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Keresan /ˈkɛrɪsən/, also Keres /kəˈrs/, is a Native American language, spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. Depending on analysis, Keresan is considered a small language family or a language isolate with several dialects. The varieties of each of the seven Keres pueblos are mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. There are significant differences between the Western and Eastern groups, which are sometimes counted as separate languages.

RegionNew Mexico
Native speakers
10,670 (2007)[1][2]
  • East Keres
  • West Keres
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
kee – Eastern
kjq – Western
Keres langs.png
Pre-contact distribution of Keresan languages


Family divisionEdit

  • Eastern Keres: total of 4,580 speakers (1990 census)
  • Western Keres: total of 3,391 speakers (1990 census)

Genetic relationshipsEdit

Keres is now considered a language isolate. In the past, Edward Sapir grouped it together with a Hokan–Siouan stock. Morris Swadesh suggested a connection with Wichita. Joseph Greenberg grouped Keres with Siouan, Yuchi, Caddoan, and Iroquoian in a superstock called Keresiouan. None of the proposals has been validated by subsequent linguistic research.


Keresan has between 42 and 45 consonant sounds, and around 40 vowel sounds, adding up to a total of about 95 phonemes, depending on the analysis and the language variety. Based on the classification in the World Atlas of Language Structures, Keres is a language with a large consonant inventory.

The great number of consonants relates to the three-way distinction between voiceless, aspirated and ejective consonants (e.g. /t tʰ tʼ/), and to the larger than average[4] number of fricatives (i.e. /s sʼ ʂ ʂʼ ʃ ʃʼ h/) and affricates, the latter also showing the three-way distinction found in stops.

The large number of vowels derives from a distinction made between long and short vowels (e.g. /e eː/), as well as from the presence of tones and voicelessness. Thus, a single vowel quality may occur with seven distinct realizations: / é è e̥ éː èː êː ěː /, all of which are used to distinguish words in the language.


The chart below contains the consonants of the proto-Keresan (or pre-Keresan) from Miller & Davis (1963) based on a comparison of Acoma, Santa Ana, and Santo Domingo, as well as other features of the dialects combined from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964), Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987), and The Phonemes of Keresan (1946), and the Grammar of Laguna Keres (2005).[5][6][7][8]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t c k ʔ
palatalized tʲ, tʲʰ, tʼʲ
Fricative voiceless s ʂ ʃ h
ejective ʂʼ ʃʼ
Affricate voiceless ts
aspirated tsʰ tʂʰ tʃʰ
ejective tsʼ tʂʼ tʃʼ
Approximant voiced w ɽ j
glottalized ɽˀ
Nasal voiced m n ɲ
glottalized ɲˀ


Keresan vowels have a phonemic distinction in duration: all vowels can be long or short. Additionally, short vowels can also be voiceless. The vowel chart below contains the vowel phonemes and allophones from the information of the Keresan languages combined from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964),[5] The Phonemes of Keresan (1946),[7] and Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987).[6]

Long Short
Phonemic Phonetic Phonemic Phonetic Voiceless
Close / iː / [ i ] / i / [ i ɪ ] [ ɪ̥ ]
Mid-front / eː / [ eː ] / e / [e ɛ æ ] [ e̥ ]
Mid-central / ɨː / [ əː ɨː ] / ɨ / [ ə ɨ ɤ ] [ ɨ̥ ]
Open / ɑː / [ aː ɑː ] / ɑ / [ a ɑ ] [ ḁ ]
Back-close / oː / [ oː ] / o / [ o ] [ o̥ ]
/ uː / [ uː ] / u / [ u ʊ o ] [ ʊ̥ ]


  • Western Keres does not have phonemic /oː/ or /o/, though both vowels may occur phonetically.[8] Eastern Keres words containing /o/ show /au/ in Western Keres.[9]
    • Kotyit Keres: [ ʂóːkʰɑ̥tʃʰɑ̥ ] - I see you
    • Kʼawaika Keres: [ ʂɑ̌ukʰɑ̥tʃʰɑ̥ ] - I see you

