John Smith "Jimmy" Thach (April 19, 1905 – April 15, 1981) was a World War II Naval Aviator, air combat tactician, and United States Navy admiral. Thach developed the Thach Weave, a combat flight formation that could counter enemy fighters of superior performance, and later the big blue blanket, an aerial defense against kamikaze attacks.
Official Navy portrait of Admiral John S. Thach
|Birth name||John Smith Thach|
|Born||April 19, 1905|
Pine Bluff, Arkansas
|Died||April 15, 1981 (aged 75)|
|Place of burial|
|Service/||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1927–1967|
|Commands held||Fighting Squadron Three (VF-3)|
Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42)
Valley Forge (CVS-45)
U.S. Naval Forces, Europe
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Awards||Navy Cross with gold star|
Navy Distinguished Service Medal with gold star
Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and gold star
John S. Thach was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1927 and spent two years serving in battleships, before becoming a Naval Aviator in early 1930. Thach spent the next decade serving as a test pilot and instructor and establishing a reputation as an expert in aerial gunnery.
World War IIEdit
In early 1940, he was placed in command of Fighting Squadron Three (VF-3). There he met a young ensign just out of flight school, Edward O'Hare, later a Medal of Honor recipient. Thach made O'Hare his wingman and taught him everything he knew. At the U.S. Navy fleet gunnery competition at the end of 1940, eight of the 16 VF-3 pilots qualified for the gunnery "E" award ("excellence").
Later Thach developed a fighter combat tactic known as the Thach Weave. This tactic enabled American fighter aircraft to hold their own against the more maneuverable Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the primary Imperial Japanese Navy fighter.
Lieutenant Commander Thach and VF-3 flew from USS Lexington in the early part of World War II, and was assigned to USS Yorktown during the Battle of Midway in June 1942. On the morning of June 4, Thach led a six-plane sortie from VF-3, escorting twelve Douglas TBD Devastators of VT-3 led by Lieutenant Commander Lance Massey from Yorktown, when they discovered the main Japanese carrier fleet. They were immediately attacked by 15 to 20 Japanese fighters. Thach decided to use his namesake maneuver, marking its first combat usage. Although outnumbered and outmaneuvered, Thach managed to shoot down three Zeros and a wingman accounted for another, at the cost of one Grumman F4F Wildcat.
After Midway, Thach was assigned to instruct other pilots in combat tactics. The U.S. Navy pulled its best combat pilots out of action to train newer pilots, while the Japanese kept their best pilots in combat. As the war progressed, the Japanese Navy lost their experienced pilots due to attrition and had no well-trained replacements, while the U.S. was able to improve the general fighting ability of their own personnel. When the Japanese resorted to the feared Kamikaze suicide attacks, Thach developed the "big blue blanket" system to provide an adequate defense.
Later in the war, Commander Thach became operations officer to Vice Admiral John S. McCain Sr., commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force. Thach was also present at the formal Japanese surrender aboard USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay.
Post–World War IIEdit
In 1958 and 1959, Thach was placed in command of an antisubmarine development unit, "Task Group Alpha", with the aircraft carrier Valley Forge (CVS-45) serving as his flagship. He subsequently appeared on the cover of Time magazine on September 1, 1958, for his contributions to anti-submarine warfare (ASW), which was a primary focus at the time in the ongoing Cold War. An annual award was later established in his name for presentation to the top ASW squadron in the Navy.
He was promoted to vice admiral in 1960 and served as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air in the Pentagon, where he presided over development of the A-7 Corsair II, among other naval aviation programs. As Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Europe, starting in 1965, he pinned on his fourth star as a full admiral, retiring from the Navy in May 1967 from that position.
The Arkansas Aviation Historical Society inducted Thach into the Arkansas Aviation Hall of Fame in 1981.
John Thach and his wife Madalynn had four children.
|Badge||Naval Aviator insignia|
|1st Row||Navy Cross
w/one gold award star
|Navy Distinguished Service Medal
|2nd Row||Legion of Merit
w/gold star and "V" device
|Bronze Star Medal
|Navy Commendation Medal |
|3rd Row||Navy Presidential Unit Citation
|Navy Unit Commendation||American Defense Service Medal |
|4th Row||American Campaign Medal||Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal
w/one silver and four bronze service stars
|World War II Victory Medal|
|5th Row||Navy Occupation Service Medal||National Defense Service Medal
w/one service star
|Korean Service Medal |
w/three service stars
|6th Row||Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation||Philippine Liberation Medal
|United Nations Korea Medal|
- "Military Times Hall of Valor: Awards for John Smith Thach". militarytimes.com. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "USS Thach: Named for Admiral John Smith Thach". United States Navy.
- Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 224.
- 80-G-66154 Grumman F4F-4 "Wildcat" Fighter
- "Carrier Pilot and Crew Bios - Fighting Three - John S. Thach". centuryinter.net. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Rear Adm. John Thach". TIME. 1 September 1958. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "John Smith Thach (1905–1981) - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "Admiral John Smith Thach, USN, (1905-1981)". history.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- William M. Smith, Jr., "Thach, John S." in Nancy A. Williams & Jeannie M. Whayne, Arkansas Biography, p. 285
- Ewing, Steve (2004). Thach Weave: The Life of Jimmie Thach. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-248-2.
- Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-923-0.
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Naval History and Heritage Command document "Admiral John Smith Thach, USN, (1905-1981)". Retrieved on 22 June 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John S. Thach.|
- Time Magazine Cover Photo (Time Magazine Archives Site)
- "The Goblin Killers" - TIME - Monday, September 1, 1958
- Fighter Tactics