Kargopolsky District (Russian: Каргопо́льский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kargopolsky Municipal District. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Plesetsky District in the north, Nyandomsky District in the northeast, Konoshsky District in the east, Kirillovsky District of Vologda Oblast in the south, Vytegorsky District, also of Vologda Oblast, in the southwest, and with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the northwest. The area of the district is 10,127 square kilometers (3,910 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kargopol. Population: 18,466 (2010 Census); 21,514 (2002 Census); 24,589 (1989 Census). The population of Kargopol accounts for 55.3% of the district's total population.
Primary school in the village of Gavrilovskaya in Kargopolsky District
Location of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast
|Federal subject||Arkhangelsk Oblast|
|Established||July 15, 1929|
|• Total||10,127 km2 (3,910 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1.8/km2 (4.7/sq mi)|
|• Administrative divisions||1 Towns of district significance, 12 Selsoviets|
|• Inhabited localities||1 Cities/towns, 242 Rural localities|
|• Municipally incorporated as||Kargopolsky Municipal District|
|• Municipal divisions||1 Urban settlements, 5 Rural settlements|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
The area was originally populated by the Finno-Ugric peoples and then colonized by the Novgorod Republic. Traditionally, the foundation of Kargopol is thought to be in 1146, although it was not first mentioned in the chronicles until the 14th century. In the 15th century, it was already a fortress, playing an important role in the struggle between Novgorod and the emerging power of Moscow. In particular, in 1447 the outlaw prince Dmitry Shemyaka, after being chased from Moscow by Vasily II, fled to Kargopol and stayed there for over a year. After the fall of Novgorod, the area became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the 16th century, Kargopol was one of the biggest towns of Russia, and was mainly a merchant town due to its location on the road from Moscow to Arkhangelsk (at the time, the main Russian harbor for European trade). Kargopol was also used for political exile. For instance, Ivan Bolotnikov, the leader of the peasant insurgence, was sent to Kargopol in 1607, where he was blinded and then drowned. After St. Petersburg was built in 1703, the trade was rerouted to the Baltic Sea and the importance of Kargopol diminished.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known from 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. After a number of administrative reforms, in 1801 Kargopol ended up as the seat of Kargopolsky Uyezd, one of the four uyezds of the newly established Olonets Governorate. On April 30, 1919, Kargopolsky Uyezd was transferred to Vologda Governorate, and in 1922, when Olonets Governorate was abolished, some areas from Vytegorsky Uyezd were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd. On July 15, 1929, the uyezds were abolished, the governorates merged into Northern Krai, and Kargopolsky District was established among others. It became a part of Nyandoma Okrug of Northern Krai.
The areas south of Lake Lacha belonged to Kirillovsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate. In 1918, five uyezds of Novgorod Governorate, including Kirillovsky Uyezd, were split off to form Cherepovets Governorate. In 1919, these areas were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd.
In the following years, the first-level administrative division of Russia kept changing. In 1930, the okrug was abolished, and the district was subordinated to the central administration of Northern Krai. In 1936, the krai was transformed into Northern Oblast. In 1937, Northern Oblast itself was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast. Kargopolsky District remained in Arkhangelsk Oblast ever since.
The district is almost exclusively located in the basin of the Onega River, which is the biggest river in the district, and belongs to the basin of the White Sea. The source of the Onega is Lake Lacha, which is the biggest lake in the district. The northeastern shore of Lake Vozhe, also in the basin of the Onega, belongs to Kargopolsky District, but the lake itself is in Vologda Oblast. The two lakes are connected by the Svid River. The major tributary of the Onega is the Voloshka River (left). Some minor areas in the northwest of the district belong to the basin of the Vodla River and eventually of the Baltic Sea, and very minor areas in the southwest belong to the basin of the Kema River and eventually to the Caspian Sea.
The major part of the district is covered by coniferous forests (taiga).
The northern part of the district, including Lake Lyokshmozero, is included into Kenozersky National Park (which is split between Kargopolsky and Plesetsky Districts).
