bac Ninh province announced a plan to preserve, embellish and promote the population of national historical and cultural relics of Lang and Kinh Duong Vuong Temple with a total investment of more than 491 billion VND.[5] The project is divided into 4 main construction categories, including: relic conservation space, focusing on repairing and embellishing the relics of the Mausoleum and Kinh Duong Vuong Temple, temple grounds, tomb gardens; relic value space includes: ancestral monument, cultural festival square, cultural display ... accompanied by ancillary services to develop spiritual cultural tourism, attracting tourists and technical infrastructure, leveling, roads, electricity lines.[6] At present, the Kinh Duong Vuong tomb and temple relic is worshiped in A Lu village, Dai Dong Thanh commune, Thuan Thanh district, Bac Ninh province .

Other theoriesEdit

Many historical researchers suspected that Kinh Dương Vương was a legendary figure based on elements from the novella Story of Liu Yi (柳毅 SV: Liễu Nghị truyện).[7] Historical researcher Trần Trọng Dương pointed out that:[8]

The Kinh Dương Vương story has [signs of] being copied from the novella Story of Liu Yi (SV: Liễu Nghị truyện) by Li Chaowei (SV: Lý Triều Uy) composed in the Tang dynasty. The story can be summarized as follows: Liu Yi was a failed contestant; while on his way he met a beautiful young goatherdess with a worn-out appearance. The woman said that she was the daughter of the Dragon King in Dongting Lake (SV: Động Đình); she married the second son of [the Dragon Lord in] Jing River (SV: Kinh Xuyên), but was mistreated and was forced to herd goats; so she wanted Liu Yi to send a letter to [her] father and report her situation. Liu Yi brought the letter to the Dragon Palace. The [Dongting Lake's] Dragon King's younger brother, [the Dragon Lord in] Qiantang [river] (SV: Tiền Đường), was so angry that he killed the son of [the Dragon Lord in] Jing river, saved her, and intended to marry her to Liu Yi. Yi refused and just asked to [be allowed to] return [home]; and he was rewarded by the Dragon King with plenty of gold and silver and gems. Afterwards, Yi got married, yet every time he got married his wife would die. The daughter of the Dragon King, seeing that, recalled that their past fateful encounter. She wanted to repay him, so she turned herself into a beautiful lady and married Liu Yi as her husband. Afterwards, the couple became immortals.

This view has been expressed by many Vietnamese historians since the 18th century: for example, Ngô Thì Sĩ in Prefatory Compilation to Đại Việt's Historical Records[9]

Now we're examining what was written in the Outer Annals: The year of Nhâm Tuất [the sexagenary cycle's 59th year]? When had been the beginning year of Giáp Tí [the same cycle's 1st year]? [The authors] recorded the taboo names of King of Kinh Dương and Dragon Lord of Lạc, why omitted [those of] Hùng kings? Before the Five Emperors' time, [rulers] had not been called kings [王; standard Chinese: wáng; SV: vương]. What kind of name was the name Xích Quỷ? Why used it as a national name? A series of blatantly preposterous things only fit to be discarded. That was the fault of someone garrulous who found that story in The Story about Liễu Nghị. In the Story [about Liễu Nghị], it was said that the daughter of the [Dragon] King in Dongting Lake had been married off to the second son of the [Dragon] King in Jing River; [the story about Liễu Nghị] was irresponsibly imagined to be [the story about] King of Kinh Dương. Now that there have been husband and wife, there shall also be father and son, king and subject. Consequently, [someone] wove it into a written prose, just so there would be enough generations of kings. The historians, accordingly, chose to use it and took it as factual. All of those were stories taken from Selection of Strange Tales in Lingnan and Collection of Stories about the Shady and Spiritual Việt Realm; just as Northern historians had taken stories from The Classic of Southern Florescence or the Book of Honglie.

as well as the Nguyễn dynasty's historians in The Imperially Ordered Outlined and Detailed Texts Thoroughly Mirroring of the History of Viet

[Among] the old histories which [we've] obediently examined just now, the records of the Hồng Bàng clan, king of Kinh Dương, Dragon Lord of Lạc (those [which were] stated to stem from the distant past, in a vague and remote age), the author(s) relied on nothing to write [those], [yet] he(they) still feared not being taken as credible; so he(they) added [elements from] [a] Tang novellist's Story of Liu Yi as proofs.[10][11]

Consequently, Emperor Tự Đức of the Nguyen dynasty decided to exclude King of Kinh Duong and Dragon Lord of Lạc from their historiography as this did not conform with the Confucian ideals of the country.

Liam Christopher Kelley, then associate professor of South East Asian studies at University of Hawai'i at Manoa, commented:

Over the centuries, the traditions they [historians] create have become second nature. In fact, in the past half century, under the influence of nationalism , these invented Traditions have become and are becoming irreversible truths.[12]


  1. ^ a b Ngô Sĩ Liên. "Ky Hong Bang thi". Đại Việt Sử ký Toàn thư. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2012-09-28. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
  2. ^ Vu, Hong Lien (2016). Rice and Baguette: A History of Food in Vietnam. ISBN 9781780237046.
  3. ^ Marie-Carine Lall, Edward Vickers Education As a Political Tool in Asia 2009 -Page 143 "Children learn about the legends of the nation's birth, which feature heroic figures such as Kinh Dương Vương, Âu Cơ ... Sơn Tinh – Thủy Tinh, Thánh Gióng.22 The distinction between what is legend and what is scientific history is unclear."
  4. ^ Kỷ Hồng Bàng thị. informatik Bản sao lưu. nguoikesu, 2017. Truy cập 1/04/2019.
  5. ^ Khởi công tu bổ, tôn tạo di tích Lăng và Đền thờ Kinh Dương Vương Từ Lương, 11:13, 25/02/2013.
  6. ^ Gần 500 tỷ bảo tồn, tôn tạo lăng và đền thờ Kinh Dương Vương Đoàn Thế Cường, báo Dân Trí 09/10/2012 - 07:02.
  7. ^ Li Chaowei, Story of Liu Yi full text in Chinese
  8. ^ Trần Trọng Dương, "Kinh Dương Vương - Who was he?". Tia Sáng, 06/09/2013, online text (in Vietnamese)
  9. ^ Quoted and translated into Vietnamese in Trần Trọng Dương (2013) "Kinh Dương Vương - Who was he?". Tia Sáng, 06/09/2013, online text
  10. ^ KĐVSTGCM, page 9b-10a, 1856 - 1883.
  11. ^ KĐVSTGCM "Introductory Fascicle"
  12. ^ The Biography of the Hồng Bàng Clan as a Medieval Vietnamese Invented Tradition. Journal of Vietnamese Studies Vol. 7, No. 2 (Summer 2012), p. 122.
Kinh Dương Vương
Hồng Bàng Dynasty
Preceded by
New creation
King of Xích Quỷ
2879–2794 BC
Succeeded by