Voiceless vowelsEdit

All Keresan short vowels may be devoiced in certain positions. The phonemic status of these vowels is controversial.[8] Maring (1967) considers them to be phonemes of Áákʼu Keres, whereas other authors disagree. There are phonetic grounds for vowel devoicing based on the environment they occur, for instance word-finally, but there are also exceptions. Vowels in final position are nearly always voiceless and medial vowels occurring between voiced consonants, after nasals and ejectives are nearly always voiced.[10]

  • Word-final devoicing: [ pɑ̌ːkʊ̥ ] because
  • Word-medial devoicing: [ ʔìpʰi̥ʃɑ́ ] white paint


Acoma Keres has four lexical tones: high, low, falling and rising.[10] Falling and rising tones only occur in long vowels and voiceless vowels bear no tones:

Tones examples translation
High [tɨ́j] , [áwáʔáwá] here, matrilineal uncle
Low [mùːtètsá] young boy
Rising [pɑ̌ːkʊ̥] because
Falling [ʔêː] , [hêːk'a] and, whole part

Syllable structureEdit

Most Keresan syllables take a CV(V) shape.[8] The maximal syllable structure is CCVVC and the minimal syllable is CV. In native Keresan words, only a glottal stop /ʔ/ ⟨ʼ⟩ can close a syllable, but some loanwords from Spanish have syllables that end in a consonant, mostly a nasal (i.e. /m n/ but words containing these sequences are rare in the language.[11]

Syllable type examples translation
CV [sʼà], [ʔɪ]shv́v I have it, left
CVV [mùː]dedza , a[táù]shi young boy, cooking pot
CCV [ʃkʰí]srátsʼa I'm not fat
CCVV [ʃtùː]sra bluejay
CVC í[miʔ], [kùm]banêeru expression of fear, workmate (Spanish "compañero")

Due to extensive vowel devoicing, several Keresan words may be perceived as ending in consonants or even containing consonant clusters.

  • Word-internal cluster: yʼâakạ srûunị 'stomach' /jˀɑ̂ːkḁʂûːni/ > [jɑ̂ːkḁʂûːni] ~ [jɑ̂ːûːni]
  • Word-final coda: úwàakạ 'baby'; /úwɑ̀ːkḁ/ > [úwɑ̀ːkʰḁ] ~ [úwɑ̀ː]'


The only sequence of consonants (i.e. consonant cluster) that occurs in native Keresan words is a sequence of a fricative /ʃ ʂ/ and a stop or affricate. Clusters are restricted to beginnings of syllables (i.e. the syllable onset). When the alveolo-palatal consonant /ʃ/ occurs as C1, it combines with alveolar and palatal C2, whereas the retroflex alveolar /ʂ/ precedes bilabial and velar C2s, which suggest a complementary distribution. Consonant clusters may occur both word-initially and word-medially.[9]

C1 / C2 Bilabial Alveolar Velar Postalveolar
/ p / / pʰ / / pʼ / / t / / tʰ / / tʼ / / k / / kʰ / / kʼ / / tʃ / / tʃʰ / / tʃʼ /
/ ʃ / /ʃtáʊ̯rákʊ̥/


'frog, toad'






'plot of land'










/ ʂ / /ʂpúːná/


'water jug'






'it's full'






'mound, hill'



'female in-law'


Traditional Keresan beliefs postulate that Keres is a sacred language that must exist only in its spoken form.[12] The language's religious connotation and years of persecution of Pueblo religion by European colonizers may also explain why no unified orthographic convention exists for Keresan. However, a practical spelling system has been developed for Laguna (Kʼawaika)[8] and more recently for Acoma (Áakʼu) Keres,[13] both of which are remarkably consistent.

In the Keres spelling system, each symbol represents a single phoneme. The letters ⟨c q z f⟩ and sometimes also ⟨v⟩ are not used. Digraphs represent both palatal consonants (written using a sequence of C and ⟨y⟩), and retroflex consonants, which are represented using a sequence of C and the letter ⟨r⟩. These graphemes used for writing Western Keres are shown between ⟨...⟩ below.

