Open main menu

Priozersk

  (Redirected from Käkisalmi)

Priozersk (Russian: Приозе́рск,[6] known before 1948 in Finnish as Käkisalmi (Swedish: Kexholm) is a town and the administrative center of Priozersky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the northwestern shore of Lake Ladoga, at the estuary of the northern armlet of the Vuoksi River on the Karelian Isthmus. It is served by a station of the same name on the St. Petersburg—Khiytola railway. Population: 18,933 (2010 Census);[2] 20,506 (2002 Census);[7] 20,557 (1989 Census).[8]

Priozersk

Приозерск
Priozersk at night
Priozersk at night
Coat of arms of Priozersk
Coat of arms
Location of Priozersk
Priozersk is located in Russia
Priozersk
Priozersk
Location of Priozersk
Priozersk is located in Leningrad Oblast
Priozersk
Priozersk
Priozersk (Leningrad Oblast)
Coordinates: 61°03′N 30°08′E / 61.050°N 30.133°E / 61.050; 30.133Coordinates: 61°03′N 30°08′E / 61.050°N 30.133°E / 61.050; 30.133
CountryRussia
Federal subjectLeningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative districtPriozersky District[1]
Settlement municipal formationPriozerskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Founded1295 (Julian)Edit this on Wikidata
Area
 • Total16.5 km2 (6.4 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 • Total18,933
 • Density1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Administrative center ofPriozersky District[1], Priozerskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
 • Municipal districtPriozersky Municipal District[3]
 • Urban settlementPriozerskoye Urban Settlement[3]
 • Administrative center ofPriozersky Municipal District[3], Priozerskoye Urban Settlement[3]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[4]
Postal code(s)[5]
188760, 188761
OKATO ID41448000000

Contents

HistoryEdit

Historical affiliations

  Novgorod Republic 13th century–1478
  Grand Duchy of Moscow 1478–1547
  Tsardom of Russia 1547–1578
  Kingdom of Sweden 1578–1595
  Tsardom of Russia 1595–1611
  Kingdom of Sweden 1611–1710
  Tsardom of Russia 1710–1721
  Russian Empire 1721–1812
  Grand Duchy of Finland (Russia) 1812-1917
  Republic of Finland 1917–1940
  Soviet Union 1940–1941
  Republic of Finland 1941–1944
  Soviet Union 1944–1991
  Russian Federation 1991–present

The main landmark of Priozersk, the Korela Fortress, has historically been the center for the Karelians of the Karelian Isthmus and from time to time the northwestern outpost of the realm of the Russians or the eastern outpost of the realm of the Swedes.

From the Middle Ages, Priozersk was known as Korela to Russians and Käkisalmi to Karelians and Finns. The town was a part of Vodskaya pyatina of the Novgorod Republic. Novgorod taxation documents from 1500 list 183 houses in Korela, suggesting an estimated population of 1,500–2,000. The Swedes captured Korela twice: in 1578 for seventeen years and in 1611 for a hundred years. In the Swedish Empire, the fortress was called Kexholm and the whole region became known as the County of Kexholm. Russia definitively secured the area during the Great Northern War; the town's Swedish name was retained, however, as Keksgolm (Кексгольм). Unfortunately, wars and devastating fires in 1300, 1580, 1634, and 1679 took their toll on the civilian population. Consequently, when the town gained its first court house in 1800, the population was only 400.

 
Käkisalmi postal cancellation 1921
 
Finnish-era Lutheran Church

In 1812, as the Grand Duchy of Finland three years earlier had been formed within the Russian Empire, Tsar Alexander I incorporated Keksgolm with the rest of Old Finland (Vyborg Governorate) into an autonomous region. Keksgolm was the smallest city in the governorate. Since 1812, Vyborg Governorate was known as the Viipuri Province. In 1918, Finland became independent. Town's growth was boosted by the construction of the St. Petersburg–Hiitola railway in 1917 and by establishing two big saw mills and a big Ab Waldhof Oy's wood pulp mill in 1929. In 1939, Käkisalmi had a population of 5083. Around the town laid the rural municipality of Käkisalmi, with a population of 5,100. Minorities were Orthodox (946 persons), Swedish, Russian, or German. Total population was 11,129 in 1939.

The Winter War on November 30, 1939 began with the Soviet attack. Eventually, after hard fighting, Finland was forced to cede Käkisalmi and the whole of Finnish Karelia to the Soviet Union by the terms of the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty. During the Continuation War in 1941–1944, Finland gained back Keksgolm and other territories ceded to the Soviets in 1940. The population returned to rebuild the town, but were again evacuated at the close of World War II.

Keksgolmsky District with the administrative center in Keksgolm was established as a part of the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelian ASSR) in March 1940.[citation needed] On March 31, 1940, the Karelian ASSR was transformed into the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic.[9] On November 24, 1944, Keksgolmsky District was transferred from the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic to Leningrad Oblast.[10]

On October 1, 1948, Keksgolm was renamed Priozersk[10] as a part of the campaign to rename localities in the areas annexed from Finland after the Second World War. Priozersk was settled with mainly Russians, Belorussian, and Ukrainian migrants, who have since comprised the majority of the local population.

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Priozersk serves as the administrative center of Priozersky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated within Priozersky District as Priozerskoye Settlement Municipal Formation.[1] As a municipal division, Priozerskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Priozersky Municipal District as Priozerskoye Urban Settlement.[3]

EconomyEdit

IndustryEdit

The main industrial enterprise in Priozersk is the former paper mill transformed into a furniture production plant.

TransportationEdit

Priozersk railway station is located on the Saint Petersburg – Hiitola railroad connecting Saint Petersburg and Sortavala via Hiitola. There is suburban and long-distance service to Finland Station in Saint Petersburg.

The town is connected by roads with Saint Petersburg, Vyborg, and Sortavala.

Culture and recreationEdit

 
The Korela Fortress is the main landmark of Priozersk

Some remains of the pre-1917 Russian culture, mainly the Korela Fortress, survive. The ramparts and towers of the fortress are located on the bank of the Vuoksi, still visible when traveling to the town from St. Petersburg. There is a small museum in the fortress. Much of the remnants of the Finnish presence was destroyed. Priozersk contains thirty-three cultural heritage monuments of federal significance.[11] The great majority of these monuments belong to the Korela fortress.

The town is popular destination with the residents of St. Petersburg, many of whom have dachas in the vicinity (such as the Ozero community).

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #50-oz
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  6. ^ Not Priozyorsk (Приозёрск).
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  8. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  9. ^ Карело-Финская ССР (PDF) (in Russian). Handbook of administrative divisions of Soviet Union. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Кексгольмский район (ноябрь 1944 г. - октябрь 1948 г.), Приозерский район (октябрь 1948 г. – феваль 1963 г., январь 1965 г.) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  11. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016.

SourcesEdit

  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №50-оз от 1 сентября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Приозерский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №43-оз от 27 июня 2013 г. «О присоединении деревни Большая Загвоздка к городу Гатчина и о внесении изменений в некоторые Областные законы в сфере административно-территориального устройства Ленинградской области». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (24  сентября 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №27, 14 сентября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #50-oz of September 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of Priozersky Municipal District and to the Municipal Formations Comprised By It, as amended by the Oblast Law #43-oz of June 27, 2013 On Merging the Village of Bolshaya Zagvozdka into the Town of Gatchina and on Amending Various Oblast Laws on the Subject of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast. Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication (September 24 2004).).

External linksEdit