Julius "Julie" Schwartz (//; June 19, 1915 – February 8, 2004) was a comic book editor, and a science fiction agent and prominent fan. He was born in The Bronx, New York. He is best known as a longtime editor at DC Comics, where at various times he was primary editor over the company's flagship superheroes, Superman and Batman.
Julius Schwartz, editor for DC Comics at the San Diego Comic-Con International in 2002
|Born||June 19, 1915|
The Bronx, New York City, New York
|Died||February 8, 2004 (aged 88)|
New York City, New York
|Area(s)||Editor, publisher, writer, literary agent|
Born on June 19, 1915 to Romanian Jewish parents Joseph and Bertha who emigrated from a small town outside Bucharest, Romania. Julius and his parents resided at 817 Caldwell Avenue in The Bronx. He graduated at age seventeen from Theodore Roosevelt High School in The Bronx.
In 1932, Schwartz co-published (with Mort Weisinger and Forrest J. Ackerman) Time Traveller, one of the first science fiction fanzines. Schwartz and Weisinger also founded the Solar Sales Service literary agency (1934–1944) where Schwartz represented such writers as Alfred Bester, Stanley G. Weinbaum, Robert Bloch, Ray Bradbury, and H. P. Lovecraft, including some of Bradbury's first published work and Lovecraft's last. Schwartz helped organize the first World Science Fiction Convention in 1939. In 1944, while looking for work, he was encouraged by his client, Alfred Bester, who was writing "Green Lantern" at the time, to apply as an editor at All-American Publications, a subsidiary of DC Comics.
In 1956, after the formation of the Comics Code Authority, Schwartz worked along with writer Robert Kanigher and artists Carmine Infantino and Joe Kubert on the company's first attempt at reviving superheroes: an updated version of the Flash that would appear in Showcase #4 (October 1956). The eventual success of the new, science-fiction oriented Flash heralded the wholesale return of superheroes, and the beginning of what fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books. Schwartz also worked with writers John Broome and Gardner Fox and revived other superheroes such as Green Lantern in Showcase #22 (October 1959); Hawkman in The Brave and the Bold #34 (February–March 1961); and the Atom in Showcase #34 (Sept-Oct. 1961). A character Schwartz created himself, Adam Strange, debuted in Showcase #17 (Nov–Dec. 1958), and was unusual in that he used his wits and scientific knowledge, rather than superpowers, to solve problems.
Schwartz first thought the concept of the Justice League of America as an updating of the Justice Society and the idea was then developed by Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky. The new team debuted in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February/March 1960), and received its own title in October 1960. It became one of the most successful series of the Silver Age.
In 1964, Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Under his editorial instructions, Broome and Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the series such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327 (May 1964). During the rise in popularity of the Batman comics thanks to the Batman TV Series, William Dozier (producer of the show), pitched an initial concept for a female hero and Schwartz, Gardner Fox, and Carmine Infantino introduced Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in Detective Comics #359 (January 1967).
He helped writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams come to prominence at DC Comics. The duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the Batman with a series of stories reestablishing the character's dark, brooding nature. Schwartz edited Detective Comics until issue #481 (Dec. 1978/Jan. 1979) and Batman until issue #309 (March 1979).
From 1971 to 1986 Schwartz was the editor of the Superman titles, helping to modernize the settings of the books and move them away from "gimmick" stories to stories with more of a character-driven nature. This included an attempt to scale back Superman's powers while removing kryptonite as an overused plot device. This proved short-lived, with Schwartz bowing to pressure to restore both elements in the titles. Schwartz oversaw the launch of DC Comics Presents in 1978 and edited it throughout its 97 issue run.
As an editor, Schwartz was heavily involved in the writing of the stories published in his magazines. He worked out the plot with the writer in story conferences. The writer would then break down the plot into a panel-by-panel continuity, and write the dialogue and captions. Schwartz would in turn polish the script, sometimes rewriting extensively.
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Schwartz retired from DC in 1986 after 42 years at the company, but continued to be active in comics and science fiction fandom until shortly before his death. As a coda to his career as a comic book editor, Schwartz edited seven releases in the DC Graphic Novel line adapted from classic science fiction works by Harlan Ellison, Robert Silverberg, Bradbury, and others. In 2000 he published his autobiography, Man of Two Worlds: My Life in Science Fiction and Comics, co-authored with Brian Thomsen.
In 1952, Schwartz married Jean Ordwein who had been his secretary. She died in 1986 from emphysema. Schwartz's relationship with Jean had been particularly close, and he never remarried or dated following her death. Not many years later, Schwartz's stepdaughter Jeanne (Jean's daughter from a previous marriage) died from the same illness under similar circumstances.
Schwartz died at the age of 88, after being hospitalized for pneumonia. He was survived by his son-in-law, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. He remained a "goodwill ambassador" for DC Comics and an Editor Emeritus up until his death.
Following his death, a number of women came forward alleging that Schwartz had behaved inappropriately with them. These included Jo Duffy, Jill Thompson, and Colleen Doran, who stated that he had attempted to fondle her in a limousine when she was an aspiring artist in her teens.
In 1998, Dragon*Con chairman Ed Kramer established the Julie Award, bestowed for universal achievement spanning multiple genres and selected each year by a panel of industry professionals. The inaugural recipient was science-fiction and fantasy Grand Master Ray Bradbury. Additional awards, presented by Schwartz each year, included Forrest J. Ackerman, Yoshitaka Amano, Alice Cooper, Will Eisner, Harlan Ellison, Neil Gaiman, Carmine Infantino, Anne McCaffrey, Peter David, Jim Steranko, and Micky Dolenz.
In addition to his induction into both of the comic-book industry's halls of fame, Schwartz received a great deal of other recognition over the course of his career, including:
- 1962 Alley Award for Best Editor
- 1972 Shazam Award for Superior Achievement by an Individual in 1972, for bringing the Marvel Family back into print.
- 1981 Inkpot Award
- 1985 Named as one of the honorees by DC Comics in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.
- 1997 Raymond Z. Gallun Award for "outstanding contributions in the genre of science fiction" - co-recipient with Harlan Ellison
Appearances in comicsEdit
Schwartz has appeared as himself in a number of comics:
- The Flash #179 (May 1968)
- In the "Flash — Fact Or Fiction" story (reprinted in The Greatest Flash Stories Ever Told), the Flash finds himself on "Earth Prime" (the real Earth that we live on). He contacts the "one man on Earth who might believe his fantastic story and give him the money he needs. The editor of that Flash comic mag!" Schwartz helps the Flash build a cosmic treadmill so that he can return home.
- Justice League of America #123 (October 1975) and #124 (November 1975)
- In "Where On Earth Am I?" and "Avenging Ghosts of the Justice Society", Schwartz tasks writers Cary Bates and Elliot S. Maggin with inventing a fresh plot for the Justice League of America comic book. Using the cosmic treadmill left behind by the Flash in Flash #179, Bates and Maggin are transported to Earth-Two and Earth-One, respectively, leaving Schwartz to cover for their absence when DC Publisher Carmine Infantino walks into his office.
- Superman #411 (1985)
- As a 70th birthday present, the staff at DC Comics made Superman #411 as a surprise tribute to Schwartz, who was involved in creating what he thought was #411. The cover shows Schwartz in his office being surprised by real-life co-workers just before Superman flies in the window with a birthday cake. The story features Schwartz playing himself as a down-and-out character with a modified version of his real history.
- Action Comics #583 (September 1986)
- Superman and Batman: World's Funnest (2000)
- DC Comics Presents (2004)
- After Schwartz's death, DC Comics issued a series of eight standalone one-shot specials. Each issue featured two stories based on a classic DC cover from the mid-1950s and 1960s Silver Age of Comic Books, reflecting Schwartz's frequent practice of commissioning a cover concept, then telling the writers to create a story about that cover. Schwartz or a doppelganger thereof appeared in all eight issues, serving various roles.
- Schwartz appeared as a character in the Ambush Bug titles by Keith Giffen, which Schwartz edited.
- Schwartz has made countless appearances in Adam Strange stories as Alanna's father, Sardath. Julie was proud to be recognized as the planet's chief scientist and "the finest mind on Rann". It was from the Adam Strange stories that he lifted the auto-bio title for himself as the "Man of Two Worlds".
Nick Cardy on the popular but apocryphal anecdote, told by Schwartz, about Carmine Infantino firing Cardy over not following a cover layout, only to rehire him moments later when Schwartz praised the errant cover art:
|“||[A]t one of the conventions ... I said, "You know, Carmine, Julie Schwartz wrote something in [his autobiography] that I don't remember at all and it doesn't sound like you at all." And I told him the incident ... and he said, "That's crazy. You know I always loved your work. Gee, you were one of the best artists in the business. The guy's crazy." So I said, "Okay, come on." We went over to Julie Schwartz's table and we told him what our problem was. And Carmine and I said, "We don't remember the incident." So Julie said, "Well, it's a good story, anyway." [laughs] And that was it. He let it go at that. [laughs] He just made it up.||”|
As editor unless noted:
- Action Comics #419–583 (1972–1986)
- The Adventures of Rex the Wonder Dog #1–46 (1952–1959)
- All-American Comics #58–87, 100–102 (1944–1948)
- All-American Western #103–126 (1948–1952)
- All-Flash #15–32 (1944–1948)
- All Star Comics #36, 39–43, 52, 57 (1947–1951)
- All-Star Western #58–119 (1951–1961)
- Ambush Bug #1–4 (1985)
- The Atom #1–38 (1962–1968)
- The Atom & Hawkman #39–45 (1968–1969)
- Batman #164–309 (1964–1979)
- Batman Family #1–16 (1975–1978)
- Blue Beetle #1–4 (1986)
- The Brave and the Bold #28–30, 34–36, 42–49, 61–62 (1960–1965)
- Captain Action #3–5 (1969)
- Comic Cavalcade #7–29 (1944–1948)
- The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl #1–13 (1982–1983)
- DC Comics Presents #1–97, Annual #1–4 (1978–1986)
- DC Science Fiction Graphic Novel #1–7 (1985–1987)
- DC Special Series #5 (Superman), 15 (Batman) (1977, 1978)
- Detective Comics #327–436, 444–482 (1964–1973, 1974–1979)
- The Flash #105–269 (1959–1979)
- Flash Comics #54–104 (1944–1949)
- From Beyond the Unknown #1–25 (1969–1973)
- Green Lantern #12–14, 16–20, 22, 24–38 (1944–1949)
- Green Lantern vol. 2 #1–89, 93–103 (1960–1972, 1977–1978)
- Hawkman #1–21 (1964–1967)
- Hopalong Cassidy #86–135 (1954–1959)
- The Joker #1–9 (1975–1976)
- Justice League of America #1–165 (1960–1979)
- Krypton Chronicles #1–3 (1981)
- Mystery in Space #1–91 (1951–1964)
- The New Adventures of Superboy #1–54 (1980–1984)
- Sensation Comics #30–48, 81, 101–102, 104, 106–116 (1944–1953)
- Shazam! #1–26 (1973–1976)
- Showcase #4, 8, 13–14, 17–19, 22–24, 34–36, 55–56, 60–61, 64 (1956–1966)
- Son of Ambush Bug #1–6 (1986)
- Spectre #1–8 (1967–1969)
- Strange Adventures #1–163, 217–244 (1950–1964, 1969–1973)
- Strange Sports Stories #1–6 (1973–1974)
- Super Friends #17–47 (1979–1981)
- Supergirl vol. 2 #14–23 (1983–1984)
- Superman #233–423, Annual #9–12, Special #1–3 (1971–1986)
- The Superman Family #164–180, 195–222 (1974–1976, 1979–1982)
- Superman: The Secret Years #1–4 (1985)
- Teen Titans #45–50 (1976–1977)
- Weird War Tales #109–124 (1982–1983)
- Western Comics #43–85 (1954–1961)
- Wonder Woman #9, 12–16, 33–41, 43–50, 212–227 (1944–1951, 1974–1977)
- World's Finest Comics #198–205, 207–214, 256, 259–261 (1970–1972, 1979–1980)
DC Comics and Marvel ComicsEdit
- Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man #1 (1976) (as consulting editor)
- "Julius Schwartz, 8 February 2004". United States Social Security Death Index. published online by FamilySearch. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Ellison, Harlan; Thomsen, Brian M. (September 2004). "Softly: A Living Legend Passes". DC Comics Presents: Mystery in Space (Julius Schwartz Tribute).
- Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Silver Age 1956–1970". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 251. ISBN 9783836519816.
Together Schwartz, Kanigher, Infantino, and Kubert would set a tone for the Flash that was both cinematic...and influenced by Schwartz's first love of science fiction.
- Irvine, Alex (2010). "1950s". In Dolan, Hannah (ed.). DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
The arrival of the second incarnation of the Flash in [Showcase] issue #4 is considered to be the official start of the Silver Age of comics.
- Levitz "The Silver Age 1956–1970", p. 252: "Schwartz enlisted Broome to update Green Lantern...He got a quick Showcase try before launching on his own even before sales figures came in."
- McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 102: "DC's...renaissance soared to new heights with the return of Hawkman and Hawkgirl. Writer Gardner Fox and artist Joe Kubert...ushered in a pair of Winged Wonders that, costumes aside, were radically different from their Golden Age predecessors."
- Daniels, Les (1995). "The Silver Age Applying a Fine Shine". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. New York, New York: Bulfinch Press. p. 130. ISBN 0821220764.
Hawkman took a little longer to get off the ground. He showed up initially in The Brave and the Bold #34 (March 1961), but had to wait three years for Hawkman #1 (April–May 1964).
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "The Atom was the next Golden Age hero to receive a Silver Age makeover from writer Gardner Fox and artist Gil Kane."
- Julius Schwartz at the Grand Comics Database
- Amash, Jim (2003). "Foreword". The Adam Strange Archives: Volume 1. pp. 5–8.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 99: "Editor Julius Schwartz had repopulated the [superhero] subculture by revitalizing Golden Age icons like Green Lantern and the Flash..He recruited writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky, and together they came up with the Justice League of America, a modern version of the legendary Justice Society of America from the 1940s."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 110: "The Dark Knight received a much-needed facelift from new Batman editor Julius Schwartz, writer John Broome, and artist Carmine Infantino. With sales at an all-time low and threatening the cancellation of one of DC's flagship titles, their overhaul was a lifesaving success for DC and its beloved Batman."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 122: "Nine months before making her debut on Batman, a new Batgirl appeared in the pages of Detective Comics...Yet the idea for the debut of Barbara Gordon, according to editor Julius Schwartz, was attributed to the television series executives' desire to have a character that would appeal to a female audience and for this character to originate in the comics. Hence, writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino collaborated on 'The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!'"
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 139: "Under the editorship of Julius Schwartz, O'Neil and Adams tackled a plethora of real-world topics that helped launch comics' more socially relevant Bronze Age."
- Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. (2009). The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-7624-3663-8.
Editor Julius Schwartz had decided to darken the character's world to further distance him from the camp environment created by the 1966 ABC show. Bringing in the talented O'Neil as well as the innovative Frank Robbins and showcasing the art of rising star Neal Adams...Schwartz pointed Batman in a new and darker direction, a path the character still continues on to this day.
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "1970s". Batman: A Visual History. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 130. ISBN 978-1465424563.
As the decade drew to a close, longtime Batman editor Julius Schwartz finally passed the torch on to Paul Levitz, marking the end of an era.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 144: "New editor Julius Schwartz, new scripter Denny O'Neil, and regular artist Curt Swan removed the Man of Steel's greatest weakness from the face of the Earth."
- Kingman, Jim (August 2013). "Men of Steel: Superman and Julius Schwartz in World's Finest Comics and DC Comics Presents". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (66): 53–64.
- Kininger, Dennis. "'Man of 2 Worlds' Julius Schwartz". Archived from the original on February 17, 2005. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- Berlatsky, Noah (November 20, 2013). "How to Dismantle the Comic-Books Boys' Club". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on November 23, 2013.
- O'Malley, Harris (November 15, 2013). "Nerds and Male Privilege: Tess Fowler and Comic Harassment". Paging Dr. NerdLove. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017.
- Testa, Jessica; Kingkade, Tyler; Edidin, Jay (November 10, 2017). "The Comics Giant Behind Wonder Woman Is Accused Of Promoting An Editor After Women Accused Him Of Sexual Harassment". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017.
- O'Malley, Harris (December 9, 2015). "Sexual Harassment and the Toxic Culture of Comics". The Good Men Project. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017.
- Schaff-Stump, Catherine (November 10, 2010). "Harassment in the World of SF/F". Cathschaffstump.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017.
- Keller, Katherine (February 2006). "It's Not Love. It's Not Flirting. It's Not Flattering". Sequential Tart. Archived from the original on July 8, 2019.
- MacDonald, Heid (October 1, 2015). "How a toxic history of harassment has damaged the comics industry". The Beat. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015.
- "Julius Schwartz". Dragon*Con. April 25, 2004. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- Harlan Ellison; Brian M. Thomsen (March 18, 2004). "Harlan Ellison remembers friend Julie Schwartz". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 26, 2008. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- "Julius Schwartz". The Daily Telegraph. London. February 24, 2004. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
- Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Julius Schwartz The Golden Age Recreated" Fifty Who Made DC Great: 31 (1985), DC Comics
- "I-CON Award Winners By Year". Science Fiction Awards Database. n.d. Archived from the original on July 18, 2014.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 130: "Trapped on 'Earth-Prime', the Flash knew only one man could possibly help him: DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz."
- Bates, Cary; Maggin, Elliot S. (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Where on Earth Am I?" Justice League of America 123 (October 1975), DC Comics
- Bates, Cary; Maggin, Elliot S. (w), Dillin, Dick (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "Avenging Ghosts of the Justice Society!" Justice League of America 124 (November 1975), DC Comics
- Eury, Michael (February 2013). "The Julius Schwartz Superman Dynasty". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (62): 16.
- "DC Comics Celebrates the Legacy of Julius Schwartz with Eight New Specials". Comics Bulletin. March 20, 2004. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
Beginning in July , DC Comics will celebrate the late Julius Schwartz's contribution to comics by publishing eight stand-alone DC Comics Presents Specials.
- Cowsill, Alan "2000s" in Dolan, p. 314: "When DC Comics' icon Julius Schwartz sadly passed away in February 2004, some kind of major tribute was required...To celebrate his life, DC revived the DC Comics Presents series, producing eight one-shots in which DC writers and artists put their own twists on covers inspired by Schwartz and reimagined classic Silver Age stories."
- Beck, Spencer (December 2005). "Nick Cardy: Man and Super Man". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (13): 6.
- "DC Profiles #19: Julius Schwartz" at the Grand Comics Database
- Julius Schwartz at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Julius Schwartz.com
- Biofile: Julius Schwartz
- May The Schwartz Be With You by Philip Schweier
- Julius Schwartz at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- "Friends, Colleagues Remember Julius Schwartz" February 10, 2004 by Jonah Wieland Comic Book Resources.
| All-American Comics editor
| Flash Comics editor
| Comic Cavalcade editor
| Green Lantern editor
| The Flash editor
| Green Lantern vol. 2 editor
Dennis O'Neil (in 1976)
| Justice League of America editor
| Detective Comics editor
| Batman editor
| World's Finest Comics editor
| Superman editor
| Action Comics editor
| Wonder Woman editor
| Detective Comics editor
| Green Lantern vol. 2 editor
Jack C. Harris