Consonant SymbolsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Retroflex Postalveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless ⟨b⟩ ⟨d⟩ ⟨dy⟩ ⟨g⟩ ⟨ʼ⟩
aspirated ⟨p⟩ ⟨t⟩ ⟨ty⟩ ⟨k⟩
ejective ⟨pʼ⟩ ⟨tʼ⟩ ⟨tyʼ⟩ ⟨kʼ⟩
Fricative voiceless ⟨s⟩ ⟨sr⟩ ⟨sh⟩ ⟨h⟩
ejective ⟨sʼ⟩ ⟨srʼ⟩ ⟨shʼ⟩
Affricate voiceless ⟨dz⟩ ⟨dr⟩ ⟨j⟩
aspirated ⟨ts⟩ ⟨tr⟩ ⟨ch⟩
ejective ⟨tsʼ⟩ ⟨trʼ⟩ ⟨chʼ⟩
Approximant voiced ⟨w⟩ ⟨r⟩ ⟨y⟩
glottalized ⟨wʼ⟩ ⟨rʼ⟩ ⟨yʼ⟩
Nasal voiced ⟨m⟩ ⟨n⟩ ⟨ny⟩
glottalized ⟨mʼ⟩ ⟨nʼ⟩ ⟨nyʼ⟩

Signage at Acoma PuebloEdit

Signs at Acoma Pueblo sometimes use special diacritics for ejective consonants that differ from the symbols above, as shown in the table:

Signage at Acoma Pueblo
General ⟨pʼ⟩ ⟨tʼ⟩ ⟨kʼ⟩ ⟨sʼ⟩ ⟨tsʼ⟩ ⟨mʼ⟩ ⟨wʼ⟩ ⟨yʼ⟩ ⟨nʼ shʼ srʼ tyʼ⟩
Acoma signage ⟨ṕ⟩ ⟨t́⟩ ⟨ḱ⟩ ⟨ś⟩ ⟨tś⟩ ⟨ḿ⟩ ⟨ẃ⟩ ⟨ý⟩ ?

Vowel SymbolsEdit

Vowel sounds are represented straightforwardly in the existing spellings for Keresan. Each vowel sound is written using a unique letter or digraph (for long vowels and diphthongs). However, there are two competing representations for the vowel /ɨ/. Some versions simply use the IPA ⟨ɨ⟩ whereas others use the letter ⟨v⟩ (the sound /v/ as in veal does not occur in Keresan). Voiceless vowels have also been represented in two ways; either underlined or with a dot below (see table).

Long vowels Short vowels Voiceless vowels
Phoneme Grapheme Phoneme Grapheme Phoneme Grapheme
/ iː / ⟨ii⟩ / i / ⟨i⟩ / ɪ̥ / ⟨i̱⟩ or ⟨ị⟩
/ eː / ⟨ee⟩ / e / ⟨e⟩ / e̥ / ⟨e̱⟩ or ⟨ẹ⟩
/ ɨː / ⟨ɨɨ⟩ or ⟨vv⟩ / ɨ / ⟨ɨ⟩ or ⟨v⟩ / ɨ̥ / ⟨ɨ̱⟩ or ⟨ṿ⟩
/ ɑː / ⟨aa⟩ / ɑ / ⟨a⟩ / ḁ / ⟨a̱⟩ or ⟨ạ⟩
/ oː / ⟨oo⟩ / o / ⟨o⟩ / o̥ / ⟨o̱⟩ or ⟨ọ⟩
/ uː / ⟨uu⟩ / u / ⟨u⟩ / ʊ̥ / ⟨u̱⟩ or ⟨ụ⟩

Diacritics for ToneEdit

Tone may or may not be represented in the orthography of Keresan. When represented, four diacritics may be used above the vowel. Unlike the system used for Navajo, diacritics for tone are not repeated in long vowels.

High tone Low tone Rising tone Falling tone
Long Vowel ⟨áa⟩, ⟨úu⟩ ⟨àa⟩, ⟨ùu⟩ or unmarked ⟨ǎa⟩, ⟨ǔu⟩ or ⟨aá⟩, ⟨uú⟩ ⟨âa⟩, ⟨ûu⟩ or ⟨aà⟩, ⟨uù⟩
Short Vowel ⟨á⟩, ⟨ú⟩ ⟨à⟩, ⟨ù⟩ or unmarked -

Keres Alphabet and Alphabetical orderEdit

Although Keresan is not normally written, there exists only one dictionary of the language in which words are listed in any given order. In this dictionary of Western Keres, digraphs count as single letters, although ejective consonants are not listed separately; occurring after their non-ejective counterparts. Both the glottal stop ⟨ʼ⟩ and long vowels (e.g. ⟨aa ee ii⟩ etc.) are not treated as separate letters.

