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John Trudell (February 15, 1946 – December 8, 2015) was a Native American author, poet, actor, musician, and political activist. He was the spokesperson for the United Indians of All Tribes' takeover of Alcatraz beginning in 1969, broadcasting as Radio Free Alcatraz. During most of the 1970s, he served as the chairman of the American Indian Movement, based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
John Trudell at a conference in 2009
|Born||February 15, 1946|
Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
|Died||December 8, 2015 (aged 69)|
|Occupation||Indigenous rights activist, poet, musician, actor|
|Organization||American Indian Movement|
|Spouse(s)||Fenicia Ordonez (1968–1970) |
Tina Manning Trudell (1972–1979)
|Partner(s)||Marcheline Bertrand (unknown–2007)|
|Service/||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1963–1967|
After his pregnant wife, three children and mother-in-law were killed in 1979 in a suspicious fire at the home of his parents-in-law on the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes Duck Valley Indian Reservation in Nevada, Trudell turned to writing, music and film as a second career. He acted in films in the 1990s. The documentary Trudell (2005) was made about him and his life as an activist and artist.
Early life and educationEdit
Trudell was born in Omaha, Nebraska on February 15, 1946, as the son of a Santee Dakota father and a Mexican mother. He grew up in small towns near the Santee Sioux Reservation in northern Nebraska near the southeast corner of South Dakota. He was educated in local schools and also in Santee Dakota culture.
After leaving the military, Trudell had become involved in Indian activism. In 1969, he became the spokesperson for the United Indians of All Tribes' occupation of Alcatraz Island. This was a mostly student-member group that had developed in San Francisco. Trudell went to Alcatraz a week after the occupation started. He used his background in broadcasting and ran a radio station from the island through a cooperative arrangement with students at the University of California, Berkeley, broadcasting at night over the Berkeley FM station. The show was called Radio Free Alcatraz. He discussed the cause of the occupation and American Indian issues, and played traditional Native American music. He criticized how "the system today is only geared toward white needs." He spoke for the many Indians who believed they did not fit in with the then majority European-American population of the nation. He became a spokesperson for the occupation specifically and for the Alcatraz-Red Power Movement generally, as the author Vine Deloria, Jr. named it. Trudell was the spokesman for the nearly two-year-long occupation, until 1971.
After the failure of the federal government to meet demands of the protesters at Alcatraz, Trudell joined the American Indian Movement. It had been established in 1968 in Minneapolis among urban American Indians, first to deal with alleged police harassment and injustice in the law enforcement system. Trudell acted as its national chairman from 1973 until 1979. He took the position after the first chairman, Carter Camp, was convicted for actions related to a protest and was sentenced to jail.
In 1975 Trudell was arrested on charges of assault, felonious assault and assault with a deadly weapon. He had gone to a reservation trading post to try to get better food for senior residents. He tried to pay using food stamps, but the trading post did not accept them. The police report said that he fired a shot inside the store.
On February 12, 1979, Trudell's wife Tina Manning and their three children, and his mother-in-law Leah Hicks-Manning died in a suspicious fire at the home of his parents-in-law on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation in Nevada. His father-in-law Arthur Manning survived. He was a member of the Duckwater Shoshone Tribe's Tribal Council who was working for treaty rights. Opponents included the local tribal police chief and the BIA superintendent, John Artichoker. Leah coordinated social services at the reservation. Tina had been working for tribal water rights at the Wildhorse Reservoir. Opponents of her campaign included officials of the local BIA, Elko County and Nevada state officials, members of the water recreation industry, and local white ranchers. Other activists have also speculated whether there was government involvement behind the tragedy.
Trudell believed that the fire was arson, but the BIA police investigation claimed that it was accidental. It occurred soon after he had been leading a demonstration in Washington, DC. Trudell believed that the fire was meant to threaten and silence him and his activist wife. In numerous interviews, he has expressed distrust for the federal government and specifically the FBI. The FBI has been implicated in wrongdoing in Pine Ridge and other reservations during this period, which included offering monetary support to the Dickie Wilson's Guardians of the Ogallala Nation (GOONS). Essentially the GOONS, paid by Dickie Wilson (who in turn was paid by the FBI) the then Band Council Chief (elected in what many believe was a rigged election) terrorized and murdered traditional Sioux people who spoke out against federal government treatment of American Indian people. The house fire that killed Trudell's family happened within 24 hours of him burning a US flag on the steps of the FBI building in Washington D.C. in protest of the government's treatment of Native Americans and the Sioux Nation.