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
The borders of Kargopolsky District for the most part conform to those of the municipal district, with the exception of the settlement of Sovza, which is administratively a part of Yertsevsky Selsoviet of Konoshsky District, but is municipally incorporated within Ukhotskoye Rural Settlement of Kargopolsky Municipal District.
As an administrative division, the district is divided into twelve selsoviets and one town of district significance (Kargopol). The following selsoviets have been established (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):
- Kalitinsky (Kalitinka)
- Khotenovsky (Kononovo)
- Krechetovsky (Krechetovo)
- Lyokshmozersky (Morshchikhinskaya)
- Lodyginsky (Kazakovo)
- Oshevensky (Shiryaikha)
- Pavlovsky (Prigorodny)
- Pechnikovsky (Vatamanovskaya)
- Priozyorny (Shelokhovskaya)
- Tikhmangsky (Patrovskaya)
- Usachevsky (Usachevskaya)
- Ukhotsky (Pesok)
As a municipal division, the district is divided into one urban settlement and five rural settlements (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):
Timber industry is the basic industry of the district. The linum production factory, which used to exist in Kargopol until the 1970s, is defunct.
Traditionally, the lands northwest of Kargopol were used to grow crops, and until the 1970s linum was also cultivated. However, these activities became unprofitable due to depopulation (in a hundred years, the number of villages was reduced by a factor of five), and in the 1970s the district's production shifted to beef and milk. This has been further reduced in the 1990s due to the economic crisis in Russia. There is also fishery, mainly on the lakes including Lake Lacha.
Kargopol is connected by a paved road with Nyandoma and further east the principal highway in the region, M8 connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk. There is a road to the north, which connects to M8 via Plesetsk and Brin-Navolok. This is the historic trading route which connected Kargopol with Arkhangelsk before the railroad was built, and long stretches of this road are still unpaved. The stretch between Kargopol and Plesetsk was paved in 2011. Another unpaved road in the western direction crosses the border with the Republic of Karelia and heads to Pudozh.
There is no railroad in Kargopol, even though at the time of construction of the railway between Vologda and Arkhangelsk (the decision on the route was taken by Tsar Alexander III in June 1894) it was the biggest town in the region, and the railway was constructed through unpopulated areas. There is an urban legend stating that Kargopol merchants were unhappy with the prospective of the railway construction in Kargopol thinking it would deteriorate the trade, and therefore requested the railway to be built in detour. As a matter of fact, the local governance body, the Kargopol Duma, in September 1894 twice discussed the issue, came to the conclusion that the railroad construction indeed would deteriorate the trade, but that if it does not pass Kargopol, the damage would be much stronger. Therefore, on both occasions, the Duma sent a petition requesting that the railway would be rerouted via Kargopol. This did not occur, since the construction has already started in August 1894, and since the detour would be too big, as Kargopol is not on a straight line connecting Vologda with Arkhangelsk.
Culture and recreationEdit
Kargopolsky District has a very high concentration of historical, archaeological, and architectural monuments. The district contains 40 objects (thirteen of them in Kargopol) classified as cultural and historical heritage by Russian Federal law, and additionally 182 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance. Most of these are the white-stone churches of the town of Kargopol and wooden churches and chapels located in the area. The town of Kargopol contains a number of white-stone churches, the earliest of which, the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ, dates back to 1552. This is the oldest building of mainland Arkhangelsk Oblast (some buildings of the Solovetsky Monastery also stem from the 16th century).
