Jund al-Urdunn

(Redirected from Jund Al-Urdunn)

Jund al-Urdunn (Arabic: جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ, translation: "The military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad al-Sham (Islamic Syria) during the early Islamic period. It was established under the Rashidun and its capital was Tiberias throughout its rule by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates. It encompassed southern Mount Lebanon, the Galilee, the southern Hauran, the Golan Heights, and most of the eastern Jordan Valley (especially in the north).[1]

Jund al-Urdunn
Province of the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates
630s–late 11th century
Syria in the 9th century.svg
Arab Syria (Bilad al-Sham) and its provinces under the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century
CapitalTiberias
History
History 
• Established
630s
• Seljuk attacks, First Crusade
late 11th century
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Palaestina Secunda
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Seljuq Empire
Today part ofIsrael
West Bank
Jordan
Lebanon

Subdistricts and major townsEdit

The 10th-century geographer Ibn al-Faqih held that besides its capital at Tiberias, the Urdunn's chief districts (qura) were Samaria (al-Samira in Arabic), i.e. Nablus, Beisan, Qadas, Pella (Fahl in Arabic), Jerash, Acre (Akka in Arabic), and Tyre (Sur in Arabic).[2] The geographer al-Muqaddasi (d. 985) notes that the principal towns of the district were its capital Tiberias, Qadas, Tyre, Acre, Faradiyya, Kabul, Beisan, Lajjun and Adhri'at.[3] The 13th-century geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi counted the quras of Urdunn as Tiberias, Beisan, Acre, Beit Ras, Jadar (Jaydur, area adjacent to the east of the Golan Heights), Tyre and Saffuriya.[4]

The geographers Ibn Hawqal (d. c. 978) and Estakhri (d. 957) noted the Ghawr (Jordan Valley) district, the low-lying area along the Jordan River between Lake Tiberias to the Dead Sea, with its capital at Jericho (Ariha in Arabic), was administratively subordinate to Urdunn.[5] The geographer al-Ya'qubi (d. 892) held that the Ghawr was subordinate to Jund Dimashq.[2]

PopulationEdit

GalileeEdit

The Galilee was referred to as "Jabal al-Jalil" by the 9th century Arab geographer Ya'qubi (d. 891), who noted that its residents were Arabs from the Amila tribe.[6] Michael Ehrlich asserts that while the majority of people in the Western Galilee and Lower Galilee probably embraced Islam during the Early Islamic period, the Islamization process in the Eastern Galilee took a little longer and lasted until the Mamluk period.[7]

GovernorsEdit

Rashidun periodEdit

Umayyad periodEdit

Abbasid periodEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 30–39. OCLC 1004386.
  2. ^ a b le Strange 1890, p. 30.
  3. ^ le Strange 1890, p. 39.
  4. ^ le Strange 1890, p. 32.
  5. ^ le Strange 1890, pp. 30–31.
  6. ^ Strange, le, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 77.
  7. ^ Ehrlich, Michael (2022). The Islamization of the Holy Land, 634-1800. Leeds, UK: Arc Humanities Press. pp. 59–75. ISBN 978-1-64189-222-3. OCLC 1302180905.
  8. ^ a b Hinds 1993, p. 264.
  9. ^ a b c Crone 1980, p. 125.
  10. ^ a b Gil 1997, p. 115.
  11. ^ Ahmed 2010, p. 114.
  12. ^ Crone 1980, p. 126.
  13. ^ Crone 1980, p. 127.
  14. ^ Crone 1980, p. 128.
  15. ^ a b Sharon 1999, p. 218.
  16. ^ Amitai-Preiss 2015, p. 72.

BibliographyEdit