John Trudell was the co-founder of Hempstead Project Heart with Willie Nelson, which became a project of Earth Island Institute in 2012. Hempstead Project Heart is dedicated to raising awareness about the environmental, social, and economic benefits of legalizing industrial hemp in America.
In 2004, Trudell testified in the federal trial of Arlo Looking Cloud, an Oglala Lakota American Indian Movement (AIM) member charged in the kidnapping and murder of Anna Mae Aquash, the highest-ranking woman in AIM, in December 1975. Trudell testified that Looking Cloud had told him that John Graham, another low-level AIM member, was the gunman in the murder. Trudell identified Graham from photographs. Looking Cloud was convicted in 2004 and sentenced to life imprisonment.
His testimony was part of the evidence considered by the Canadian judge who ordered Graham's extradition to the United States in February 2005. On March 2, 2005, the Native Youth Movement Vancouver announced a boycott of John Trudell's music and poetry in retaliation for his testimony, and alleged that the FBI had killed Aquash. In early 2006, Michael Donnelly explored the issues related to the Aquash murder in the American political newsletter CounterPunch. He documented why Trudell's testimony should be considered substantive and that activists were getting on the wrong side of the issue by attacking him. In 2010, Graham was convicted in a South Dakota state court of felony murder of Aquash and sentenced to life imprisonment.
In 1968, Trudell married his first wife, Fenicia "Lou" Ordonez.
In 1972, Trudell married Tina Manning, an activist of the Duckwater Shoshone Tribe. They had three children together: Ricarda Star, Sunshine Karma, and Eli Changing Sun. In February 1979, Tina (who was pregnant), the children and her mother Leah Hicks-Manning were all killed in a fire at her parents' house on the Duck Valley Reservation. Her father Arthur survived. Trudell was out of town.
In early December 2015, it was announced that Trudell was in the last stages of terminal cancer. His death was prematurely announced on the evening of December 4, 2015; his publicist asked for a retraction and the stories were largely removed from the websites where they had been posted. Trudell died on December 8, 2015. Before dying, he said: "My ride showed up. Celebrate Love. Celebrate Life."
In 1979, John Trudell met musical artist and activist Jackson Browne and became more interested in the musical world (and recording albums and performing his own compositions in live venues).
Trudell recorded an album A.K.A Grafitti Man ("graffiti" was misspelled in the title) with Kiowa guitarist Jesse Ed Davis that was originally available on cassette tape format only. This comports with the practice common to American indigenous and other so-called minorities of distributing music mixtapes captured live at group events and copied and distributed through non-commercial channels, like those of the San Francisco-based rock group Grateful Dead, Native American powwow music performances in general, and African American gatherings whence came the expression Each One Teach One, common also to an emerging grassroots movement that was arguably itself a response to the reactionary madness of slavery and/or military-industrial/imperialist hegemony flourishing in the 1980s.
In 1990 John Trudell took part in Tony Hymas's Oyaté project.
In 1992 Trudell remade and re-released A.K.A Grafitti Man as an audio CD to substantial critical and popular acclaim.
Arguably his greatest musical success came with the 1994 album Johnny Damas & Me that was described as "a culmination of years of poetic work, and an example of a process of fusing traditional sounds, values, and sensibilities with thought-provoking lyrics, this time with urgent rock and roll."
Other musical releases (many with his band Bad Dog) include A.K.A Grafitti Man (1986), Heart Jump Bouquet (1987), Blue Indians (1999), Descendant Now Ancestor (2001), Bone Days (2001), Live A Fip (2003), Madness and The Moremes (2007), Crazier Than Hell (2010), Wazi's Dream (2015).
Popular Music critic Neal Ullestad said of Trudell's live performances, "This isn't simply pop rock with Indian drums and chants added. It's integrated rock and roll by an American Indian with a multicultural band directed to anyone who will listen."