Alphabetical order in the Acoma Keres Audio Dictionary

Sample textsEdit

Orthography marking toneEdit

Woodpecker and Coyote[9]

Ái dítʼîishu srbígà kʼánâaya dyáʼâʼu. Shʼée srbígà ái dyěitsị ái náyáa shdyɨ dyáʼa.

Orthography without tone markingEdit

Boas text [8]

Baanaʼa, egu kauʼseeʼe, atsi sʼaama-ee srayutse.


Keresan is a split-ergative language in which verbs denoting states (i.e. stative verbs) behave differently from those indexing actions, especially in terms of the person affixes they take. This system of argument marking is based on a split-intransitive pattern, in which subjects are marked differently if they are perceived as actors than from when they are perceived as undergoers of the action being described.

The morphology of Keresan is mostly prefixing, although suffixes and reduplication also occur.[9] Keresan distinguishes nouns, verbs, numerals and particles as word classes. Nouns in Keresan do not normally distinguish case or number, but they can be inflected for possession, with distinct constructions for alienable and inalienable possession. Other than possession, Keresan nouns show no comprehensive noun classes.

Word orderEdit

Keresan is a verb-final language, though word order is rather flexible.[9][8]

Laguna Keres[8]

John Bill gukacha
J. B. g-Ø-ukacha
John Bill 3s-3s-see
'John saw Bill'


Negation is doubly marked in Keresan. In addition to the adverb dzaadi, verbs index negation through a suffix (e.g. -u).

  • Gukacha 'S/he saw her/him'
  • Dzaadi gukachau 'S/he didn't see her/him'

Verbal morphologyEdit

The verb is a central grammatical category in Keres, conveying the most information about events in communicative acts.[8][9][10] Through its morphemes, Keresan verbs code not only person and number of the initiator of the action (e.g. 'Tammy drinks decaf') as is common in Indo-European languages, but also how the initiator is implicated in the action. For instance, the three verbs that describe Tammy's actions in 'Tammy kicked the ball' vs. 'Tammy jumped' vs. 'Tammy sneezed', where kicking, jumping and sneezing require different levels of effort from Tammy. The person and number of the undergoer of the action is also coded on the verb (e.g. gukacha means 'S/he sees her/him' on its la ), as well as how the speaker assesses the action ('I think Tammy arrived from class' vs. 'Tammy arrived from class'). Finally, the internal temporal structure of the action (i.e. aspect, as in 'Tammy was sneezing in class' vs. 'Tammy sneezed in class').

According to Maring (1967), the Keresan verb is organized around the following grammatical categories (pp. 39-40)[10]

  • Subject/Object relations
    • Subject of intransitive verbs: marked by a prefix that distinguishes 3-4 persons in the singular (see below).
    • Subject of transitive verbs: marked by a prefix that distinguishes 3-4 persons in the singular (see below).
    • Object of transitive verbs: marked by a prefix that combines with the subject prefix, or by a suffix
  • Number relations
    • Singular: usually marked by a prefix
    • Dual: can be marked by a prefix, partial reduplication or by suffixes
    • Plural: can be marked by a prefix, partial reduplication, by suffixes or by suppletive stem forms (i.e. singular and plural forms are not related etymologically)
  • Temporal relations
    • Future: is marked on the verb by a series of prefixes that also encode number
  • Modality relations
  • Voice relations
  • Aspect
    • Imperfective
    • Inceptive
    • Repetitive
    • Continuative
    • Habitual
    • Inchoative
    • Perfective

The verbal prefixEdit

In Keres, the verbal prefix carries information from five different grammatical categories: argument role, modality, polarity,[8] person and number. That is, a single Keresan verb prefix codes who initiated the action and how implicated that entity is (the subject/case), whom underwent the effects of the action (the direct object), the speaker's assessment of the action (the modality)[14] and whether it occurred or not (polarity). On the other hand, information about when the action took place (i.e. tense) is expressed elsewhere in a clause, mostly by adverbs.[9]


Keresan verbs distinguish three numbers: singular, dual (two entities) and plural (more than two entities); and four persons: first (the speaker), second (the hearer), third (a known, definite or salient entity being talked about) and fourth (a non-salient, unknown or indefinite entity being talked about, also known as obviative) persons. The plural and dual forms are often marked by reduplication of part of the stem (gukacha 's/he saw it' vs guʼukacha 'the two of them saw it').