The monuments classified as historical and architectural heritage include:
- The Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (1552–1562) with the bell-tower (1766–1767) in Kargopol
- The Resurrection Church (end of 17th century) in Kargopol
- The Church of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist (1740–1751) in Kargopol
- The Holy Trinity Church (1790–1802) in Kargopol
- The Presentation Church (1803) in Kargopol
- The ensemble of three churches: the Annunciation Church (1692), the Saint Nicholas Church (1741), and the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos (1678–1680) in Kargopol
- The ensemble of Aleksandro-Oshevensky Monastery (from 1707) in Oshevensk[clarification needed]
- The ensemble of Pogost Bolshaya Shalga consisting of the Nativity Church (1745) and the Intercession Church (1857) in Bolshaya Shalga[clarification needed]
- The Saint Nicholas Church (1659) in Pavlovsky Pogost; no longer exists
- The Saint Nicholas Church (1666) in Volosovo[clarification needed]
- The Church of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple in Krasnaya Lyaga, a former village west of Kargopol;
- The triple ensemble in Lyadiny (Gavrilovskaya) the Church of the Protection of the Theotokos (1693), the Intercession Church (1761), and the bell-tower (1820). The Intercession Church and the bell-tower burned down on May 6, 2013 and do not any longer exist.
- The Saint Nicholas Chapel (18th century) in Nikolskaya[clarification needed]
- The ensemble of the Saunino Pogost consisting of the Church of Saint John Chrysostom (1665) and the bell-tower (18th century) in Kiprovo
The only state museum in the district is Kargopol State Museum of History, Art, and Architecture, founded in 1919. This is cloak organization, which not only holds ethnographic, art and historic exhibits, but also protects some of the architectural monuments in Kargopol and surroundings. Fifteen buildings, including a number of churches, belong to the museum. Another museum was open in 1994 in the school of the selo of Lyadiny. There are also two private museums in Kargopol.
- Law #65-5-OZ
- Президиум Всероссийского центрального исполнительного комитета СССР. Постановление от 15 июля 1929 г. «О составе округов и районов Северного края и их центрах». Опубликован: "СУ РСФСР", №61, ст. 606, 1929. (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Resolution of July 15, 1929 On the Composition of the Okrugs and Districts of Northern Krai and on Their Centers. ).
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 218», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 11 218, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Каргопольский район (in Russian). Двина-Информ. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Саблин, Василий Анатольевич. История формирования территории и административных изменений Вологодской области (in Russian). booksite.ru. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 222 818 027», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 11 222 818 027, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Нефёдова, Татьяна (2004). Каргопольский район: Прошлое, настоящее и будущее русского Севера. Отечественные Записки (in Russian) (4 (18)). Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- Запущена "Дорога в космос" (in Russian). «Дорожное агентство «Архангельскавтодор». September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- Студенцова, Е. О. (2009). Уездные города России / Влияние Вологодско-Архангельской железной дороги на экономическое развитие г. Каргополя в конце XIX—начале ХХ в. (in Russian). Kargopol.[permanent dead link]
- Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 2, 2016.
- Бодэ, Андрей (2009). Небеса и часовни Кенозерья. Расписные потолки, иконы, деревенские часовни и церкви, составляюшие историко-культурный ландшафт Национального парка "Кенозерский (in Russian). Archived from the original on August 19, 2011.
- "В Архангельской области сгорели уникальные деревянные церковь и колокольня из храмового комплекса". ITAR TASS. May 6, 2013. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Каргопольский государственный историко-архитектурный и художественный музей (in Russian). Каргопольский государственный историко-архитектурный и художественный музей. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Мурашов, Андрей (October 24, 2003). Не простаивает бабушкина прялка. Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- Дурасов, Г. П. (1986). Каргопольская глиняная игрушка. Leningrad: Художник РСФСР.
- Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №65-5-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №232-13-ОЗ от 16 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Областные Законы в сфере осуществления местного самоуправления и взаимодействия с некоммерческими организациями». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №43, 6 октября 2009 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #65-5-OZ of September 23, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #232-13-OZ of December 16, 2014 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Dealing with the Process of Municipal Self-Government and Relations with Non-Profit Organizations. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №224-13-ОЗ от 16 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов Соловецкого района Архангельской области и о внесении изменения в статью 46 Областного закона "О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #224-13-OZ of December 16, 2014 On Abolishing Several Inhabited Localities in Solovetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast and on Amending Article 46 of the Oblast Law "On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Brumfield, William. Kargopol: Architectural Heritage in Photographs (Moscow: Tri Kvadrata, 2007) ISBN 978-5-94607-083-6 (in English and in Russian)