About six months after the deaths of his family, John Trudell started writing poetry. He described his work, "They're called poems, but in reality they're lines given to me to hang on to." He has written many poems, including "Baby Boom Che" and "Rant and Roll," and hundreds of others.
In the 2010s he often shared recent poetic musings and written works-in-progress via social media, such as his Facebook page.
Various impromptu videos of Trudell in live concert appearances or addressing political, social, indigenous rights and educational groups are posted on Google's Youtube.com, and although he was sought after by various print and broadcast media outlets for "sound byte commentary," Trudell preferred to speak in less frenetic style directly to gatherings assembled for specific causes that he supports (e.g., advocating on behalf of re-legalizing hemp cultivation for its many beneficial uses, including sustainable paper pulp).
Trudell often used his poetry as lyrics for recordings, and began in 1982 to set them to traditional American Indian music, which also in the 1980s eventually led to the recording of A.K.A Graffiti Man, as he struggled to make sense of bewildering situations that confronted him, including the loss of so many loved ones.
In late 1988, Australian rock band Midnight Oil invited Trudell (as Graffiti Man) to tour with them during their From Diesel and Dust to the Big Mountain world tour. They billed Trudell's part of the show as "Native American activist performance." Members of Midnight Oil played traditional instruments, sang in native American languages, and accompanied songs with heavy psychedelic Hendrix-style guitar, accompanying Trudell. This exposure brought Trudell new and larger audiences.
In 2008, Trudell published a book, Lines From a Mined Mind: The Words of John Trudell, a collection of 25 years of poetry, lyrics and essays.
Trudell created a career as an actor, performing in roles in "Pow Wow Highway" (1989), Thunderheart (1992), On Deadly Ground (1995) and Smoke Signals (1998) (as the Radio speaker Randy Peone on K-REZ radio). He was an adviser to the production of Incident at Oglala, directed by Michael Apted and produced by Robert Redford. A kind of companion piece to the fictional Thunderheart, the 1992 documentary explores facts related to the 1975 shooting of two FBI agents at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, for which Leonard Peltier was convicted in 1977. In Thunderheart, Trudell played a character who resembles Peltier.
Dreamkeeper (2003) "The Legends of American Nations Come to Life" features several traditional native stories. Trudell played a character named Coyote in a story about A Spider and Coyote.
The filmmaker Heather Rae spent more than a decade making a documentary about Trudell, which was released in 2005. Her intent in Trudell (2005) was to demonstrate how his political and cultural activities were tied to contemporary history and inspired people. The film premiered at the 2005 Sundance Film Festival in the U.S. documentary competition. The movie has received a mixed response among film critics and viewers. Some claimed it to be thought-provoking and touching, while others suggested Rae made a one-dimensional biopic. The song used at the end of the film is "Johnny Lobo" about Trudell by Kris Kristofferson, from his 1995 album A Moment of Forever.
John Trudell has appeared on the following albums:
- 1983 Tribal Voice
- 1986 aka grafitti Man (with Jesse Ed Davis)
- 1987 ...But This Isn't El Salvador (as Tribal Voice)
- 1987 Heart Jump Bouquet (with Jesse Ed Davis)
- 1991 Fables and Other Realities
- 1992 Child's Voice: Children of the Earth (vocals performed by Trudell's daughters)
- 1992 AKA Grafitti Man
- 1994 Johnny Damas & Me
- 1999 Blue Indians
- 2001 Descendant Now Ancestor (spoken word)
- 2001 Bone Days (produced by the actress Angelina Jolie)
- 2003 The Collection: 1985-1992 (anthology of first six albums)
- 2005 Live à Fip
- 2007 Madness & The Moremes (double album)
- 2010 Crazier Than Hell
- 2010 Out Live This Beast (with Cempoalli 20)
- 2014 Through The Dust (with Kwest)
- 2014 Generations of Evolution (with Meds Hawk)
- 2015 Wazi's Dream (feat. Bad Dog: Quiltman, Mark Shark, Billy Watts, Ricky Eckstein)
- 2015 Ancestors Song and The fire is Hungry (with Thana Redhawk)
- 2016 Time Dreams (with The Pines)
- 2016 Like Broken Butterflies (with Kwest)
- 2016 We are the Halluci Nation (with A Tribe Called Red)
His music draws from a blend of styles, including rock, blues and native beats, pop and political protest songs. He also draws from his own poetry. His music can be both insightful and funny.