Argument roleEdit

Languages encode two main types of actions: those in which the main participant initiates an action that produces change in an object (e.g. kick a ball, buy a gift, cook a dish, read a book); and those in which the action produces no (perceived) change in the world or that have no object (sneezing, breathing, growing, diving, etc.).[15] Actions that take an object are encoded by transitive verbs, whereas those that take no object are expressed via intransitive verbs.

Intransitive verbsEdit

In Indo-European languages like English, all intransitive verbs behave similarly ('They sneeze/breathe/dive/think/etc.'). In Keresan, actions that take no object are conceptualized in two distinct ways depending on how implicated the initiator of the action is. More active-like intransitive verbs are coded through one set of morphemes, whereas actions conceptualized as involving the initiator at a lesser degree are coded using a separate set of prefixes.

Degrees of involvement of the initiator in Keres[8]
Actions Intransitive verb type
More to write (-dyàatra), to steal as a thief (-chʼáwʼa), to have diarrhea (-ushchʼi),

to leave (-mi), to whistle (-srbiitsa)

Less to believe (-hima), to be born (-dyá), to sleep (-bái),

to be afraid (-tyishu), to forget (-dyúmidruwi)


Ideas expressed in Indo-European languages with adjectives are most often encoded by verbs in Keresan. That is, in Keresan one says 'He selfishes' as opposed to 'He is selfish'. Such "actions" are beyond the control of the entity that is characterized by them, and thus belong in the Inactive intransitive category. The different sets of prefixes are shown below:

Intransitive Prefixes by Verb Type
Active intransive Inactive intrasitive
Prefix Example Prefix Example
first s(i)- sudyàatra I write srk- srkuhima I believe
second sr- srúuchʼáwʼa you steal kɨdr- kɨdrâidyá you were born
third k- kashdyuwàanʼi s/he sweats dz- dzíibái he is sleeping
Transitive verbsEdit
Transitive verb - Indicative mood (-ukạchạ 'to see')
Direct object
Subject first ('me') second ('ya') third (her/him) fourth
first - srà-ukạchạ sì-ukạchạ -
I see you I see her/him
second dyù-ukạchạ - srù-ukạchạ
you see me you see her/him
third srgù-ukạchạ kudrù -ukạchạ g-ukạchạ gù-ukạchạ
s/he sees me s/he sees you s/he sees her/him s/he sees that
fourth - dzì-ukạchạ -
one sees it


Aspect in Keresan is signalled by suffixes

-ajanu 'to rain'
kájáni it rains
káajáni it is raining
kájásɨ it keeps raining
káajatú it rained

Time (tense) adverbialsEdit

The category of tense is expressed in Keresan via adverbs that indicate when the action about which one is speaking took place.

Time adverbials in Acoma Keres[10]
Past Future
tsikʼínuma long ago kúsra tonight
háma once, formerly nacháma tomorrow
súwa yesterday naháayashi day after tomorrow


New words are coined through a number of roots that are combined to pre-existing ones. Compounding is a common strategy for word building, although derivation also occurs.


The Keresan numeral system is a base 10 system. Numerals 11-19, as well as those between the multiple of tens, are formed by adding the word kʼátsi (/ kʼátsʰɪ / 'ten') followed by the word dzidra (/tsɪtʂa/ 'more'). Numerals 20 and above are formed by adding a multiplicative adverb (-wa or -ya) to the base number and the word kʼátsi.[8]

