Jumada al-Awwal (Arabic: جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأَوَّل, romanized: Jumādā al-ʾAwwal, lit. 'The initial Jumada'), also known as Jumada al-Ula (Arabic: جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأُولَىٰ, romanized: Jumādā al-ʾŪlā, lit. 'The first Jumada'), or Jumada I, is the fifth month of the 12 lunar months in the Islamic calendar. The month spans 29 or 30 days. The origin of the name is theorized by some as from the word jamād (Arabic: جماد) meaning "arid, dry, or cold" - denoting the dry and parched land, hence the dry months. Jumādā (Arabic: جُمَادَىٰ) may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year. The secondary name Jumādā al-Ūlā may possibly mean "to take charge with, commend, entrust, commit or care during the arid or cold month".
|Native name||جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْأَوَّل (Arabic)|
|Number of days||29-30 (depends on actual observation of the moon's crescent)|
However, this is rejected by some as it is a lunar month, which does not coincide with seasons as solar months do.
In Ottoman Turkish, used in the Ottoman Empire, the name was Jèmāzìyyu-'l-èvvel, or G̃émazi lèlèvvèl. In Turkish it was abbreviated Jā, or G̃a. In Turkish today the spelling is Cemaziyelevvel.
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Jumada al-Awwal migrates backwards throughout the seasons, during a cycle of about 33 solar years. The estimated start and end dates for Jumada al-Awwal are as follows (based on the Umm Al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia):
|AH||First day (CE/AD)||Last day (CE/AD)|
|1442||16 December 2020||13 January 2021|
|1443||5 December 2021||3 January 2022|
|1444||25 November 2022||24 December 2022|
|1445||15 November 2023||13 December 2023|
|1446||3 November 2024||2 December 2024|
- On 5 Jumada al-Awwal, Zainab bint Ali was born.
- On 8th Jumada al-Awwal, URS Sayyid Amir al-Kulal Amir Kulal.
- On 10 Jumada al-Awwal 11 AH, Fatima bint Muhammad (Fatima al-Zahra) beloved daughter of Prophet Muhammad died in Medina at the young age of 23 years according to Sunni Muslim sources.
- On 13 Jumada al-Awwal 11 AH, Fatima bint Muhammad was buried by her husband Ali.
- On 15 Jumada al-Awwal, Ali ibn Husayn (Zayn al-Abideen) was born.
- On 20 Jumada al-Awwal 857, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople.
- Günel, Fuat (1993). "CEMÂZİYELEVVEL - An article published in Turkish Encyclopedia of Islam". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam (in Turkish). Vol. 7 (Cafer es-Sadik - Ciftcilik). p. 319. ISBN 978-97-53-89434-0.
- Redhouse, J.W. (1880). REDHOUSE'S TURKISH DICTIONARY. p. 513.
- Youssof, R. (1890). Dictionnaire portatif turc-français de la langue usuelle en caractères latins et turcs. Constantinople. p. 177.
- Youssof, R. (1890). Dictionnaire portatif turc-français de la langue usuelle en caractères latins et turcs. Constantinople. p. 170.
- Umm Al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia