Judenklub (English: Jew club) is a derogatory, antisemitic term used throughout the Nazi era in Germany and Austria, applied to association football clubs with strong Jewish heritage and connections. Some of the most prominent clubs referred to in such a way by the Nazis were FC Bayern Munich, FK Austria Wien, Eintracht Frankfurt and FSV Frankfurt.
In more recent times the term has occasionally also been used in the German-language press when reporting on antisemitic chants and attacks by rival fan groups on non-German clubs like Tottenham Hotspur, Ajax Amsterdam and KS Cracovia who have a Jewish heritage or connection.
FC Bayern MunichEdit
FC Bayern Munich, founded in the bohemian Munich suburb of Schwabing, had a strong Jewish background before the Nazis rise to power and won their first German championship in 1932 under the direction of a Jewish president and coach. In 1933 president Kurt Landauer, director of the youth department Otto Beer and coach Richard Dombi had to leave the club because of their Jewish background and the club consequently declined, losing a large number of its members. Bayern, far less popular with the Nazis than local rival TSV 1860 Munich, had very limited success in the Gauliga Bayern during this era but continued small acts of defiance like the team acknowledging former president Landauer while on a friendly in Switzerland in 1943, where the latter had emigrated to.
For many decades after the end of the Second World War the Jewish past and the events of the Nazi era received little attention from the side of the club until 2011 when the book Der FC Bayern und seine Juden (FC Bayern and their Jews) was published and renewed interest. Until then the club, for various reasons, had been reluctant to address its own history during the Nazi era.
FK Austria WienEdit
Like Bayern Munich, FK Austria Wien, based in Vienna, had, from its formation, been led and influenced by Jewish citizens. The club experienced little anti-semitic behaviour until the Anschluss of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938 but this radically changed from then on. After the Anschluss Austria was forced to change its name for a time to SC Ostmark, having to evict all its Jewish members and experiencing only limited amount of success in the Gauliga Ostmark during the time. Austria Wien's Jewish president, Michl Schwarz, escaped Nazi Germany like Bayern Munich's Kurt Landauer but had a much more difficult time evading arrest and, like Landauer, led his club once more after the Second World War.
- ""Wir waren die Juddebube" Eintracht Frankfurt in der NS-Zeit" [»We were the Jewish boys« Eintracht Frankfurt during the Nazi era]. werkstatt-verlag.de (in German). Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Frankfurter Eintracht und FSV: 1933 endet eine "gute Ära" [Frankfurter Eintracht and FSV: 1933 ended a "good era"]. bisp-surf.de (in German). Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft. 2003. ISBN 9783895334078. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- "Angegriffene Identität: der "Judenklub" Tottenham Hotspur" [Attack on identity: the „Judenklub“ Tottenham Hotspur]. publikative.org (in German). Der Spiegel. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Antisemitismus im Fußball" [Antisemitism in football]. fussball-gegen-nazis.de (in German). 28 March 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Rundfunk, Bayerischer (12 August 2015). "Schwere Zeiten für den "Judenklub"" [Difficult times for the Jewish club]. bpb.de (in German). Bayerischer Rundfunk. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Honigstein, Raphael (13 May 2012). "Bayern Munich embrace anti-Nazi history after 80 years of silence". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Warmbrunn, Benedikt (27 January 2015). "Zwischen Saudi-Arabien und "Judenklub"" [Between Saudi-Arabia and "Judenklub"]. Sueddeutsche.de (in German). Sueddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Fischer, Sebastian (29 July 2009). "Bayern Münchens jüdischer Meistermacher" [Bayern Munichs Jewish championship winner]. Spiegel Online (in German). Der Spiegel. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Fußball unterm Hakenkreuz" [Football under the Swastika]. ballesterer.at (in German). 10 March 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2016.