Western Keres
1 ísrkʼé 11 kʼátsi-írskʼá-dzidra 21 dyúya-kʼátsi-íisrkʼé-dzidra
2 dyúuwʼée 12 kʼátsi-dyú-dzidra 22 dyúya-kʼátsi-dyú-dzidra
3 chameʼée 13 kʼátsi-chami-dzidra 30 chamiya-kʼátsi
4 dyáana 14 kʼátsi-dyáana-dzidra 40 dyáanawa-kʼátsi
5 táam'a 15 kʼátsi-táamʼa-dzidra 50 táamʼawa-kʼátsi
6 shʼísa 16 kʼátsi-shchʼísa-dzidra 60 shchʼísawa-kʼátsi
7 mʼáiʼdyàana 17 kʼátsi-mʼáidyana-dzidra 70 mʼáidyanawa-kʼátsi
8 kukʼúmishu 18 kʼátsi-kukʼúmishu-dzidra 80 kukʼúmishuwa-kʼátsi
9 máyúkʼu 19 kʼátsi-máiyúkʼa-dzidra 90 máiyúkʼuwa-kʼátsi
10 kʼátsi 20 dyúwa-kʼátsi 100 kʼádzawa-kʼátsi

Loanwords from SpanishEdit

European colonizers arriving in the Southwest US brought with them material culture and concepts that were unknown to the peoples living in the area. Words for the new ideas introduced by Spaniards were often borrowed into Keres directly from Early Modern Spanish, and a large number of these persists in Modern Keresan.[11]

Semantic domain Modern Western Keres Modern Spanish English translation
Household items kamárîita, kuchâaru, kujûuna, méesa, mendâan, kuwêeta camarita, cuchara, colchón, mesa, ventana, cubeta (Mexico) bed, spoon, mattress, table, window (glass), bucket
Social structure gumbanêerụ, rái, murâatụ, merigâanạ, kumanirá, ninêeru compañero, rey, mulato, americano(a), comunidad, dinero workmate, king, black person, white person, community house, money
Food géesu, arûusị, kawé, kurántụ, mantạgîiyụ, mandêegạ queso, arroz, café, cilantro, mantequilla, manteca cheese, rice, coffee, cilantro, butter, lard/butter
Animal husbandry kawâayu, kanêeru, kujíinu, kurá, dûura, wáakạshị caballo, carnero, cochino, corral, toro, vaca horse, sheep, pen/corral, bull, cow
Religious concepts míisa, Háasus Kuríistị, nachạwêena, guréesima misa, Jesús Cristo, Noche Buena, Cuaresma mass, Jesus Christ, Christmas, Lent
Days of the week tamîikụ, rûunishị, mâatịsị, mérikụsị, sruwêewesị, yêenịsị, sâawaru domingo, lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves, viernes, sábado Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday

In popular mediaEdit

Keres was one of the seven languages used in the Coca-Cola commercial called "It's Beautiful" broadcast during the 2014 Super Bowl.[16]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Keres, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  2. ^ "Keres, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-04.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Keresan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Ian., Maddieson, (1984). Patterns of sounds. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521113267. OCLC 10724704.
  5. ^ a b Davis, Irvine (1964). The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo, Smithsonian Bulletin 191, Anthropological Papers, No. 69.
  6. ^ a b A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics. 1987.
  7. ^ a b Spencer, Robert F. (1946). The Phonemes of Keresan.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lachler, Jordan (2005). Grammar of Laguna Keres. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Dissertation.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Valiquette, Hilaire (1990). A study for a lexicon of Laguna Keresan.
  10. ^ a b c d e Maring, Joel M. (1967). Grammar of Acoma Keresan. Indiana University Dissertation.
  11. ^ a b Spencer, Robert (1947). "Spanish Loanwords in Keresan". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 3: 130–146.
  12. ^ Brandt, Elizabeth (1981). "Native American Attitudes toward Literacy and Recording in the Southwest". Journal of the Linguistic Association of the Southwest. 4 (2): 185–195.
  13. ^ "The Keres Language Project". The Keres Language Project. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  14. ^ L., Bybee, Joan (1994). The evolution of grammar : tense, aspect, and modality in the languages of the world. Perkins, Revere D. (Revere Dale), Pagliuca, William. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226086631. OCLC 29387125.
  15. ^ 1936-, Givón, Talmy, (2001). Syntax : an introduction. Volume 1 (Rev. ed.). Amsterdam: J. Benjamins. ISBN 1588110656. OCLC 70727915.
  16. ^ "Native Language Spotlighted During Coca-Cola Super Bowl Ad". Indian Country Today Media Network. 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-02-26.


  • Boas, Franz. (1923). "A Keresan text", International Journal of American Linguistics, 2 (3/4), 171–180.
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