Khosrov I of Armenia

Khosrov I (Parthian: 𐭇𐭅𐭎𐭓𐭅) flourished second half of the 2nd century and first half of the 3rd century, died 217) was a Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.

Khosrov I
King of Armenia
Reign191–217
PredecessorVologases II
SuccessorTiridates II
Died217
IssueTiridates II
DynastyArsacid dynasty
FatherVologases II of Armenia
ReligionZoroastrianism

Khosrov I was one of the sons born to King Vologases II of Armenia (Vagharsh II)[1] who is also known as Vologases V of Parthia[2] by an unnamed mother. Through his father, Khosrov I was a member of the House of Parthia and thus a relation of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.[3]

In 191, Vologases II ascended the Parthian throne, and as a result relinquished the Armenian throne to Khosrov I.[4][5] Throughout the 1st and 2nd-centuries, the Armenian throne was usually occupied by a close relative of the Parthian King of Kings, who held the title of "Great King of Armenia".[6] According to the 5th-century Armenian historian Agathangelos, the king of Armenia had the second rank in the Parthian realm, below only the Parthian king.[7] The modern historian Lee E. Patterson suggests that Agathangelos may have exaggerated the importance of his homeland.[8] Khosrov I served as Armenian King from 191 until 217. In Armenian sources, Khosrov I is often confused with his famous grandson Khosrov II.[9] Little is known on his life, prior to becoming King of Armenia.

Khosrov I is the King whom classical authors present as a neutral monarch towards Rome.[10] In 195 when the Roman emperor Septimius Severus was on his great campaign to the Parthian Empire sacking the capital Ctesiphon, Khosrov I had sent gifts and hostages to Severus.[11] As a client monarch of Rome, Khosrov I was under the protection of Septimius Severus and his successor Caracalla.[12]

Between 214 and 216, Khosrov I with his family were held under Roman detention for unknown reasons which provoked a major uprising in Armenia against Rome.[13] In 215, Caracalla led a Roman army and invaded Armenia[14] to end the uprising. Khosrov I may be the Khosrov mentioned in an Egyptian inscription that speaks of Khosrov the Armenian.[15]

In 217 when Khosrov I died, his son Tiridates II,[16] was granted the Armenian crown[17] by the Roman emperor Caracalla.[18] Tiridates II was declared King of Armenia upon Caracalla's assassination[19] which was on 8 April 217.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  2. ^ Toumanoff, Manuel de généalogie et de chronologie pour le Caucase chrétien (Arménie, Géorgie, Albanie) [détail des éditions], p.73
  3. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  4. ^ Toumanoff 1986, pp. 543–546.
  5. ^ Patterson 2013, pp. 180–181.
  6. ^ Lang 1983, p. 517.
  7. ^ Patterson 2013, pp. 180, 188.
  8. ^ Patterson 2013, p. 188.
  9. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  10. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  11. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  12. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  13. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  14. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  15. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  16. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  17. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  18. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174
  19. ^ Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, p.174

SourcesEdit

  • Schottky, Martin (2010). "Armenische Arsakiden zur Zeit der Antonine. Ein Beitrag zur Korrektur der armenischen Königsliste". ANABASIS Studia Classica et Orientalia. 1: 208–224. ISSN 2082-8993. (in German)
  • C. Toumanoff, Manuel de généalogie et de chronologie pour le Caucase chrétien (Arménie, Géorgie, Albanie) [détail des éditions], p. 73
  • Lang, David M (1983). "Iran, Armenia and Georgia". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3(1): The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 512–537. ISBN 0-521-20092-X..
  • R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  • R.P. Adalian, Historical Dictionary of Armenia, Scarecrow Press, 2010
  • Patterson, Lee E. (2013). "Caracalla's Armenia". Syllecta Classica. Project Muse. 2: 27–61.
  • Toumanoff, C. (1986). "Arsacids vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. pp. 543–546.