- Trudell, John. Living in Reality: Songs Called Poems, Society of the People Struggling to be Free, 1982, 71 pages, ISBN B001B0TKZO
- Trudell, John. Stickman: Poems, Lyrics, Talks, edited by Paola Igliori. New York, New York: Inanout Press, 1999, 168 pages, ISBN 978-0962511981
- Trudell, John. Lines From a Mined Mind: The Words of John Trudell, Fulcrum Pub, 2008, 280 pages, ISBN 978-1555916787
- "Trudell, dir. Heather Rae (2005)".
- Hoxie, Fredrick E., Mancall, Peter C. and Merrell, James (2001). American Nations: Encounters in Indian Country, 1850 to the Present. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92750-1
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2013-11-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Testimony of John Trudell".
- Lawrence Journal-World, June 7, 1975
- "Concerning John Trudell...", Dick Shovel Website, n.d., accessed July 18, 2011
- Churchill, Ward. 1992. Death Squads in the United States: Confessions of a Government Terrorist;3 Yale J.L. & Lib. 83
- Messerschmidt, James W., The Trial of Leonard Peltier, p. 27.
- Portland Oregon Public Access interview, September 11, 2009
- Seva pamphlet (pdf)
- Trudell in concert for SEVA
- "NYM Vancouver announces boycott of John Trudell", Our Freedom Blog, June 7, 2007
- MICHAEL DONNELLY, "Getting Away with Murder: Killing Anna Mae Aquash, Smearing John Trudell", Counterpunch, January 17, 2006, accessed March 3, 2017
- "John Trudell and the Music of Urgency". www.counterpunch.org. 1 December 2007.
- Randee Dawn. "Angelina Jolie's mother Marcheline Bertrand taught daughter about living, survival". NBC News.
- Levi, Rickert. "Story Retraction About John Trudell". Native News Online. Native News Online. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
- Jablon, Robert (December 8, 2015). "American Indian Activist, Poet John Trudell Dies at 69". Associated Press. Retrieved December 8, 2015 – via ABC News.
- Weber, Bruce (Dec 9, 2015). "John Trudell, Outspoken Advocate for American Indians, Is Dead at 69". New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Neal Ullestad. 2008. American Indian rap and reggae: Dancing "to the beat of a different Drummer." Popular Music and Society Vol. 23, Iss. 2, 2008
- Mintzer, Jordan (September 4, 2014). "'Trick or Treaty?': Toronto Review". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- "Trudell (2005)". Independent Lens. PBS. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Joanna Hearne. 2005. John Wayne's Teeth: Speech, Sound and Representation in "Smoke Signals" and "Imagining Indians" . Western Folklore, Vol. 64, No. 3/4, Film and Folklore, pp. 189-208
- Mitchell, Larry (June 13, 2006). "About the Film 'Trudell-The Movie'". The Native Blog. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Johnny Lobo. A tribute to John Trudell By Kris Kristofferson & The Highway Men (video)". Axis of Logic. April 21, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Rolling Stone Discography: John Trudell
- Lee Kimberly, "Heartspeak from the Spirit Songs of John Trudell, Keith Secola, and Robbie Robertson", Studies in American Indian Literature, JSTOR, Access provided by University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign
- Richard Burke, "What Tribe? Whose Island?", The North American Review, Vol. 255, No. 1 (Spring, 1970), pp. 51–56, JSTOR provided by University of Illinois
- Liz Cook, "Some Thoughts About Biography", pp. 73–74, Wicazo Sa Review, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring, 1994), JSTOR
- Louis Heath, "No Rock Is an Island No Rock Is an Island", The Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 52, No. 7 (Mar. 1971), pp. 397–399, JSTOR
- King, Frank J., III. "A Native Voice: Visit Activist/Actor/Artist John Trudell", University of Michigan, ProQuest subscriber only
- Akwesasne Notes (1975–1989). Rooseveltown: August 31, 1975. Vol. 7, Iss. 3; p. 14
- Segel, Joel. "Interview with John Trudell." Cultural Democracy Spring 1996: 4-6.